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Biomolecular Concepts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886452/polymorphisms-in-dna-repair-genes-increase-the-risk-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-hypertension
#1
Sambuddha Das, Sukanya Purkayastha, Hirakjyoti Roy, Anima Sinha, Yashmin Choudhury
We investigated the effect of polymorphisms in four DNA repair genes, viz. RAD18 Arg302Gln (G>A) (rs373572), XPD Asp312Asn (G>A) (rs1799793), APE1 Asp148Glu (T>G) (rs3136820), and OGG1 Ser326Cys (C>G) (rs1052133) on the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT) in association with smoking, tobacco chewing, and alcohol consumption in a population from Northeast India. The study subjects were comprised of 70 patients suffering from both T2DM and HT and 83 healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using ARMS-PCR for XPD Asp312Asn (G>A) and PCR-CTPP for RAD18 Arg302Gln (G>A), APE1 Asp148Glu (T>G) and OGG1 Ser326Cys (C>G)...
June 9, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29856726/interferon-gamma-ifn-%C3%AE-exploring-its-implications-in-infectious-diseases
#2
Gunjan Kak, Mohsin Raza, Brijendra K Tiwari
A key player in driving cellular immunity, IFN-γ is capable of orchestrating numerous protective functions to heighten immune responses in infections and cancers. It can exhibit its immunomodulatory effects by enhancing antigen processing and presentation, increasing leukocyte trafficking, inducing an anti-viral state, boosting the anti-microbial functions and affecting cellular proliferation and apoptosis. A complex interplay between immune cell activity and IFN-γ through coordinated integration of signals from other pathways involving cytokines and Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) such as Interleukin (IL)-4, TNF-α, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Type-I Interferons (IFNS) etc...
May 30, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779014/current-insights-on-use-of-growth-factors-as-therapy-for-intervertebral-disc-degeneration
#3
Justin C Kennon, Mohamed E Awad, Norman Chutkan, John DeVine, Sadanand Fulzele
Chronic low back pain is a critical health problem and a leading cause of disability in aging populations. A major cause of low back pain is considered to be the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Recent advances in therapeutics, particularly cell and tissue engineering, offer potential methods for inhibiting or reversing IVD degeneration, which have previously been impossible. The use of growth factors is under serious consideration as a potential therapy to enhance IVD tissue regeneration. We reviewed the role of chosen prototypical growth factors and growth factor combinations that have the capacity to improve IVD restoration...
May 19, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779013/treatment-of-sec62-over-expressing-tumors-by-thapsigargin-and-trifluoperazine
#4
Christina Körbel, Maximilian Linxweiler, Florian Bochen, Silke Wemmert, Bernhard Schick, Markus Meyer, Hans Maurer, Michael D Menger, Richard Zimmermann, Markus Greiner
Treatment with analogues of the SERCA-inhibitor Thapsigargin is a promising new approach for a wide variety of cancer entities. However, our previous studies on various tumor cells suggested resistance of SEC62 over-expressing tumors to this treatment. Therefore, we proposed the novel concept that e.g. lung-, prostate-, and thyroid-cancer patients should be tested for SEC62 over-expression, and developed a novel therapeutic strategy for a combinatorial treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumors. The latter was based on the observations that treatment of SEC62 over-expressing tumor cells with SEC62-targeting siRNAs showed less resistance to Thapsigargin as well as a reduction in migratory potential and that the siRNA effects can be mimicked by the Calmodulin antagonist Trifluoperazine...
May 19, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742062/global-perspective-of-novel-therapeutic-strategies-for-the-management-of-neuroaids
#5
Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Himanshu R Dandu, Madan Lb Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena
Among Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals, around two-thirds of patients present with neuroAIDS, where HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) are the most prevailing neurological complications. The neuropathology of neuroAIDS can be characterized by the presence of HIV infected macrophages and microglia in the brain, with the formation of multinucleated giant cells. Global predominant subtypes of HIV-1 clade B and C infections influence the differential effect of immune and neuronal dysfunctions, leading to clade-specific clinical variation in neuroAIDS patient cohorts...
May 8, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729136/overexpression-and-pre-treatment-of-recombinant-human-secretory-leukocyte-protease-inhibitor-rhslpi-reduces-an-in-vitro-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-cardiac-myoblast-h9c2-cell
#6
Eakkapote Prompunt, Nitirut Nernpermpisooth, Jantira Sanit, Sarawut Kumphune
One of the major causes of cardiac cell death during myocardial ischemia is the oversecretion of protease enzymes surrounding the ischemic tissue. Therefore, inhibition of the protease activity could be an alternative strategy for preventing the expansion of the injured area. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI), by means of overexpression and treatment of recombinant human SLPI (rhSLPI) in an in vitro model. Rat cardiac myoblast (H9c2) cells overexpressing rhSLPI were generated by gene delivery using pCMV2-SLPI-HA plasmid...
May 4, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679524/dna-testing-of-edible-crabs-from-seafood-shops-on-the-odisha-coast-india
#7
Shibananda Rath, Vikas Kumar, Shantanu Kundu, Kaomud Tyagi, Devkant Singha, Rajasree Chakraborty, Sumantika Chatterjee
Seafood consumption is highly demanding due to the important source of protein it contains, as well as being rich in omega-3 fatty acids. However, the adulteration of seafood is an alarming issue worldwide, including India. This study deals with edible crabs from seafood shops on the Odisha state coast in eastern India. The generated DNA barcode sequences successfully identified most of the studied brachyuran crab species by similarity search results in global databases. The species were also delimited by significant genetic divergence and Neighbour-Joining phylogeny...
April 20, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509544/secretion-of-full-length-tau-or-tau-fragments-in-cell-culture-models-propagation-of-tau-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#8
Mar Pérez, Miguel Medina, Félix Hernández, Jesús Avila
The microtubule-associated protein Tau plays a crucial role in stabilizing neuronal microtubules. In Tauopathies, Tau loses its ability to bind microtubules, detach from them and forms intracellular aggregates. Increasing evidence in recent years supports the notion that Tau pathology spreading throughout the brain in AD and other Tauopathies is the consequence of the propagation of specific Tau species along neuroanatomically connected brain regions in a so-called "prion-like" manner. A number of steps are assumed to be involved in this process, including secretion, cellular uptake, transcellular transfer and/or seeding, although the precise mechanisms underlying propagation of Tau pathology are not fully understood yet...
March 5, 2018: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211680/the-impact-of-water-on-the-ambivalent-behavior-and-paradoxical-phenomenon-of-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibril-protein
#9
Tamás Vajda, András Perczel
The crucial role of water in amyloid-β(Aβ) fibril proteins is evaluated in several ways including the water's thermodynamic and kinetic solvation effects. As regards the water's character, its hindered-rotation barriers are also considered. The following protein molecules considered here are: the Aβ40 (PDB ID: 2LMN), Aβ42 (PDB ID: 5KK3 and 2NAO) and the double-layered Aβ17-42 fibril. We discuss: (i) extracellular Aβ40 and Aβ42 fibril monomers exhibit an ambivalent propensity to transform into a helical form toward the N-term region and a β-strand-like form near the C-terminal; (ii) interfacial water molecules play a crucial role in protein-protein interactions, as molecular dynamics simulations have shown a significant impact on the protein-protein binding; (iii) it is shown that the spontaneous dimerization process of the Aβ42 fibril protein in water occurs via a two-step nucleation-accommodation mechanism; (iv) MD simulations of the double-layered Aβ17-42 fibril model show that the C↔C interface appears more energetically favorable than the N↔N interface due to large hydrophobic contacts; (v) the water's role in the HET-s prion and in the Aβ fibrillar aggregates; (vi) it was found that the monomer-oligomer equilibrium spontaneously dissociates into stable monomeric species when they are incubated up to 3 μm for a longer time (>1 week) in a physiological buffer...
December 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197857/corrigendum-to-interleukin-33-plasma-levels-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Fereshteh Alsahebfosoul, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mansour Shajarian, Masoud Etemadifar, Nahid Sedaghat, Zahra Hejazi, Shamsi Naderi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161231/epigenetic-regulation-mechanisms-of-microrna-expression
#11
Sara Morales, Mariano Monzo, Alfons Navarro
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs of 18-25 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, development and carcinogenesis. Because of the central role of miRNAs in the regulation of gene expression, their expression needs to be tightly controlled. Here, we summarize the different mechanisms of epigenetic regulation of miRNAs, with a particular focus on DNA methylation and histone modification...
December 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889118/biotechnology-of-siderophores-in-high-impact-scientific-fields
#12
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano
Different aspects of bacterial and fungal siderophore biotechnological applications will be discussed. Areas of application presented include, but are not limited to agriculture, medicine, pharmacology, bioremediation, biodegradation and food industry. In agriculture-related applications, siderophores could be employed to enhance plant growth due to their uptake by rhizobia. Siderophores hindered the presence of plant pathogens in biocontrol strategies. Bioremediation studies on siderophores discuss mostly the mobilization of heavy metals and radionuclides; the emulsifying effects of siderophore-producing microorganisms in oil-contaminated environments are also presented...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873065/mechanisms-of-tail-resorption-during-anuran-metamorphosis
#13
REVIEW
Yuya Nakai, Keisuke Nakajima, Yoshio Yaoita
Amphibian metamorphosis has historically attracted a good deal of scientific attention owing to its dramatic nature and easy observability. However, the genetic mechanisms of amphibian metamorphosis have not been thoroughly examined using modern techniques such as gene cloning, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction or genomic editing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms underlying tadpole tail resorption.
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841567/breaking-in-and-busting-out-cell-penetrating-peptides-and-the-endosomal-escape-problem
#14
REVIEW
Julia C LeCher, Scott J Nowak, Jonathan L McMurry
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have long held great promise for the manipulation of living cells for therapeutic and research purposes. They allow a wide array of biomolecules from large, oligomeric proteins to nucleic acids and small molecules to rapidly and efficiently traverse cytoplasmic membranes. With few exceptions, if a molecule can be associated with a CPP, it can be delivered into a cell. However, a growing realization in the field is that CPP-cargo fusions largely remain trapped in endosomes and are eventually targeted for degradation or recycling rather than released into the cytoplasm or trafficked to a desired subcellular destination...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841566/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-and-the-regulation-of-diverse-cell-responses
#15
REVIEW
Rishi Kant Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Pramod Kumar Gautam, Munendra Singh Tomar, Praveen Kumar Verma, Surya Pratap Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Arbind Acharya
Protein kinase C (PKC) comprises a family of lipid-sensitive enzymes that have been involved in a broad range of cellular functions. PKC-α is a member of classical PKC with ubiquitous expression and different cellular localization. This unique PKC isoform is activated by various signals which evoke lipid hydrolysis, after activation it interacts with various adapter proteins and is localized to specific cellular compartments where it is devised to work. The universal expression and activation by various stimuli make it a perfect player in uncountable cellular functions including differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, cellular transformation, motility, adhesion and so on...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753533/role-of-traf3-in-neurological-and-cardiovascular-diseases-an-overview-of-recent-studies
#16
Natalia Cullell, Elena Muiño, Caty Carrera, Nuria Torres, Jerzy Krupinski, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas
Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a member of the TRAF adaptor protein family, which exerts different effects on the cell depending on the receptor to which it binds and the cell type in which it is expressed. TRAF3 is a major regulator of the innate immune response. To perform its functions properly, TRAF3 is transcriptionally and epigenetically regulated. At the transcriptional level, TRAF3 expression has been associated with neurological and cardiovascular diseases including stroke, among other pathologies...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#17
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688222/assembly-pathway-of-a-bacterial-complex-iron-sulfur-molybdoenzyme
#18
REVIEW
Stephana J Cherak, Raymond J Turner
Protein folding and assembly into macromolecule complexes within the living cell are complex processes requiring intimate coordination. The biogenesis of complex iron sulfur molybdoenzymes (CISM) requires use of a system specific chaperone - a redox enzyme maturation protein (REMP) - to help mediate final folding and assembly. The CISM dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase is a bacterial oxidoreductase that utilizes DMSO as a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. The REMP DmsD strongly interacts with DMSO reductase to facilitate folding, cofactor-insertion, subunit assembly and targeting of the multi-subunit enzyme prior to membrane translocation and final assembly and maturation into a bioenergetic catalytic unit...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574376/recent-advances-in-the-mechanism-of-selenoamino-acids-toxicity-in-eukaryotic-cells
#19
REVIEW
Myriam Lazard, Marc Dauplais, Sylvain Blanquet, Pierre Plateau
Selenium is an essential trace element due to its incorporation into selenoproteins with important biological functions. However, at high doses it is toxic. Selenium toxicity is generally attributed to the induction of oxidative stress. However, it has become apparent that the mode of action of seleno-compounds varies, depending on its chemical form and speciation. Recent studies in various eukaryotic systems, in particular the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provide new insights on the cytotoxic mechanisms of selenomethionine and selenocysteine...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574375/one-carbon-metabolism-and-ionizing-radiation-a-multifaceted-interaction
#20
REVIEW
Isabelle R Miousse, Julia Tobacyk, Stepan Melnyk, S Jill James, Amrita K Cheema, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a ubiquitous component of our environment and an important tool in research and medical treatment. At the same time, IR is a potent genotoxic and epigenotoxic stressor, exposure to which may lead to negative health outcomes. While the genotoxocity is well described and characterized, the epigenetic effects of exposure to IR and their mechanisms remain under-investigated. In this conceptual review, we propose the IR-induced changes to one-carbon metabolism as prerequisites to alterations in the cellular epigenome...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
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