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Biomolecular Concepts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889118/biotechnology-of-siderophores-in-high-impact-scientific-fields
#1
REVIEW
Luis O De Serrano
Different aspects of bacterial and fungal siderophore biotechnological applications will be discussed. Areas of application presented include, but are not limited to agriculture, medicine, pharmacology, bioremediation, biodegradation and food industry. In agriculture-related applications, siderophores could be employed to enhance plant growth due to their uptake by rhizobia. Siderophores hindered the presence of plant pathogens in biocontrol strategies. Bioremediation studies on siderophores discuss mostly the mobilization of heavy metals and radionuclides; the emulsifying effects of siderophore-producing microorganisms in oil-contaminated environments are also presented...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873065/mechanisms-of-tail-resorption-during-anuran-metamorphosis
#2
REVIEW
Yuya Nakai, Keisuke Nakajima, Yoshio Yaoita
Amphibian metamorphosis has historically attracted a good deal of scientific attention owing to its dramatic nature and easy observability. However, the genetic mechanisms of amphibian metamorphosis have not been thoroughly examined using modern techniques such as gene cloning, DNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction or genomic editing. Here, we review the current state of knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms underlying tadpole tail resorption.
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841567/breaking-in-and-busting-out-cell-penetrating-peptides-and-the-endosomal-escape-problem
#3
REVIEW
Julia C LeCher, Scott J Nowak, Jonathan L McMurry
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have long held great promise for the manipulation of living cells for therapeutic and research purposes. They allow a wide array of biomolecules from large, oligomeric proteins to nucleic acids and small molecules to rapidly and efficiently traverse cytoplasmic membranes. With few exceptions, if a molecule can be associated with a CPP, it can be delivered into a cell. However, a growing realization in the field is that CPP-cargo fusions largely remain trapped in endosomes and are eventually targeted for degradation or recycling rather than released into the cytoplasm or trafficked to a desired subcellular destination...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841566/protein-kinase-c-%C3%AE-and-the-regulation-of-diverse-cell-responses
#4
REVIEW
Rishi Kant Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Pramod Kumar Gautam, Munendra Singh Tomar, Praveen Kumar Verma, Surya Pratap Singh, Sanjay Kumar, Arbind Acharya
Protein kinase C (PKC) comprises a family of lipid-sensitive enzymes that have been involved in a broad range of cellular functions. PKC-α is a member of classical PKC with ubiquitous expression and different cellular localization. This unique PKC isoform is activated by various signals which evoke lipid hydrolysis, after activation it interacts with various adapter proteins and is localized to specific cellular compartments where it is devised to work. The universal expression and activation by various stimuli make it a perfect player in uncountable cellular functions including differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, cellular transformation, motility, adhesion and so on...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753533/role-of-traf3-in-neurological-and-cardiovascular-diseases-an-overview-of-recent-studies
#5
Natalia Cullell, Elena Muiño, Caty Carrera, Nuria Torres, Jerzy Krupinski, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas
Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a member of the TRAF adaptor protein family, which exerts different effects on the cell depending on the receptor to which it binds and the cell type in which it is expressed. TRAF3 is a major regulator of the innate immune response. To perform its functions properly, TRAF3 is transcriptionally and epigenetically regulated. At the transcriptional level, TRAF3 expression has been associated with neurological and cardiovascular diseases including stroke, among other pathologies...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#6
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688222/assembly-pathway-of-a-bacterial-complex-iron-sulfur-molybdoenzyme
#7
REVIEW
Stephana J Cherak, Raymond J Turner
Protein folding and assembly into macromolecule complexes within the living cell are complex processes requiring intimate coordination. The biogenesis of complex iron sulfur molybdoenzymes (CISM) requires use of a system specific chaperone - a redox enzyme maturation protein (REMP) - to help mediate final folding and assembly. The CISM dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase is a bacterial oxidoreductase that utilizes DMSO as a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. The REMP DmsD strongly interacts with DMSO reductase to facilitate folding, cofactor-insertion, subunit assembly and targeting of the multi-subunit enzyme prior to membrane translocation and final assembly and maturation into a bioenergetic catalytic unit...
September 26, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574376/recent-advances-in-the-mechanism-of-selenoamino-acids-toxicity-in-eukaryotic-cells
#8
REVIEW
Myriam Lazard, Marc Dauplais, Sylvain Blanquet, Pierre Plateau
Selenium is an essential trace element due to its incorporation into selenoproteins with important biological functions. However, at high doses it is toxic. Selenium toxicity is generally attributed to the induction of oxidative stress. However, it has become apparent that the mode of action of seleno-compounds varies, depending on its chemical form and speciation. Recent studies in various eukaryotic systems, in particular the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provide new insights on the cytotoxic mechanisms of selenomethionine and selenocysteine...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574375/one-carbon-metabolism-and-ionizing-radiation-a-multifaceted-interaction
#9
REVIEW
Isabelle R Miousse, Julia Tobacyk, Stepan Melnyk, S Jill James, Amrita K Cheema, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a ubiquitous component of our environment and an important tool in research and medical treatment. At the same time, IR is a potent genotoxic and epigenotoxic stressor, exposure to which may lead to negative health outcomes. While the genotoxocity is well described and characterized, the epigenetic effects of exposure to IR and their mechanisms remain under-investigated. In this conceptual review, we propose the IR-induced changes to one-carbon metabolism as prerequisites to alterations in the cellular epigenome...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574374/nitrophorins-and-nitrobindins-structure-and-function
#10
REVIEW
Giovanna De Simone, Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi, Fabio Polticelli
Classical all α-helical globins are present in all living organisms and are ordered in three lineages: (i) flavohemoglobins and single domain globins, (ii) protoglobins and globin coupled sensors and (iii) truncated hemoglobins, displaying the 3/3 or the 2/2 all α-helical fold. However, over the last two decades, all β-barrel and mixed α-helical-β-barrel heme-proteins displaying heme-based functional properties (e.g. ligand binding, transport and sensing) closely similar to those of all α-helical globins have been reported...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448269/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#11
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593908/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#12
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
April 27, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593882/vascular-calcification-the-role-of-micrornas
#13
Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Vascular calcification represents the deposition of calcium phosphate salts in the tunica media of the vascular wall. It occurs during aging but is accelerated and pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and established cardiovascular disease. Due to the loss of elasticity of the vessel wall, vascular calcification might result in left ventricular hypertrophy and compromise coronary perfusion. Accordingly, several studies showed that vascular calcification is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
April 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426428/vascular-calcification-the-role-of-micrornas
#14
Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Vascular calcification represents the deposition of calcium phosphate salts in the tunica media of the vascular wall. It occurs during aging but is accelerated and pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and established cardiovascular disease. Due to the loss of elasticity of the vessel wall, vascular calcification might result in left ventricular hypertrophy and compromise coronary perfusion. Accordingly, several studies showed that vascular calcification is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
April 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593881/differential-hemoglobin-a-sequestration-between-hemodialysis-modalities
#15
Uzma Naseeb, Shamshad Zarina, Theres Jägerbrink, Jawed Shafqat, Hans Jörnvall, Jonas Axelsson
This report evaluates plasma protein patterns, dialysates and protein analysis of used dialysis membranes from the same patient under hemodialysis in three separate modalities, using high-flux membranes in concentration-driven transport (HD), convection-driven hemofiltration (HF) and combined hemodialfiltration (HDF). The plasma protein changes induced by each of the three dialysis modalities showed small differences in proteins identified towards our previous plasma analyses of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
April 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422703/differential-hemoglobin-a-sequestration-between-hemodialysis-modalities
#16
Uzma Naseeb, Shamshad Zarina, Theres Jägerbrink, Jawed Shafqat, Hans Jörnvall, Jonas Axelsson
This report evaluates plasma protein patterns, dialysates and protein analysis of used dialysis membranes from the same patient under hemodialysis in three separate modalities, using high-flux membranes in concentration-driven transport (HD), convection-driven hemofiltration (HF) and combined hemodialfiltration (HDF). The plasma protein changes induced by each of the three dialysis modalities showed small differences in proteins identified towards our previous plasma analyses of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
April 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284030/sumo-conjugation-a-mechanistic-view
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Pichler, Chronis Fatouros, Heekyoung Lee, Nathalie Eisenhardt
The regulation of protein fate by modification with the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) plays an essential and crucial role in most cellular pathways. Sumoylation is highly dynamic due to the opposing activities of SUMO conjugation and SUMO deconjugation. SUMO conjugation is performed by the hierarchical action of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, while its deconjugation involves SUMO-specific proteases. In this review, we summarize and compare the mechanistic principles of how SUMO gets conjugated to its substrate...
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231054/alzheimer-s-disease-as-an-inflammatory-disease
#18
REVIEW
Marta Bolós, Juan Ramón Perea, Jesús Avila
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the formation of amyloid-β plaques, aggregated and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, activated microglia and neuronal cell death, ultimately leading to progressive dementia. In this short review, we focus on neuroinflammation in AD. Specifically, we describe the participation of microglia, as well as other factors that may contribute to inflammation, in neurodegeneration.
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222010/optical-tweezers-studies-of-transcription-by-eukaryotic-rna-polymerases
#19
Ana Lisica, Stephan W Grill
Transcription is the first step in the expression of genetic information and it is carried out by large macromolecular enzymes called RNA polymerases. Transcription has been studied for many years and with a myriad of experimental techniques, ranging from bulk studies to high-resolution transcript sequencing. In this review, we emphasise the advantages of using single-molecule techniques, particularly optical tweezers, to study transcription dynamics. We give an overview of the latest results in the single-molecule transcription field, focusing on transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases...
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222009/alzheimer-s-and-danish-dementia-peptides-induce-cataract-and-perturb-retinal-architecture-in-rats
#20
G Bhanuprakash Reddy, P Yadagiri Reddy, Avadhesha Surolia
Familial Danish dementias (FDDs) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with visual defects. In some aspects, FDD is similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD)- the amyloid deposits in FDD and AD are made of short peptides: amyloid β (Aβ) in AD and ADan in FDD. Previously, we demonstrated an interaction between the dementia peptides and α-crystallin leading to lens opacification in organ culture due to impaired chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Herein, we report the in vivo effects of ADan and Aβ on the eye...
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
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