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Biomolecular Concepts

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753533/role-of-traf3-in-neurological-and-cardiovascular-diseases-an-overview-of-recent-studies
#1
Natalia Cullell, Elena Muiño, Caty Carrera, Nuria Torres, Jerzy Krupinski, Israel Fernandez-Cadenas
Tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) is a member of the TRAF adaptor protein family, which exerts different effects on the cell depending on the receptor to which it binds and the cell type in which it is expressed. TRAF3 is a major regulator of the innate immune response. To perform its functions properly, TRAF3 is transcriptionally and epigenetically regulated. At the transcriptional level, TRAF3 expression has been associated with neurological and cardiovascular diseases including stroke, among other pathologies...
July 28, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723608/breastfeeding-and-the-gut-brain-axis-is-there-a-role-for-melatonin
#2
REVIEW
George Anderson, Cathy Vaillancourt, Michael Maes, Russel J Reiter
The benefits of breastfeeding over formula feed are widely appreciated. However, for many mothers breastfeeding is not possible, highlighting the need for a significant improvement in the contents of formula feed. In this article, the overlooked role of melatonin and the melatonergic pathways in breast milk and in the regulation of wider breast milk components are reviewed. There is a growing appreciation that the benefits of breastfeeding are mediated by its effects in the infant gut, with consequences for the development of the gut-brain axis and the immune system...
July 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688222/assembly-pathway-of-a-bacterial-complex-iron-sulfur-molybdoenzyme
#3
REVIEW
Stephana J Cherak, Raymond J Turner
Protein folding and assembly into macromolecule complexes within the living cell are complex processes requiring intimate coordination. The biogenesis of complex iron sulfur molybdoenzymes (CISM) requires use of a system specific chaperone - a redox enzyme maturation protein (REMP) - to help mediate final folding and assembly. The CISM dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase is a bacterial oxidoreductase that utilizes DMSO as a final electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. The REMP DmsD strongly interacts with DMSO reductase to facilitate folding, cofactor-insertion, subunit assembly and targeting of the multi-subunit enzyme prior to membrane translocation and final assembly and maturation into a bioenergetic catalytic unit...
July 8, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574376/recent-advances-in-the-mechanism-of-selenoamino-acids-toxicity-in-eukaryotic-cells
#4
REVIEW
Myriam Lazard, Marc Dauplais, Sylvain Blanquet, Pierre Plateau
Selenium is an essential trace element due to its incorporation into selenoproteins with important biological functions. However, at high doses it is toxic. Selenium toxicity is generally attributed to the induction of oxidative stress. However, it has become apparent that the mode of action of seleno-compounds varies, depending on its chemical form and speciation. Recent studies in various eukaryotic systems, in particular the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provide new insights on the cytotoxic mechanisms of selenomethionine and selenocysteine...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574375/one-carbon-metabolism-and-ionizing-radiation-a-multifaceted-interaction
#5
REVIEW
Isabelle R Miousse, Julia Tobacyk, Stepan Melnyk, S Jill James, Amrita K Cheema, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
Ionizing radiation (IR) is a ubiquitous component of our environment and an important tool in research and medical treatment. At the same time, IR is a potent genotoxic and epigenotoxic stressor, exposure to which may lead to negative health outcomes. While the genotoxocity is well described and characterized, the epigenetic effects of exposure to IR and their mechanisms remain under-investigated. In this conceptual review, we propose the IR-induced changes to one-carbon metabolism as prerequisites to alterations in the cellular epigenome...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574374/nitrophorins-and-nitrobindins-structure-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Giovanna De Simone, Paolo Ascenzi, Alessandra di Masi, Fabio Polticelli
Classical all α-helical globins are present in all living organisms and are ordered in three lineages: (i) flavohemoglobins and single domain globins, (ii) protoglobins and globin coupled sensors and (iii) truncated hemoglobins, displaying the 3/3 or the 2/2 all α-helical fold. However, over the last two decades, all β-barrel and mixed α-helical-β-barrel heme-proteins displaying heme-based functional properties (e.g. ligand binding, transport and sensing) closely similar to those of all α-helical globins have been reported...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448269/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#7
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
May 24, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593908/circulating-cell-free-micrornas-as-clinical-cancer-biomarkers
#8
REVIEW
Virginie Armand-Labit, Anne Pradines
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that are master regulators of genic expression and consequently of many cellular processes. But their expression is often deregulated in human tumors leading to cancer development. Recently miRNAs were discovered in body fluids (serum, plasma and others) and their levels have often been reported to be altered in patients. Circulating miRNAs became one of the most promising biomarkers in oncology for early diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic response prediction. Here we describe the origins and roles of miRNAs, and summarize the most recent studies focusing on their usefulness as cancer biomarkers in lung, breast, colon, prostate, ovary cancers and melanoma...
April 27, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593882/vascular-calcification-the-role-of-micrornas
#9
Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Vascular calcification represents the deposition of calcium phosphate salts in the tunica media of the vascular wall. It occurs during aging but is accelerated and pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and established cardiovascular disease. Due to the loss of elasticity of the vessel wall, vascular calcification might result in left ventricular hypertrophy and compromise coronary perfusion. Accordingly, several studies showed that vascular calcification is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
April 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426428/vascular-calcification-the-role-of-micrornas
#10
Stelina Alkagiet, Konstantinos Tziomalos
Vascular calcification represents the deposition of calcium phosphate salts in the tunica media of the vascular wall. It occurs during aging but is accelerated and pronounced in patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and established cardiovascular disease. Due to the loss of elasticity of the vessel wall, vascular calcification might result in left ventricular hypertrophy and compromise coronary perfusion. Accordingly, several studies showed that vascular calcification is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
April 20, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593881/differential-hemoglobin-a-sequestration-between-hemodialysis-modalities
#11
Uzma Naseeb, Shamshad Zarina, Theres Jägerbrink, Jawed Shafqat, Hans Jörnvall, Jonas Axelsson
This report evaluates plasma protein patterns, dialysates and protein analysis of used dialysis membranes from the same patient under hemodialysis in three separate modalities, using high-flux membranes in concentration-driven transport (HD), convection-driven hemofiltration (HF) and combined hemodialfiltration (HDF). The plasma protein changes induced by each of the three dialysis modalities showed small differences in proteins identified towards our previous plasma analyses of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
April 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422703/differential-hemoglobin-a-sequestration-between-hemodialysis-modalities
#12
Uzma Naseeb, Shamshad Zarina, Theres Jägerbrink, Jawed Shafqat, Hans Jörnvall, Jonas Axelsson
This report evaluates plasma protein patterns, dialysates and protein analysis of used dialysis membranes from the same patient under hemodialysis in three separate modalities, using high-flux membranes in concentration-driven transport (HD), convection-driven hemofiltration (HF) and combined hemodialfiltration (HDF). The plasma protein changes induced by each of the three dialysis modalities showed small differences in proteins identified towards our previous plasma analyses of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
April 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284030/sumo-conjugation-a-mechanistic-view
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Pichler, Chronis Fatouros, Heekyoung Lee, Nathalie Eisenhardt
The regulation of protein fate by modification with the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) plays an essential and crucial role in most cellular pathways. Sumoylation is highly dynamic due to the opposing activities of SUMO conjugation and SUMO deconjugation. SUMO conjugation is performed by the hierarchical action of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes, while its deconjugation involves SUMO-specific proteases. In this review, we summarize and compare the mechanistic principles of how SUMO gets conjugated to its substrate...
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231054/alzheimer-s-disease-as-an-inflammatory-disease
#14
REVIEW
Marta Bolós, Juan Ramón Perea, Jesús Avila
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by the formation of amyloid-β plaques, aggregated and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, activated microglia and neuronal cell death, ultimately leading to progressive dementia. In this short review, we focus on neuroinflammation in AD. Specifically, we describe the participation of microglia, as well as other factors that may contribute to inflammation, in neurodegeneration.
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222010/optical-tweezers-studies-of-transcription-by-eukaryotic-rna-polymerases
#15
Ana Lisica, Stephan W Grill
Transcription is the first step in the expression of genetic information and it is carried out by large macromolecular enzymes called RNA polymerases. Transcription has been studied for many years and with a myriad of experimental techniques, ranging from bulk studies to high-resolution transcript sequencing. In this review, we emphasise the advantages of using single-molecule techniques, particularly optical tweezers, to study transcription dynamics. We give an overview of the latest results in the single-molecule transcription field, focusing on transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases...
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222009/alzheimer-s-and-danish-dementia-peptides-induce-cataract-and-perturb-retinal-architecture-in-rats
#16
G Bhanuprakash Reddy, P Yadagiri Reddy, Avadhesha Surolia
Familial Danish dementias (FDDs) are autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorders that are associated with visual defects. In some aspects, FDD is similar to Alzheimer's disease (AD)- the amyloid deposits in FDD and AD are made of short peptides: amyloid β (Aβ) in AD and ADan in FDD. Previously, we demonstrated an interaction between the dementia peptides and α-crystallin leading to lens opacification in organ culture due to impaired chaperone activity of α-crystallin. Herein, we report the in vivo effects of ADan and Aβ on the eye...
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107165/interleukin-33-plasma-levels-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Fereshteh Alsahebfosoul, Ilnaz Rahimmanesh, Mansour Shajarian, Masoud Etemadifar, Nahid Sedaghat, Zahra Hejazi, Shamsi Naderi
Cytokines are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Interleukin (IL)-33, one of the recently discovered members of the IL-1 superfamily, is a dual functional cytokine involved in various autoimmune disorders. In a case-control study, venous blood was collected from healthy subjects categorized as control group (n=44) and MS patients (n=44). All recruited patients were clinically diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), including patients without treatment (new identified cases, n=16) and those treated with interferon beta (IFN-β) (n=28)...
March 1, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879482/unusual-structures-of-cctg-repeats-and-their-participation-in-repeat-expansion
#18
REVIEW
Pei Guo, Sik Lok Lam
CCTG repeat expansion in intron 1 of the cellular nucleic acid-binding protein (CNBP) gene has been identified to be the genetic cause of myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2). Yet the underlying reasons for the genetic instability in CCTG repeats remain elusive. In recent years, CCTG repeats have been found to form various types of unusual secondary structures including mini-dumbbell (MDB), hairpin and dumbbell, revealing that there is a high structural diversity in CCTG repeats intrinsically. Upon strand slippage, the formation of unusual structures in the nascent strand during DNA replication has been proposed to be the culprit of CCTG repeat expansions...
December 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879481/role-of-non-motile-microtubule-associated-proteins-in-virus-trafficking
#19
REVIEW
Débora M Portilho, Roger Persson, Nathalie Arhel
Viruses are entirely dependent on their ability to infect a host cell in order to replicate. To reach their site of replication as rapidly and efficiently as possible following cell entry, many have evolved elaborate mechanisms to hijack the cellular transport machinery to propel themselves across the cytoplasm. Long-range movements have been shown to involve motor proteins along microtubules (MTs) and direct interactions between viral proteins and dynein and/or kinesin motors have been well described. Although less well-characterized, it is also becoming increasingly clear that non-motile microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), including structural MAPs of the MAP1 and MAP2 families, and microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs), can also promote viral trafficking in infected cells, by mediating interaction of viruses with filaments and/or motor proteins, and modulating filament stability...
December 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875316/coupling-de-novo-protein-folding-with-subunit-exchange-into-pre-formed-oligomeric-protein-complexes-the-heritable-template-hypothesis
#20
Michael A McMurray
Despite remarkable advances in synthetic biology, the fact remains that it takes a living cell to make a new living cell. The information encoded in the genome is necessary to direct assembly of all cellular components, but it may not be sufficient. Some components (e.g. mitochondria) cannot be synthesized de novo, and instead require pre-existing templates, creating a fundamental continuity of life: if the template information is ever lost, the genomic code cannot suffice to ensure proper biogenesis. One type of information only incompletely encoded in the genome is the structures of macromolecular assemblies, which emerge from the conformations of the constituent molecules coupled with the ways in which these molecules interact...
December 1, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
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