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Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism

Maciej Flader, Dominika Zalas, Marek Niedziela
According to the growth hormone - insulin-like growth factor 1 axis (GH/IGF1 axis) theory, the actions of GH on promoting growth are mediated by IGF1. In the blood, IGF1, insulin-like growth factor 1 binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and acid-labile subunit (ALS) form ternary complexes, hence the accumulation of IGF1. We report a case of 10-year-old male with short stature due to GH deficiency diagnosed with hypopituitarism. Therapy with recombinant human GH (rhGH) was initiated at 11 years and 4 months. After twenty three months on treatment clinical effects were as follows: increase in the patient's height by 19...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Tomasz Jackowski, Elżbieta Petriczko, Anita Horodnicka-Józwa, Mieczysław Walczak
Thyroid hormone resistance syndrome, also known as Refetoff syndrome, is a rare disease associated with decreased reaction of body tissues to thyroid hormones (TH). Patients with Refetoff syndrome tend to have elevated free TH concentrations and normal or inadequately elevated TSH (caused by thyrotropic cells in the pituitary gland insensitivity to TH). The cause of the disease is the mutation in TR-beta receptor gene. Depending on the clinical presentation generalised and pituitary resistance to TH are described...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Beata Wikiera, Agnieszka Zubkiewicz-Kucharska, Julita Nocoń-Bohusz, Anna Noczyńska
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease. Depending on the used criteria the prevalence of PCOS ranges from 6 to 20%. It is necessary to exclude diseases leading to androgen excess. The participation of genetic and environmental factors is considered in the etiology of PCOS development. The highest rate of incidence of PCOS is assessed in girls who were born SGA and developed premature adrenarche later in life.The free androgen index (FAI) is concerned as the most sensitive marker of hyperandrogenaemia in PCOS although insulin resistance, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH),and deficiency of vitamin D may intensify metabolic disturbances...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Wysoczańska, Aleksandra Ślęzak, Ewa Barg
Due to increasing incidence of cancer disease and the searching for new, aggressive methods of therapy, more attention is focusing on applied treatment consequences. The specificity of oncological drugs allows to destroy cancer cells, simultaneously destroying and disrupting the functioning of healthy tissues. Side effects concern infertility, urolotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity or bone marrow suppression. Chemotherapy can also be affected on physiological function of movement system and the skeleton construction...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Wołoszyn-Durkiewicz, Magdalena Żalińska, Agnieszka Brandt, Małgorzata Myśliwiec, Maja Ściesińska, Joanna Kuhn
INTRODUCTION: Two forms of diabetes can be distinguished during pregnancy: gestational diabetes and pregestational diabetes, which exists prior to pregnancy. In young women, the most common form of pregestational diabetes is type 1 diabetes (T1D). Regarding the decreasing age of sexual initiation and health risks for the mother and child related to hyperglycemia, it is essential that adolescents with T1D possess proper knowledge of pregnancy planning and diabetes management in case of pregnancy...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Halyna Pavlyshyn, Victoriya Furdela, Tetyana Kovalchuk, Nataliya Haliyash, Nataliya Luchyshyn
INTRODUCTION: Systemic hypertension (SH) is a major long-term health condition and is the leading cause of premature death among adults throughout the world, including developed, developing, and lesser developed countries.In recent years there has been a progressive increase in SH among children and adolescents. Epidemiological studies demonstrated an overall increase in the prevalence of hypertension. SH is rarely recorded isolated and is often combined with obesity or the metabolic syndrome...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Rorbach-Dolata, Agnieszka Piwowar
BACKGROUND: One of the most important worldwide health problems of the 21st century is an increasing incidence of diabetes and insulin resistance. Morover, it is indicated that both these disturbances are connected with an increased incidence of Alzheimer's Disease. The literature data indicate that not only disturbed glucose concentration, especially hyperglycemia, is a crucial factor of the development of dementia but those data also emphasize that hyperphysiological concentrations of insulin and insulin resistance of brain tissue is an increasingly significant factor...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Joanna Zarębska, Katarzyna Musioł, Paulina Brożek, Adriana Zybała, Patrycja Szerląg, Grażyna Sobol-Milejska, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune disease, caused by antibodies against platelet glycoproteins, which provoke platelet destruction and inhibit platelet production in bone marrow. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an acquired autoimmune disease in witch beta cells are destroyed by autoantibodies. Patient with T1DM since the age of 6, was treated by intensive functional insulin therapy by insulin pump. At the age of 14,5 he was also diagnosed with ITP. Due to the short effect of immunoglobulin therapy, glucocorticoids were introduced...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Karolina Klenczar, Grażyna Deja, Barbara Kalina-Faska, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot
Diabetes type 1(T1D) is the most frequent form of diabetes in children and young people, which essence is autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B cells islet. Co-occurrence of other autoimmune diseases is observed in children with T1D, the most often are: Hashimoto disease or coeliac disease. We report the case of the patient, who presents coincidence of T1D with other rare autoimmune diseases such as: Graves - Basedow disease, myasthenia gravis, vitiligo and IgA deficiency. All mentioned diseases significantly complicated both endocrine and diabetic treatment of our patient and they negatively contributed her quality of life...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Aleksandra Drewa, Katarzyna Zorena
In the 21st century the occurrence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents reaches the size of a global epidemic. It is recommended to promote a healthy lifestyle and, above all, to educate children, adolescents and adults about the dangerous consequences of being overweight or obese. It is crucial for prevention programs to comprise educational activities so that the participants are encouraged to change their lifestyle for better. However, it must be borne in mind that the overall effectiveness of such activities is determined by the commitment of both the obese child and the environment - the school or kindergarten and the media...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Dittfeld, Katarzyna Gwizdek, Anna Brończyk-Puzoń
Endocrinology is a branch of medicine dealing with the functioning of endocrine glands. Theain role of the endocrine glands is to control various functions and to adopt internal environment to changes in the external environment. Glands manage to do this by regulating the metabolism of target cells by hormones. One of the earliest connections with endocrinology is found in theHippocratic humoral hypothesis dating about 400 years BC. The author of the first endocrinological observations was Aristotle, who noticed changes in behavior and appearance in castrated roosters...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Arkadiusz Michalak, Marta Koptas, Aleksandra Świercz, Krystyna Wyka, Anna Hogendorf, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Wojciech Młynarski, Wojciech Fendler
INTRODUCTION: Literature reports link psoriasis with insulin resistance characteristic for type 2 diabetes. However, this condition may also affect the clinical course of type 1 diabetes (T1D). AIM: To investigate whether children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and psoriasis have a different course of diabetes. METHODS: We evaluated patients diagnosed with T1D in the years 2002-2011 for the presence of psoriasis and matched them 1:10 with T1D-only patients by sex and duration of diabetes using propensity score...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Agnieszka Kalinowska, Barbara Orlińska, Mateusz Panasiuk, Milena Jamiołkowska, Aneta Zasim, Bożena Florys, Katarzyna Wojtkielewicz, Włodzimierz Łuczyński, Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska, Artur Bossowski
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. It was previously believed that the loss of the endocrine function of the pancreas is total and inevitable. With the rise of new knowledge and new methods allowing to reliably measure c-peptide in the low plasma concentration range, we have learned otherwise. Some residual function of the beta-cells can be present even after decades of the course of the disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the c-peptide level with routine laboratory and ultrasensitive methods in children with long-standing type 1 diabetes in relation to clinical characteristics...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Christine Frithioff-Bøjsøe, Cæcilie Trier, Cilius Esmann Fonvig, Anne Nissen, Julie Tonsgaard Kloppenborg, Pernille Maria Mollerup, Poul Jannik Bjerrum, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Jens-Christian Holm
INTRODUCTION: The accumulation of components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a disturbed glucose metabolism in obese children. AIM OF STUDY: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between MetS and estimates of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function obtained from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived indices in lean and obese children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 2-hour OGTT was administered in 83 children aged 7-17 years...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Milena Jamiołkowska, Artur Bossowski
Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) is a group of heterogenous conditions characterized by the association of at least two organ-specific autoimmune disorders, concerning both endocrine and non-endocrine organs. Type III is defined as the combination of autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune condition (other than Addison's disease) and is divided into four subtypes. We describe a teenage female patient - with the family history of autoimmune diseases, who has simultaneously developed the symptoms of autoimmune thyroid disease with the clinical picture of hyperthyroidism and myasthenia gravis at the age of fifteen...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Adrianna Zajkowska, Marta Rydzewska, Katarzyna Wojtkielewicz, Janusz Pomaski, Tomasz Romer, Artur Bossowski
INTRODUCTION: Inactivating mutations in the enzyme hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), the enzyme responsible for NADPH generation playing critical role in 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11b-HSD1) activity, cause apparent cortisone reductase deficiency (ACRD). It leads to increased metabolic clearance rate of cortisol due to a defect in cortisone to cortisol conversion by 11b-HSD1. We want to analyse the process of the disease, efficacy of long-lasting treatment with glucocorticoids throughout childhood and adolescence in only male patient with ACRD...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Aleksandra Rojek, Karolina Kwasiuk, Monika Obara-Moszyńska, Zofia Kolesińska, Marek Niedziela
Turner syndrome (TS) is an inherited genetic disorder caused by numerical and/or structural chromosome X aberrations occurring at a frequency of 1:1200-1:2500 live-born girls. The most common karyotype is X chromosome monosomy (45,X) (approximately 50-60% of cases). Approximately 5-6% of patients may have abnormal Y chromosome or mosaicism characterized by the coexistence of 45,X cell line with cell line in which all or part of chromosome Y is present. In patients with TS who have all or fragmented genetic material from chromosome Y there is a substantial risk of cancerous lesions in these dysgenetic gonads...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Michalina Horochowska, Elżbieta Kołeczek, Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Jacek Jagiełło, Karolina Pawlus
Topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also known as the Jerusalem artichoke is a plant, which origins from North America. In XVII century it was brought to the Europe. For ages it was cultivated due to edible tuber and its healing properties.The aim of the article is to present medical properties and application of topinmbour in patient's diet. Many studies were performed on animals to specify medical properties of topinambour. Results show, that topinambour lowers plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Katarzyna Piechowiak, Beata Zduńczyk, Agnieszka Szypowska
INTRODUCTION: The way parents manage diabetes of their small children and environmental influence are crucial for maintaining glycemic control. The aim of the study was to assess environmental factors affecting metabolic control of young children with T1D treated with insulin pumps. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Parents of children with T1D under the age of 10 years completed: General Self-Efficacy Scale, Parental Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Anna Gryko, Barbara Głowińska-Olszewska, Katarzyna Płudowska, W Henry Smithson, Anna Owłasiuk, Beata Żelazowska-Rutkowska, Katarzyna Wojtkielewicz, Robert Milewski, Sławomir Chlabicz
INTRODUCTION: In the recent years, alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism, including insulin resistance, are considered as risk factors in the development of hypertension and its complications in young age. Hypertension is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The onset of pathology responsible for the development of hypertension, as well as levels of biomarkers specific for early stages of atherosclerosis are poorly understood. AIM: To compare a group of children whose parents have a history of hypertension (study group) with a group of children with normotensive parents (reference group), with consideration of typical risk factors for atherosclerosis, parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, anthropometric data and new biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease (hsCRP, adiponectin, sICAM-1)...
2017: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
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