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Hormones & Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736566/the-impact-of-esr1-mutations-on-the-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Sasha M Pejerrey, Derek Dustin, Jin-Ah Kim, Guowei Gu, Yassine Rechoum, Suzanne A W Fuqua
After nearly 20 years of research, it is now established that mutations within the estrogen receptor (ER) gene, ESR1, frequently occur in metastatic breast cancer and influence response to hormone therapy. Though early studies presented differing results, sensitive sequencing techniques now show that ESR1 mutations occur at a frequency between 20 and 40% depending on the assay method. Recent studies have focused on several "hot spot mutations," a cluster of mutations found in the hormone-binding domain of the ESR1 gene...
May 7, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736565/the-flavonoid-apigenin-is-a-progesterone-receptor-modulator-with-in-vivo-activity-in-the-uterus
#2
Matthew Dean, Julia Austin, Ren Jinhong, Michael E Johnson, Daniel D Lantvit, Joanna E Burdette
Apigenin is a flavonoid with well-documented anti-cancer properties; however, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. We previously identified apigenin as a potential phytoprogestin, a natural product with a chemical scaffold that interacts with the progesterone receptor (PR). Our objective was to characterize the ability of apigenin to interact with PR through molecular docking studies, in vitro activity assays, and the ability of apigenin to elicit progestin-like effects in vivo. Molecular docking confirmed that apigenin could interact with PR, though with lower affinity than progesterone due to fewer van der Waals interactions...
May 7, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687205/the-impact-of-hormonal-contraceptives-on-breast-cancer-pathology
#3
Jesse A Dorchak, Sifat Maria, Joseph L Guarinoni, Anette Duensing, Stella Somiari, Jane Cavanaugh, Brenda Deyarmin, Hai Hu, Joji Iida, Craig D Shriver, Paula A Witt-Enderby
This retrospective case series study, using data obtained through questionnaires and histopathological diagnoses from 656 patients enrolled in the Department of Defense (DoD) Clinical Breast Care Project (CBCP), evaluated associations between hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer pathology including benign breast pathologies. Three combination hormonal contraceptive agents (COCs) Lo Ovral (LO), Ortho Novum (ON), and Ortho Tri-Cyclen (OTC) were evaluated as they represented the most commonly used hormonal contraceptives in our cohort...
April 23, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603059/adiponectin-reverses-the-proliferative-effects-of-estradiol-and-igf-1-in-human-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-cells-by-downregulating-the-expression-of-their-receptors
#4
Marta Hoffmann, Justyna Gogola, Anna Ptak
The expression of adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 has been reported in the human ovary and ovarian cancer tissues. Moreover, adiponectin has been reported to act as an anti-tumor factor by inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Thus, we investigate whether adiponectin and its receptors influence ovarian cancer development. In the present study, we found that adiponectin was not expressed in the granulosa cell line (COV434), and epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3, and Caov-3). Additionally, we found that AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression is lower in epithelial ovarian cancer cells than in granulosa tumor cells...
March 30, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556910/risk-of-second-primary-female-genital-malignancies-in-women-with-breast-cancer-a-seer-analysis
#5
Zhiyu Li, Qi Wu, Junlong Song, Yimin Zhang, Shan Zhu, Shengrong Sun
Breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk of second primary cancers, and the risk factors for the latter may have clinical significance. The aims of our study were to evaluate the incidences and risk factors of second primary female genital cancers (corpus uteri, cervix uteri plus ovary) in a large cohort of breast cancer survivors. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we examined the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and risk factors for second primary female genital cancers observed between 2000 and 2014...
March 19, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546532/adiposity-results-in-metabolic-and-inflammation-differences-in-premenopausal-and-postmenopausal-women-consistent-with-the-difference-in-breast-cancer-risk
#6
H Zhao, J Wang, D Fang, O Lee, R T Chatterton, V Stearns, S A Khan, S E Bulun
Obesity is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal but not in premenopausal women. Many factors may be responsible for this difference. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which the genes related to the AMPK pathway, inflammation, and estrogen actions are affected by adiposity in breast tissue with the objective of identifying differences that may explain the different breast cancer risk in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Random fine needle aspirates (rFNAs) of breast tissue were collected from 57 premenopausal and 55 postmenopausal women and were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese...
March 15, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524179/type-1-igf-receptor-localization-in-paediatric-gliomas-significant-association-with-who-grading-and-clinical-outcome
#7
Florencia Clément, Ayelen Martin, Marcela Venara, Maria de Luján Calcagno, Cecilia Mathó, Silvana Maglio, Mercedes García Lombardi, Ignacio Bergadá, Patricia A Pennisi
Nuclear localization of insulin-like growth factor receptor type 1 (IGF-1R) has been described as adverse prognostic factor in some cancers. We studied the expression and localization of IGF-1R in paediatric patients with gliomas, as well as its association with World Health Organization (WHO) grading and survival. We conducted a single cohort, prospective study of paediatric patients with gliomas. Samples were taken at the time of the initial surgery; IGF-1R expression and localization were characterized by immunohistochemistry (IHC), subcellular fractionation and western blotting...
March 9, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464548/leptin-involvement-in-primary-brain-and-pituitary-tumors-therapeutic-potential-prognostic-value-and-proposed-diagnostic-application
#8
REVIEW
Christos Bikis, Theodora Tzanavari, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Stamatios Theocharis
Brain tumors are associated with increased mortality and morbidity and are the most common cancer type in children and young adults. The present review focuses on the interplay between leptin, the most extensively studied adipokine, and the onset, development, and treatment of primary brain and intracranial tumors. The two main mechanisms for increased leptin levels in intracranial tumor survivors, leptin resistance caused by hypothalamic damage, or secondary to obesity, are discussed. The contradicting mechanistic observations on leptin being able to both promote tumorinogenesis (e...
February 20, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417390/urban-neighborhood-and-residential-factors-associated-with-breast-cancer-in-african-american-women-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Brandi Patrice Smith, Zeynep Madak-Erdogan
Residential characteristics in urban neighborhoods impact health and might be important factors contributing to health disparities, especially in the African American population. The purpose of this systematic review is to understand the relationship between urban neighborhood and residential factors and breast cancer incidence and prognosis in African American women. Using PubMed and Web of Science, the existing literature was reviewed. Observational, cross-sectional, cohort, and prospective studies until February 2017 were examined...
April 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363090/elevated-aromatase-cyp19a1-expression-is-associated-with-a-poor-survival-of-patients-with-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#10
Andrea Friesenhengst, Tamara Pribitzer-Winner, Heidi Miedl, Katharina Pröstling, Martin Schreiber
Genetic variants in CYP19A1, the gene encoding aromatase, have been reported to be associated with circulating estrogen concentrations, a key risk factor for breast cancer. The mechanism underlying this association is still unclear; it has been suggested that some of these variants may alter the expression and/or activity of aromatase. Here we analyzed the expression of intra-tumoral CYP19A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and the genotypes of rs10046, a well-characterized single nucleotide polymorphism in CYP19A1, in 138 breast cancer patients and 15 breast cancer cell lines...
April 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352404/mechanisms-linking-obesity-and-thyroid-cancer-development-and-progression-in-mouse-models
#11
REVIEW
Won Gu Kim, Sheue-Yann Cheng
Recent compelling epidemiological studies indicate a strong association of obesity with thyroid cancer. Obesity has been shown to promote thyroid cancer progression and exacerbate poor outcome in thyroid cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases thyroid cancer risk and facilitates cancer progression are not completely understood. Obesity induces complex pathological changes including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, adipokines, and inflammatory responses...
April 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330698/circulating-hormones-and-mammographic-density-in-premenopausal-women
#12
Kimberly A Bertrand, A Heather Eliassen, Susan E Hankinson, Bernard A Rosner, Rulla M Tamimi
Prior research suggests that several endogenous hormones in premenopausal women are associated with breast cancer risk; however, few studies have evaluated associations of endogenous hormones with mammographic density (MD) in premenopausal women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of plasma hormone levels in relation to MD among 634 cancer-free premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We measured percent MD from screening mammograms using a computer-assisted method. We assayed estradiol, estrone, and estrone sulfate in blood samples timed in early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle as well as testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and anti-Müllerian hormone in luteal or untimed samples...
April 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313170/the-two-faces-of-adjuvant-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-ovarian-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Vladimir Djedovic, Yoo-Young Lee, Alexandra Kollara, Taymaa May, Theodore J Brown
Adjuvant glucocorticoid treatment is routinely used in the treatment of ovarian cancer to mitigate the undesirable side effects of chemotherapy, thereby enhancing tolerability to higher cytotoxic drug doses and frequency of treatment cycles. However, in vitro and preclinical in vivo and ex vivo studies indicate that glucocorticoids may spare tumor cells from undergoing cell death through enhanced cell adhesion, promotion of anti-inflammatory signaling, and/or inhibition of apoptotic pathways. The implications of laboratory studies showing potential negative impact on the efficacy of chemotherapy have been long overlooked since clinical investigations have found no apparent survival detriment attributable to adjuvant glucocorticoid use...
April 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441459/thyroid-hormone-in-the-clinic-and-breast-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Aleck Hercbergs, Shaker A Mousa, Matthew Leinung, Hung-Yun Lin, Paul J Davis
There is preclinical and recent epidemiological evidence that thyroid hormone supports breast cancer. These observations raise the issue of whether management of breast cancer in certain settings should include consideration of reducing the possible contribution of thyroid hormone to the advancement of the disease. In a preliminary experience, elimination of the clinical action of endogenous L-thyroxine (T4 ) in patients with advanced solid tumors, including breast cancer, has favorably affected the course of the cancer, particularly when coupled with administration of exogenous 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 ) (euthyroid hypothyroxinemia)...
February 13, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297146/adiponectin-leptin-and-insulin-pathway-receptors-as-endometrial-cancer-subtyping-markers
#15
Evan L Busch, Marta Crous-Bou, Jennifer Prescott, Michael J Downing, Bernard A Rosner, George L Mutter, Immaculata De Vivo
Developing a system of molecular subtyping for endometrial tumors might improve insight into disease etiology and clinical prediction of patient outcomes. High body mass index (BMI) has been implicated in development of endometrial cancer through hormonal pathways and might influence tumor expression of biomarkers involved in BMI-sensitive pathways. We evaluated whether endometrial tumor expression of 7 markers from BMI-sensitive pathways of insulin resistance could effectively characterize molecular subtypes: adiponectin receptor 1, adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptor, insulin receptor (beta subunit), insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, and insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor...
February 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260382/the-interplay-between-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-the-thyroid-hormones-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-axis-in-ovarian-cancer
#16
Chen Weingarten, Yonatan Jenudi, Rami Yair Tshuva, Dotan Moskovich, Adi Alfandari, Aleck Hercbergs, Paul J Davis, Martin Ellis, Osnat Ashur-Fabian
Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic disease. The metastatic potential is enhanced by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in which αvβ3 integrin plays a role. Thyroid hormones (L-thyroxine, T4, and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) bind this integrin, and we hypothesized that the thyroid hormone-αvβ3 axis may be involved in EMT activity in ovarian cancer. The transcription (mRNA), protein abundance (westerns), and protein localization (fluorescence microscopy) of several EMT markers were studied in ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, A2780, and SKOV-3) treated with 1 nM T3 or 100 nM T4 for 1-24 h...
February 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209896/braf-oncogene-induced-senescence-and-the-role-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-signaling-in-the-progression-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
F I Moulana, A A H Priyani, M V C de Silva, R S Dassanayake
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) explains the phenomenon of cellular senescence triggered by the action of oncogenes. It is a mechanism adopted by a cell to inhibit progression of benign tumors into malignancy, occurs in premalignant lesions, and is almost never present in malignant lesions. BRAF mutations occur in about 40-45% of all papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and of which 99.7% is the BRAFV600E mutation. A unique phenotype of the BRAFV600E mutation is the upregulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on thyrocyte membranes...
February 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071575/time-until-partial-response-in-metastatic-adrenocortical-carcinoma-long-term-survivors
#18
Delphine Vezzosi, Christine Do Cao, Ségolène Hescot, Jérôme Bertherat, Magali Haissaguerre, Vanina Bongard, Delphine Drui, Christelle De La Fouchardière, Frédéric Illouz, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Bodale Djobo, Amandine Berdelou, Antoine Tabarin, Martin Schlumberger, Claire Briet, Philippe Caron, Sophie Leboulleux, Rossella Libe, Eric Baudin
A partial response (PR) has been proposed as a surrogate for overall survival in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). The primary endpoint of the study was to characterize the time until a PR in patients with metastatic ACC treated with a standard therapy is achieved. Long-term survivors were selected to allow evaluation of delayed tumor response to mitotane. Records from patients with metastatic ACC that survived for > 24 months were retrieved. Tumor response was analyzed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1...
February 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052171/statin-use-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-in-black-and-white-women
#19
Amanda Leiter, Nina A Bickell, Derek LeRoith, Anupma Nayak, Sheldon M Feldman, Neil B Friedman, Alison Estabrook, Tari A King, Kezhen Fei, Rebeca Franco, Emily J Gallagher
Studies show decreased risk of breast cancer recurrence and improved survival with statin use, but data on racial disparities regarding breast cancer prognosis and statin use are lacking. Our objective was to investigate if racial disparities in breast cancer prognosis can be partially explained by differences in pre-diagnosis statin use. Patients were identified from a prospective, multicenter study examining the effects of metabolic factors on breast cancer prognosis in Black and White women. Statin use, prognosis (as measured by Nottingham Prognostic Index), anthropometric, tumor, and socio-demographic characteristics were examined...
February 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980157/expression-of-the-cholecystokinin-b-receptor-in-neoplastic-gastric-cells
#20
Patricia Mjønes, Ivar S Nordrum, Øystein Sørdal, Liv Sagatun, Reidar Fossmark, Arne Sandvik, Helge L Waldum
Gastric cancer is an important disease due to its high mortality. Despite the decline in frequency, most cases are discovered late in its course, and most of the cancer patients die within a few years of diagnosis. In addition to Helicobacter pylori gastritis, gastrin is considered an important factor in the development of this disease, and thus, cholecystokinin-B receptor (CCKBR) becomes of interest. The aim of our study was to explore whether CCKBR is expressed in stomach cancers. Thirty-seven tumors from 19 men and 18 women diagnosed with either adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine neoplasm (NENs) were included in this study...
February 2018: Hormones & Cancer
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