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Hormones & Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340908/fasting-blood-glucose-level-in-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-new-prognostic-factor
#1
Esra Korkmaz Kirakli, Ufuk Yilmaz, Hasan Yilmaz, Berna Komurcuoglu
Hyperglycemia may lead to proliferation, invasion, apoptosis inhibition, migration, and eventually metastasis of cancer cells by several mechanisms. In this study, the effect of hyperglycemia on overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and locoregional recurrence (LRR) was investigated in NSCLC. One stage IIIA-IIIB NSCLC patient treated with chemoradiotherapy between 2010 and 2015 was enrolled. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were recorded in pre-treatment, treatment, and post-treatment periods...
January 16, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340907/harnessing-a-different-dependency-how-to-identify-and-target-androgen-receptor-positive-versus-quadruple-negative-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Jessica L Christenson, Jane B Trepel, Haythem Y Ali, Sunmin Lee, Joel R Eisner, Edwina S Baskin-Bey, Anthony D Elias, Jennifer K Richer
The androgen receptor (AR) is a promising therapeutic target for a subset of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) in which AR is expressed. However, the mechanistic action of AR and the degree to which primary and metastatic tumors depend on AR, both before and after conventional treatment, remain to be defined. We discuss preclinical and clinical data for AR+ TNBC, the difficulties in monitoring AR protein levels, new methods for determining AR status, the influence of AR on "stemness" in the context of TNBC, the role of combined inhibition of sex steroid production and AR, and the role of AR in regulation of the immune system...
January 16, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330698/circulating-hormones-and-mammographic-density-in-premenopausal-women
#3
Kimberly A Bertrand, A Heather Eliassen, Susan E Hankinson, Bernard A Rosner, Rulla M Tamimi
Prior research suggests that several endogenous hormones in premenopausal women are associated with breast cancer risk; however, few studies have evaluated associations of endogenous hormones with mammographic density (MD) in premenopausal women. We conducted a cross-sectional study of plasma hormone levels in relation to MD among 634 cancer-free premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. We measured percent MD from screening mammograms using a computer-assisted method. We assayed estradiol, estrone, and estrone sulfate in blood samples timed in early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle as well as testosterone, androstenedione, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and anti-Müllerian hormone in luteal or untimed samples...
January 12, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313170/the-two-faces-of-adjuvant-glucocorticoid-treatment-in-ovarian-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Vladimir Djedovic, Yoo-Young Lee, Alexandra Kollara, Taymaa May, Theodore J Brown
Adjuvant glucocorticoid treatment is routinely used in the treatment of ovarian cancer to mitigate the undesirable side effects of chemotherapy, thereby enhancing tolerability to higher cytotoxic drug doses and frequency of treatment cycles. However, in vitro and preclinical in vivo and ex vivo studies indicate that glucocorticoids may spare tumor cells from undergoing cell death through enhanced cell adhesion, promotion of anti-inflammatory signaling, and/or inhibition of apoptotic pathways. The implications of laboratory studies showing potential negative impact on the efficacy of chemotherapy have been long overlooked since clinical investigations have found no apparent survival detriment attributable to adjuvant glucocorticoid use...
January 8, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297146/adiponectin-leptin-and-insulin-pathway-receptors-as-endometrial-cancer-subtyping-markers
#5
Evan L Busch, Marta Crous-Bou, Jennifer Prescott, Michael J Downing, Bernard A Rosner, George L Mutter, Immaculata De Vivo
Developing a system of molecular subtyping for endometrial tumors might improve insight into disease etiology and clinical prediction of patient outcomes. High body mass index (BMI) has been implicated in development of endometrial cancer through hormonal pathways and might influence tumor expression of biomarkers involved in BMI-sensitive pathways. We evaluated whether endometrial tumor expression of 7 markers from BMI-sensitive pathways of insulin resistance could effectively characterize molecular subtypes: adiponectin receptor 1, adiponectin receptor 2, leptin receptor, insulin receptor (beta subunit), insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, and insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor...
January 2, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260382/the-interplay-between-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-the-thyroid-hormones-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-axis-in-ovarian-cancer
#6
Chen Weingarten, Yonatan Jenudi, Rami Yair Tshuva, Dotan Moskovich, Adi Alfandari, Aleck Hercbergs, Paul J Davis, Martin Ellis, Osnat Ashur-Fabian
Ovarian cancer is a highly metastatic disease. The metastatic potential is enhanced by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in which αvβ3 integrin plays a role. Thyroid hormones (L-thyroxine, T4, and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) bind this integrin, and we hypothesized that the thyroid hormone-αvβ3 axis may be involved in EMT activity in ovarian cancer. The transcription (mRNA), protein abundance (westerns), and protein localization (fluorescence microscopy) of several EMT markers were studied in ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3, A2780, and SKOV-3) treated with 1 nM T3 or 100 nM T4 for 1-24 h...
December 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209896/braf-oncogene-induced-senescence-and-the-role-of-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-signaling-in-the-progression-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#7
REVIEW
F I Moulana, A A H Priyani, M V C de Silva, R S Dassanayake
Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) explains the phenomenon of cellular senescence triggered by the action of oncogenes. It is a mechanism adopted by a cell to inhibit progression of benign tumors into malignancy, occurs in premalignant lesions, and is almost never present in malignant lesions. BRAF mutations occur in about 40-45% of all papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and of which 99.7% is the BRAFV600E mutation. A unique phenotype of the BRAFV600E mutation is the upregulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on thyrocyte membranes...
December 5, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071575/time-until-partial-response-in-metastatic-adrenocortical-carcinoma-long-term-survivors
#8
Delphine Vezzosi, Christine Do Cao, Ségolène Hescot, Jérôme Bertherat, Magali Haissaguerre, Vanina Bongard, Delphine Drui, Christelle De La Fouchardière, Frédéric Illouz, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Bodale Djobo, Amandine Berdelou, Antoine Tabarin, Martin Schlumberger, Claire Briet, Philippe Caron, Sophie Leboulleux, Rossella Libe, Eric Baudin
A partial response (PR) has been proposed as a surrogate for overall survival in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). The primary endpoint of the study was to characterize the time until a PR in patients with metastatic ACC treated with a standard therapy is achieved. Long-term survivors were selected to allow evaluation of delayed tumor response to mitotane. Records from patients with metastatic ACC that survived for > 24 months were retrieved. Tumor response was analyzed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1...
October 25, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971320/expression-of-genes-for-methylxanthine-pathway-associated-enzymes-accompanied-by-sex-steroid-receptor-status-impacts-breast-carcinoma-progression
#9
James L Wittliff, Seth B Sereff, Michael W Daniels
Consumption of methylxanthine alkaloids appears to induce activities by antagonizing adenosine receptors, implicated in breast cancer behavior in vitro. Our goal was to evaluate expression of genes for methylxanthine receptors and metabolizing enzymes to assess risk of breast carcinoma recurrence. Clinical outcomes, estrogen/progestin receptor results, and gene expression assays guided selection. RNA was isolated from laser capture microdissection-procured carcinoma cells for microarray using established protocols...
December 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924876/inhibitory-effects-of-antagonists-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-ghrh-in-thyroid-cancer
#10
Helena Pópulo, Bruno Nunes, Cristina Sampaio, Rui Batista, Marta Teixeira Pinto, Tiago B Gaspar, Leandro Miranda-Alves, Ren-Zhi Cai, Xian Yang Zhang, Andrew V Schally, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, Paula Soares
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a peptide hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH) in the pituitary. The extra-hypothalamic GHRH and its cognate receptors (GHRHR and splice variants) play a mitogenic role by stimulating cell proliferation and preventing apoptotic cell death. It is well established that GHRH antagonists inhibit the growth, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of various human malignancies. In this work, we studied the effect of two new GHRH antagonists, MIA602 and MIA690, on thyroid cancer...
December 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916994/parity-and-risk-of-thyroid-cancer-a-population-based-study-in-lithuania
#11
L Zabuliene, D Jasilionis, E Miseikyte-Kaubriene, R Stukas, A Kaceniene, G Smailyte
An association between parity and thyroid cancer risk has been investigated in a number of independent studies but yielded contradictory findings. The aim of this study was to explore the association between parity and thyroid cancer risk. The population-based cohort study in Lithuanian was conducted. The study dataset based on the linkages between all records from the 2001 population census, all cancer incidence records from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry, and all death and emigration records from Statistics Lithuania for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009...
December 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786001/maternal-resveratrol-treatment-reduces-the-risk-of-mammary-carcinogenesis-in-female-offspring-prenatally-exposure-to-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
#12
Tássia C de Lima E Silva, Livia T R da Silveira, Mariana F Fragoso, Flávia R M da Silva, Meire F Martinez, Joyce R Zapaterini, Odair H G Diniz, Wellerson R Scarano, Luis F Barbisan
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) presents adverse effects on breast development/carcinogenesis. This study aimed to identify the ability of resveratrol (Res) to modify the adverse effects of TCDD in a female offspring. Pregnant female Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: TCDD, TCDD + Res, Res, and control. TCDD (1 μg/kg) was orally administered as a single dose on gestational day (GD) 15, and Res was orally administered during GD10-21 and lactation at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day. Female offsprings were euthanized on a specific postnatal day (PND) for hormonal analysis (PND 22, 48-51), vaginal opening (PND 30-48), and mammary gland morphology (PND 22)...
December 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748315/interferon-alpha-treatment-for-disease-control-in-metastatic-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-patients
#13
Julien Hadoux, Marie Terroir, Sophie Leboulleux, Frederic Deschamps, Abir Al Ghuzlan, Ségolène Hescot, Lambros Tselikas, Isabelle Borget, Caroline Caramella, Desirée Déandréis, Diane Goere, Thierry De Baere, Martin Schlumberger, Eric Baudin
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is recommended in neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Malignant pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas (MPPGLs) constitute a rare subgroup of NET with few treatment options. IFN-alpha efficacy in patients with MPPGLs was evaluated in a single-center retrospective study. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint according to RECIST 1.1 and/or PERCIST 1.0, and response rate, safety, and symptomatic efficacy were secondary endpoints. Fourteen patients received peginterferon alfa-2a (90 to 180 μg/week) or interferon alfa-2b (1...
December 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741260/the-androgen-receptor-supports-tumor-progression-after-the-loss-of-ovarian-function-in-a-preclinical-model-of-obesity-and-breast-cancer
#14
Elizabeth A Wellberg, L Allyson Checkley, Erin D Giles, Stevi J Johnson, Robera Oljira, Reema Wahdan-Alaswad, Rebecca M Foright, Greg Dooley, Susan M Edgerton, Sonali Jindal, Ginger C Johnson, Jennifer K Richer, Peter Kabos, Ann D Thor, Pepper Schedin, Paul S MacLean, Steven M Anderson
The androgen receptor (AR) has context-dependent roles in breast cancer growth and progression. Overall, high tumor AR levels predict a favorable patient outcome, but several studies have established a tumor promotional role for AR, particularly in supporting the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER-positive) breast cancers after endocrine therapy. Our previous studies have demonstrated that obesity promotes mammary tumor progression after ovariectomy (OVX) in a rat model of postmenopausal breast cancer...
December 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052171/statin-use-and-breast-cancer-prognosis-in-black-and-white-women
#15
Amanda Leiter, Nina A Bickell, Derek LeRoith, Anupma Nayak, Sheldon M Feldman, Neil B Friedman, Alison Estabrook, Tari A King, Kezhen Fei, Rebeca Franco, Emily J Gallagher
Studies show decreased risk of breast cancer recurrence and improved survival with statin use, but data on racial disparities regarding breast cancer prognosis and statin use are lacking. Our objective was to investigate if racial disparities in breast cancer prognosis can be partially explained by differences in pre-diagnosis statin use. Patients were identified from a prospective, multicenter study examining the effects of metabolic factors on breast cancer prognosis in Black and White women. Statin use, prognosis (as measured by Nottingham Prognostic Index), anthropometric, tumor, and socio-demographic characteristics were examined...
October 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980157/expression-of-the-cholecystokinin-b-receptor-in-neoplastic-gastric-cells
#16
Patricia Mjønes, Ivar S Nordrum, Øystein Sørdal, Liv Sagatun, Reidar Fossmark, Arne Sandvik, Helge L Waldum
Gastric cancer is an important disease due to its high mortality. Despite the decline in frequency, most cases are discovered late in its course, and most of the cancer patients die within a few years of diagnosis. In addition to Helicobacter pylori gastritis, gastrin is considered an important factor in the development of this disease, and thus, cholecystokinin-B receptor (CCKBR) becomes of interest. The aim of our study was to explore whether CCKBR is expressed in stomach cancers. Thirty-seven tumors from 19 men and 18 women diagnosed with either adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine neoplasm (NENs) were included in this study...
October 4, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929346/o-glcnac-dependent-regulation-of-progesterone-receptor-function-in-breast-cancer
#17
Gloria M Trinca, Merit L Goodman, Evangelia K Papachristou, Clive S D'Santos, Prabhakar Chalise, Rashna Madan, Chad Slawson, Christy R Hagan
Emerging clinical trial data implicate progestins in the development of breast cancer. While the role for the progesterone receptor (PR) in this process remains controversial, it is clear that PR, a steroid-activated nuclear receptor, alters the transcriptional landscape of breast cancer. PR interacts with many different types of proteins, including transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and proteins that post-translationally modify PR (i.e., kinases and phosphatases)...
September 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639228/role-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-20-hete-in-androgen-mediated-cell-viability-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#18
Cecilia Colombero, Daniela Papademetrio, Paula Sacca, Eduardo Mormandi, Elida Alvarez, Susana Nowicki
20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is generated intracellularly through the ω-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid by the cytochrome P450 (in humans, CYP4A11 and CYP4F2). 20-HETE induces mitogenic responses in different cancer cells. The aim of this study was to analyze how 20-HETE impacts cell survival, proliferation, and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Incubation of the human androgen-sensitive cells (LNCaP) with 1-10 μM HET0016 (a selective inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis) reduced cell viability by 49*-64%* (*p < 0...
August 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634910/the-complex-biology-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-its-role-in-the-pituitary-gland
#19
REVIEW
Robert Formosa, Josanne Vassallo
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for its ability to mediate the effects of environmental toxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the initiation of transcription of a number of metabolically active enzymes. Therefore, the AHR has been studied mostly in the context of xenobiotic signaling. However, several studies have shown that the AHR is constitutively active and plays an important role in general cell physiology, independently of its activity as a xenobiotic receptor and in the absence of exogenous ligands...
August 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577282/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-modulation-of-the-er%C3%AE-p53-loop-regulating-gene-expression-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer
#20
Wenwen Lu, Benita S Katzenellenbogen
Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a crucial transcriptional regulator in breast cancer, but estrogens mediate their effects through two estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, subtypes that have contrasting regulatory actions on gene expression and the survival and growth of breast cancer cells. Here, we examine the impact of ERβ on the ERα-p53 loop in breast cancer. We found that ERβ attenuates ERα-induced cell proliferation, increases apoptosis, and reverses transcriptional activation and repression by ERα. Further, ERβ physically interacts with p53, reduces ERα-p53 binding, and antagonizes ERα-p53-mediated transcriptional regulation...
August 2017: Hormones & Cancer
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