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Sports Health

Jonathan A Drezner, Danielle F Peterson, David M Siebert, Leah Cox Thomas, Martha Lopez-Anderson, Monica Z Suchsland, Kimberly G Harmon, Kristen L Kucera
BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the leading cause of death in young athletes during sports. HYPOTHESIS: Survival after SCA in young athletes is variable. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, active surveillance study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: From July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2016, exercise-related SCA in competitive young athletes was identified through a systematic search of traditional and social media sources, direct reporting to the National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury Research, searching of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Resolutions List, regular communication with national and state high school athletic associations, and review of cases in the Parent Heart Watch database...
September 11, 2018: Sports Health
Aaron Slone Jeckell, Elizabeth Anne Copenhaver, Alex Benjamin Diamond
CONTEXT: Hazing and peer sexual abuse in sport are a critical issue, brought into public scrutiny with increasing frequency due to various forms of media, resulting in major causes of numerous avoidable mental health issues, and in some cases, even death. While the exact incidence of these activities is extremely difficult to quantify, trends indicate that the problem is very likely underreported. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed, Google, various legal journals/statutes, books on hazing and peer abuse in sport, and newspaper periodicals/editorials were all searched...
September 7, 2018: Sports Health
Wesley M Durand, Avi D Goodman, Patricia Giglio, Christine Etzel, Brett D Owens
BACKGROUND: Although lower extremity injuries are more common than upper extremity injuries in high school- and college-aged soccer players, upper extremity injuries may be equally severe. The epidemiology of upper extremity injuries is poorly characterized in this population. HYPOTHESIS: Upper extremity injuries are an important contributor to soccer-related morbidity among high school- and college-aged players. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study...
September 5, 2018: Sports Health
Karl V Reisig, Christopher M Miles
This case highlights the importance of vigilant clinical suspicion in diagnosing abdominal perforation. Intra-abdominal injury can be difficult to identify during competition, and timely diagnosis of jejunal perforation is difficult because of initially subtle clinical findings that gradually progress over time. Identifying intra-abdominal injuries early can improve the outcome of the patient. In-game evaluation did not identify this injury. The athlete completed the game, and the injury was ultimately identified with peritoneal signs and a negative Carnett sign, making abdominal wall injury less likely...
August 21, 2018: Sports Health
Jo Armour Smith, Andrew Hawkins, Marybeth Grant-Beuttler, Richard Beuttler, Szu-Ping Lee
CONTEXT: Low back pain is common in golfers. The risk factors for golf-related low back pain are unclear but may include individual demographic, anthropometric, and practice factors as well as movement characteristics of the golf swing. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and synthesize evidence for factors associated with low back pain in recreational and professional golfers. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus electronic databases through September 2017...
August 21, 2018: Sports Health
Andrew R Peterson, Emma Nash, B J Anderson
CONTEXT: Infections are common in contact sports. This review aims to describe the epidemiology, presenting signs and symptoms, treatment guidelines, and regulations for several common infections seen in contact sport athletes. The conditions discussed include bacterial skin infections, herpes simplex virus, molluscum contagiosum, common warts, tinea, scabies, head lice, conjunctivitis, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and vaccine-preventable illnesses. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Searches were performed across PubMed and MEDLINE research databases...
August 14, 2018: Sports Health
James R Jastifer, Andrew S McNitt, Christina D Mack, Richard W Kent, Kirk A McCullough, Michael J Coughlin, Robert B Anderson
CONTEXT: Synthetic turf has become an increasingly common playing surface for athletics and has changed dramatically since its introduction more than 50 years ago. Along with changes to surface design, maintenance needs and recommendations have become more standardized and attentive both to upkeep and player-level factors. In particular, synthetic turf maintenance as it relates to athlete health and safety is an important consideration at all levels of play. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search of MEDLINE and PubMed for publications between the years 1990 and 2018 was conducted...
August 10, 2018: Sports Health
John W Wannop, Darren J Stefanyshyn, Robert B Anderson, Michael J Coughlin, Richard Kent
CONTEXT: Footwear performance and injury mitigation may be compromised if the footwear is not properly sized for an athlete. Additionally, poor fit may result in discomfort and foot injury such as fifth metatarsal stress fracture, foot deformities, turf toe, and blisters. Current footwear fitting methods consist of foot length and width measurements, which may not properly describe the shape of the individual foot, correlated with shoe size descriptors that are not standardized. Footwear manufacturers employ a range of sizing rubrics, which introduces shoe size and shape variability between and even within footwear companies...
July 26, 2018: Sports Health
William G Blakeney, Hervé Ouanezar, Isabelle Rogowski, Gregory Vigne, Meven Le Guen, Jean-Marie Fayard, Mathieu Thaunat, Pierre Chambat, Bertrand Sonnery-Cottet
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the appropriate timing of return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A composite test was developed to assess the athlete's ability to return to sports after ACL reconstruction: the Knee Santy Athletic Return To Sport (K-STARTS) test. HYPOTHESIS: The K-STARTS test meets validation criteria for an outcome score assessing readiness for return to sports after ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Diagnostic study...
July 1, 2018: Sports Health
Edward M Wojtys
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Sports Health
Kyle T Aune, Joseph M Powers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Sports Health
Rasmus Tolstrup Larsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Sports Health
Robert Stanton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Sports Health
Christopher D Boston, Jennifer J Bryan
CONTEXT: Immunizations are a cornerstone of preventive care and an important consideration for team physicians caring for athletes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A PubMed search was performed from August 2016 through May 2017 as well as a website review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and Immunization Action Coalition. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. RESULTS: By keeping abreast of diseases endemic to nations to which athletes may be traveling as well as the vaccination status of the athletes, team physicians can provide appropriate advice regarding immunization and prevention of disease...
September 2018: Sports Health
Kenneth Palmer, Debi Jones, Christine Morgan, Giorgio Zeppieri
BACKGROUND: The tennis serve is a complex skill requiring appropriate energy transfer to maximize serve speed. As the only independently powered shot in tennis, it is important to understand what characteristics contribute to a player's serve. HYPOTHESIS: Upper extremity and lower extremity power variables will be predictive of serve speed. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: A total of 42 competitive tennis players underwent range of motion, strength, motor control, power, and serve speed testing...
September 2018: Sports Health
Bryan M Saltzman, Jonathan C Riboh
CONTEXT: Articular cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis are among the most common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians. Nonetheless, treatment options for articular degeneration are limited once the osteoarthritic cascade has started. Intense research is focused on the use of biologics, cartilage regeneration, and transplantation to help maintain and improve cartilage health. An underappreciated component of joint health is the subchondral bone. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive, nonsystematic review of the published literature was completed via a PubMed/MEDLINE search of the keywords "subchondral" AND "bone" from database inception through December 1, 2016...
September 2018: Sports Health
David M Siebert, Ashwin L Rao
CONTEXT: Recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH) has become a target of abuse in the sporting world. Conversely, sports medicine clinicians may encounter athletes using rHGH to achieve normalcy in the context of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline and PubMed databases were queried using the following keywords: GH, GH physiology, GH deficiency, acromegaly, GH athlete, GH sports, GH athletic performance, and GH deficiency concussion. Articles focusing on GH physiology, deficiency, excess, and its effects in both deficient and healthy patients were included...
September 2018: Sports Health
Amelia J H Arundale, Jacob J Capin, Ryan Zarzycki, Angela Smith, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
BACKGROUND: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Specialized Post-Operative Return to Sports (ACL-SPORTS) randomized controlled trial was designed to address deficits in functional and patient-reported outcomes. The trial examined the effects of a secondary ACL prevention program that included progressive strengthening, agility training, plyometrics (SAP), and other components of current primary prevention protocols, with perturbation training (SAP + PERT group) and without PERT (SAP group)...
September 2018: Sports Health
Amity Rubeor, Carmen Goojha, Jeffrey Manning, Jordan White
CONTEXT: Supplementing iron-deficient nonanemic (IDNA) athletes with iron to improve performance is a trend in endurance sports. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the benefits of iron on performance, identify a ferritin level cutoff in IDNA athletes, and determine which iron supplementation regimens are most effective. DATA SOURCES: A search of the PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, and Cochrane databases was performed in 2014 including all articles. Citations of pertinent review articles were also searched...
September 2018: Sports Health
Justin J Conway, Brett G Toresdahl, Daphne I Ling, Nicole T Boniquit, Lisa R Callahan, James J Kinderknecht
BACKGROUND: Multiple outbreaks of vaccine-preventable viral diseases have occurred in professional sports in recent years. Currently, there is no established protocol for vaccination or immunity screening for professional athletes. HYPOTHESIS: There are significant differences in the prevalence of inadequate immunity dependent on age, sport, country of birth, and participation in collegiate sports. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study...
September 2018: Sports Health
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