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Nikolai P Omelyanenko, Pavel A Karalkin, Elena A Bulanova, Elizaveta V Koudan, Vladislav A Parfenov, Sergei A Rodionov, Alisa D Knyazeva, Vladimir A Kasyanov, Igor I Babichenko, Tamara Z Chkadua, Yusef D Khesuani, Anna A Gryadunova, Vladimir A Mironov
Objective Chondrospheres represent a variant of tissue spheroids biofabricated from chondrocytes. They are already being used in clinical trials for cartilage repair; however, their biomechanical properties have not been systematically investigated yet. The aim of our study was to characterize chondrospheres in long-term in vitro culture conditions for morphometric changes, biomechanical integrity, and their fusion and spreading kinetics. Results It has been demonstrated that the increase in chondrospheres secant modulus of elasticity is strongly associated with the synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix...
September 15, 2018: Cartilage
HongBin Cheng, Baoxi Hao, Jingtao Sun, Mingxi Yin
Background C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type II collagen (CTX-II) are one of the most frequently assessed markers for osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis. The aim of this meta-analysis was to confirm the diagnostic value of urinary CTX-II in knee OA. Materials and Methods PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EMBASE were searched for studies measured urinary CTX-II in patients with knee OA and in healthy controls. Urinary CTX-II levels were compared between knee OA patients and controls. Differences between groups were expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) when individual outcomes were measured with different scales...
September 15, 2018: Cartilage
Fabian Blanke, Andreas Feitenhansl, Maximilian Haenle, Stephan Vogt
Objective The etiology of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is still uncertain. Recently, it has been hypothesized that instability of the anterior horn of the meniscus is an important cause for the development of a nontraumatic OCD in adolescents with good results after surgical stabilization. This case series aims to evaluate the treatment results after meniscus stabilization in adults with nontraumatic OCD. Design Ten patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-confirmed OCD of the knee joint, meniscal instability, and closed epiphyseal plates were enrolled in this study...
September 15, 2018: Cartilage
Takahiro Ogura, Jakob Ackermann, Alexandre Barbieri Mestriner, Gergo Merkely, Andreas H Gomoll
Objective We sought to determine the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) associated with the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm, and Short Form-12 (SF-12) after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). Design Ninety-two patients with satisfaction surveys at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively and at least 1 repeated patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) were analysed...
September 15, 2018: Cartilage
Arne Van de Vyver, Stefan Clockaerts, Chris H A van de Lest, Wu Wei, Jan Verhaar, Gerjo J V M Van Osch, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens
Objective Free fatty acids (FAs) may influence cartilage metabolism and osteoarthritis (OA) disease progression. It is not clearly studied which FAs are present in the synovial fluid of knee joints and whether there are differences in FA content between nonsymptomatic and OA knee joints. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of different types of FAs in synovial fluid of both OA- and nonsymptomatic control joints, and to analyze differences between both groups. Design A total of 23 synovial fluid samples were collected from patients with end-stage knee OA undergoing total knee replacement, with approval of the medical ethical committee...
September 11, 2018: Cartilage
Eric J Cotter, Anirudh K Gowd, Daniel D Bohl, Alan Getgood, Brian J Cole, Rachel M Frank
Objective To characterize rates and risk factors for adverse events following distal femoral osteotomy (DFO), high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) procedures. Design Patients undergoing DFO, HTO, or TTO procedures during 2005 to 2016 were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Rates of adverse events were characterized for each procedure. Demographic, comorbidity, and procedural factors were tested for association with occurrence of any adverse events...
September 6, 2018: Cartilage
Cheryl L S Liu, Andrew C Hall
Objective Septic arthritis is commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and is a medical emergency requiring antibiotics and joint irrigation. The bacteria produce α-toxin causing rapid cartilage cell ( chondrocyte) death. Saline (0.9%NaCl) lavage is normally used to remove bacteria and toxins, however, its composition might be suboptimal to suppress the lethal effects of α-toxin. We utilized rabbit erythrocyte hemolysis as a sensitive, biologically relevant assay of α-toxin levels to determine if changes to osmolarity, temperature, pH, and divalent cation (Mg2+ , Ca2+ ) concentration were protective...
September 6, 2018: Cartilage
Muhammad Farooq Rai, Linda J Sandell, Toby N Barrack, Lei Cai, Eric D Tycksen, Simon Y Tang, Matthew J Silva, Robert L Barrack
Objective To query the transcript-level changes in the medial and lateral tibial plateau cartilage in tandem with obesity in patients with end-stage osteoarthritis (OA). Design Cartilage was obtained from 23 patients (20 obese [body mass index > 30 kg/m2 ], 3 overweight [body mass index < 30 kg/m2 ]) at the time of total knee replacement. Cartilage integrity was assessed using Outerbridge scale, while radiographic changes were scored on preoperative X-rays using Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) classification...
September 3, 2018: Cartilage
Raffy Mirzayan, Michael D Charles, Michael Batech, Brian D Suh, David DeWitt
Objective To evaluate clinical, functional, and radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent bipolar osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCAT) of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). Design Prospectively collected data on 18 knees who underwent fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation of the patella and trochlea by a single surgeon were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were: high-grade chondral lesions of PFJ (5 knees), or recurrent patella dislocations with trochlear dysplasia and chondral injury to the patella and/or trochlea (13 knees)...
September 3, 2018: Cartilage
Shane A Shapiro, Jennifer R Arthurs, Michael G Heckman, Joseph M Bestic, Shari E Kazmerchak, Nancy N Diehl, Abba C Zubair, Mary I O'Connor
Objective Bone marrow aspiration and concentration (BMAC) is becoming a more common regenerative therapy for musculoskeletal pathology. In our current pilot study, we studied patients with mild-to-moderate bilateral knee osteoarthritis, compared pain at 12-month follow-up between BMAC-injected and saline-injected knees, and examined cartilage appearance measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 quantitative mapping. Design Twenty-five patients with mild-to-moderate bilateral osteoarthritic knee pain were randomized to receive BMAC into one knee and saline placebo into the other...
August 30, 2018: Cartilage
Sze-Wing Mok, Sai-Chuen Fu, Yau-Chuk Cheuk, I-Ming Chu, Kai-Ming Chan, Ling Qin, Shu-Hang Yung, Ki-Wai Kevin Ho
Objective Quercetin (Que), a bioflavonoid, is both anti-inflammatory and antioxidative. Que has been used as an oral supplement for osteoarthritis (OA) with inconsistent findings because of its low bioavailability. We encapsulated Que in a mPEG-polypeptide thermogel to prolong its bioactivity. The efficacy of this formulation was evaluated in a posttraumatic OA rat model. Design Methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-l-poly(alanine) (mPEG-PA) polymer was synthesized and characterized in terms of cytotoxicity and release kinetics in vitro...
August 30, 2018: Cartilage
Alvin K Shieh, Sohni G Singh, Connor Nathe, Evan Lian, Dominik R Haudenschild, Jan A Nolta, Cassandra A Lee, Eric Giza, Christopher D Kreulen
Background The repair of osteochondral lesions remains a challenge due to its poor vascularity and limited healing potential. Micronized cartilage matrix (MCM) is dehydrated, decellularized, micronized allogeneic cartilage matrix that contains the components of native articular tissue and is hypothesized to serve as a scaffold for the formation of hyaline-like tissue. Our objective was to demonstrate in vitro that the use of MCM combined with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can lead to the formation of hyaline-like cartilage tissue in a single-stage treatment model...
August 29, 2018: Cartilage
Rui Zhang, Fei Cong, Qi Li, Zixin Min, Jidong Yan, Qian Zhang, Jie Ma, Shemin Lu, Jianbing Ma
Objective The aim of this study was to examine differences in microRNA-497 (miR-497) expression during cartilage tissue formation and to test whether miR-497 directly interferes with Indian hedgehog (IHH) gene and inhibits IHH expression in human chondrocytes. Design At different cartilage development stages and different time points in bone matrix gelatin-induced endochondral ossification (BMG-ECO) rat models, the expression of miR-497 and the Ihh gene was monitored at the mRNA level. Bioinformatic analysis, gene mutation, dual luciferase reporter gene assays and gene expression assays at both the mRNA and protein levels in human chondrocytes were subsequently performed to validate the interaction between miR-497 and the IHH gene...
August 29, 2018: Cartilage
Camila B Carballo, Thiago R P Coelho, Rosenilde C de Holanda Afonso, Jane Cristina de Oliveira Faria, Tercia Alves, Samylla M Monte, Grasiella M Ventura Matioszek, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, José M de Brito
Objective Synovial fluid (SF) plays an important role in the maintenance of articular cartilage. SF is a dynamic reservoir of proteins derived from cartilage and synovial tissue; thus, its composition may serve as a biomarker that reflects the health and pathophysiological condition of the joint. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the osteoarthritic synovial fluid (OASF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) activity in articular chondrocytes catabolic and inflammatory responses. Design Chondrocytes were seeded at passage 2 and cultured for 72 hours under different conditions...
August 27, 2018: Cartilage
Jakob Ackermann, Alexandre Barbieri Mestriner, Dillon Arango, Takahiro Ogura, Andreas H Gomoll
Objective The purpose of this study was first to externally validate the Oswestry Risk of Knee Arthroplasty index (ORKA-1) by applying it to an autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) patient cohort in the United States with a broader definition of failure than only arthroplasty, and second, to determine predictive factors for the risk of ACI failure as defined by the senior author. Design A total of 171 patients that underwent ACI were included to validate the ORKA-1 as all factors needed for calculation and outcomes were recorded...
August 27, 2018: Cartilage
Heath P Melugin, Vishal S Desai, Bruce A Levy, Yoshinari Tanaka, Shuji Horibe, Norimasa Nakamura, Aaron J Krych
Objective This retrospective case series describes a hybrid fixation technique and determines the clinical outcomes, knee function, and activity level of patients at short-term follow-up. Design Seventeen patients (18 knees) with unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) lesions involving the knee were treated with a hybrid fixation technique in which the salvageable fragment was fixed and osteochondral autograft transplantation system (OATS) was used for the unsalvageable fragment. Thirteen lesions involved the medial femoral condyle, 4 involved the lateral femoral condyle, and 1 involved the patella...
August 24, 2018: Cartilage
Upasana Kachroo, Abel Livingston, Elizabeth Vinod, Solomon Sathishkumar, P R J V C Boopalan
Objectives Bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and chondrocytes are currently used for cell-based therapy in cartilage repair. Chondroprogenitors (CPs), resident cells of articular cartilage, demonstrate likeness to stem cells. Reports suggest that chondrocytes phenotype is altered in culture, thus making differentiation between the two cell populations difficult. Our objectives were to electrophysiologically assess chondrocytes and CPs, compare their mRNA expression with that of ionic channels already reported in MSCs, and to observe the effect of time in culture and osteoarthritic damage on cells...
August 23, 2018: Cartilage
Candace Flynn, Mark Hurtig, Emma Lamoure, Erin Cummins, Valeria Roati, Mark Lowerison, Sang Young Jeong, Wonil Oh, Alex Zur Linden
Objective The objective of this study was to describe in life methods by which osteoarthritis can be staged in order to time therapeutic interventions that are relevant to osteoarthritis (OA) clinical trials Methods Twenty-two sheep underwent arthroscopic meniscal destabilization to induce OA. Serial computed tomography (CT) imaging and arthroscopy were used to monitor osteoarthritis progression at 3-month intervals over 9 months. Eleven sheep received 1 intra-articular injection of hyaluronate 3 months after OA induction and another group of 11 received saline...
August 6, 2018: Cartilage
John D Kisiday, John A Schwartz, Suwimol Tangtrongsup, Laurie R Goodrich, Daniel A Grande
Objective Rats are an early preclinical model for cartilage tissue engineering, and a practical species for investigating the effects of aging. However, rats may be a poor aging model for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) based on laboratory reports of a severe decline in chondrogenesis beyond young adulthood. Such testing has not been conducted with MSCs seeded in a scaffold, which can improve the propensity of MSCs to undergo chondrogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate chondrogenesis of middle-aged rat MSCs encapsulated in agarose...
July 28, 2018: Cartilage
John D King, Grant Rowland, Alejandro G Villasante Tezanos, James Warwick, Virginia B Kraus, Christian Lattermann, Cale A Jacobs
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the synovial fluid proteome following acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Design This study represents a secondary analysis of synovial fluid samples collected from the placebo group of a previous randomized trial. Arthrocentesis was performed twice on 6 patients with an isolated acute ACL tear at a mean of 6 and 14 days postinjury. Synovial fluid was analyzed by a highly multiplexed assay of 1129 proteins (SOMAscan version 3, SomaLogic, Inc...
July 1, 2018: Cartilage
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