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Christine M Pauken, Richard Heyes, David G Lott
The larynx sometimes requires repair and reconstruction due to cancer resection, trauma, stenosis, or developmental disruptions. Bioengineering has provided some scaffolding materials and initial attempts at tissue engineering, especially of the trachea, have been made. The critical issues of providing protection, maintaining a patent airway, and controlling swallowing and phonation, require that the regenerated laryngotracheal cartilages must have mechanical and material properties that closely mimic native tissue...
January 1, 2018: Cartilage
Sam Van Rossom, Mariska Wesseling, Dieter Van Assche, Ilse Jonkers
Objective Early detection of degenerative changes in the cartilage matrix composition is essential for evaluating early interventions that slow down osteoarthritis (OA) initiation. T1rho and T2 relaxation times were found to be effective for detecting early changes in proteoglycan and collagen content. To use these magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, it is important to document the topographical variation in cartilage thickness, T1rho and T2 relaxation times in a healthy population. As OA is partially mechanically driven, the relation between these MRI-based parameters and localized mechanical loading during walking was investigated...
January 1, 2018: Cartilage
Juan Manuel López-Alcorocho, Isabel Guillén-Vicente, Elena Rodríguez-Iñigo, Marta Guillén-Vicente, Tomás Fernando Fernández-Jaén, Rosa Caballero, Mercedes Casqueiro, Pilar Najarro, Steve Abelow, Pedro Guillén-García
Design In the process of cell division, the extremes of the eukaryotic chromosomes are progressively shortening, and this phenomenon is related to cell degeneration and senescence. The treatment of cartilage lesions with autologous chondrocytes implies that cells proliferate in an artificial environment. We have studied the viability of cultured chondrocytes after measurement of their telomere length before implantation. Methods Articular cartilage biopsies (B1, B2, and B3) were obtained from 3 patients (2 males and 1 female) with knee cartilage defects, who were going to be treated with chondrocyte implantation...
January 1, 2018: Cartilage
Niv Marom, Jonathan Ej Koch, Yiftah Beer, Martin Ellis, Gil Ganot, Meir Nyska, Guy Maoz, Iftach Hetsroni
Objective To test whether patients with spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK) are characterized by abnormal levels of thrombophilia-associated factors. Design Twenty-five patients with SONK were recruited. Inclusion criteria were (1) age >40 years, (2) acute onset knee pain not precipitated by trauma, and (3) MRI findings consistent with SONK. Exclusion criteria were (1) history of cancer and chemotherapy and (2) factors associated with secondary osteonecrosis. Blood tests included 13 thrombophilia-associated factors that were either heritable mutations or acquired factors...
January 1, 2018: Cartilage
Nian Wang, Farid Badar, Yang Xia
Objective To study the experimental influences to the measurement of cartilage thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design The complete thicknesses of healthy and trypsin-degraded cartilage were measured at high-resolution MRI under different conditions, using two intensity-based imaging sequences (ultra-short echo [UTE] and multislice-multiecho [MSME]) and 3 quantitative relaxation imaging sequences (T1, T2, and T1ρ). Other variables included different orientations in the magnet, 2 soaking solutions (saline and phosphate buffered saline [PBS]), and external loading...
January 1, 2018: Cartilage
Zaira S Chaudhry, Brianna Fram, R Frank Henn, Seth L Sherman, Sommer Hammoud
Objective To identify the 50 most-cited articles in meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) research and analyze their characteristics. Design In September 2017, the Scopus database was queried to identify the 50 most-cited articles in MAT research. Variables analyzed include number of citations, publication year, journal, institution, country of origin, article type, study design, and level of evidence. Citation density was calculated for each article. The correlation between citation density and publication year and the correlation between level of evidence and number of citations, citation density, and publication year were computed...
December 1, 2017: Cartilage
Yong Mao, Tyler Hoffman, Amy Wu, Joachim Kohn
Objective In vitro expansion of chondrocytes is required for cartilage tissue engineering and clinical cell-based cartilage repair practices. However, the dedifferentiation of chondrocytes during in vitro expansion continues to be a challenge. This study focuses on identifying a cell culture surface to support chondrocyte expansion with reduced dedifferentiation. Design A less adhesive culture surface, non-tissue culture treated surface (NTC), was tested for its suitability for culturing chondrocytes. The cell expansion and the expression of chondrocyte markers were monitored for at least 2 passages on NTC in comparison with conventional tissue culture treated polystyrene surface (TCP)...
December 1, 2017: Cartilage
Pramod B Voleti, Isabella T Wu, Ryan M Degen, Danielle M Tetreault, Aaron J Krych, Riley J Williams
Objective Distal femoral varus osteotomy (DFVO) is an effective treatment for unloading valgus knee malalignment; however, there is limited evidence on the ability for patients to return to athletics following this procedure. The purpose of this study is to report the functional outcomes and rate of return to sport for athletes that underwent DFVO. Design A consecutive series of athletes that had undergone DFVO were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographs were assessed to determine preoperative and postoperative alignment...
December 1, 2017: Cartilage
Takahiro Ogura, Akihiro Tsuchiya, Tom Minas, Shuichi Mizuno
Objective The effects of hydrostatic pressure (HP) on the matrix synthesis by human articular chondrocytes have been reported elsewhere. In order to optimize the production of extracellular matrix, we aimed to clarify the effects of repetitive HP on metabolic function by human articular chondrocytes. Design The human articular chondrocytes were expanded and embedded within a collagen gel/sponge scaffold. We incubated these constructs with and without HP followed by atmospheric pressure (AP) and repeated the second HP followed by AP over 14 days...
December 1, 2017: Cartilage
Audrey Neuprez, Arnaud H Neuprez, Jean-François Kaux, William Kurth, Christophe Daniel, Thierry Thirion, Jean-Pierre Huskin, Philippe Gillet, Olivier Bruyère, Jean-Yves Reginster
Objective To measure and identify the determinants of the outcomes after hip/knee arthroplasty (HA/KA) in patients with osteoarthritis during the first postsurgical year. Design In this prospective observational study, we evaluated the preoperative and postoperative (3, 6, and 12 months) outcomes of 626 patients who underwent HA (346 with median age 65 years, 59% female) or KA (280 with median age 66.5 years, 54% female) between 2008 and 2013. Generic and specific tools were used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility...
December 1, 2017: Cartilage
Tahsin Beyzadeoglu, Tuna Pehlivanoglu
Objective Inlay arthroplasty (IA) has seen growing interest as a new primary arthroplasty intervention for patients that need to transition from biology to joint replacement. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological response to this procedure. Design Patients presenting with symptomatic mono- or bicompartmental arthrosis and varus malalignment underwent IA and concurrent medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). A subset of patients required hardware removal and consented to second-look arthroscopy without biopsy allowing for assessment of IA components and compartment-specific findings related to implant fixation, cartilage flow, propagation of lesions, and opposing tibial surfaces...
December 1, 2017: Cartilage
Armin Arshi, Peter D Fabricant, Derek E Go, Riley J Williams, David R McAllister, Kristofer J Jones
Objective To perform a systematic review of clinical outcomes following microfracture augmented with biological adjuvants (MFX+) compared with microfracture (MFX) alone. Design The MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched for clinical studies on MFX+ for chondral defects of the knee. Study characteristics and clinical outcome score data were collected. Subjective synthesis was performed using data from randomized controlled studies to determine effect size of MFX+ procedures performed with either injectable or scaffold-based augmentation compared with MFX alone...
December 1, 2017: Cartilage
Danial Zarringam, Joris E J Bekkers, Daniel B F Saris
Background Orthokin is an intra-articular autologous conditioned serum (ACS). Its use might have a beneficial biological effect on pain and function of osteoarthritis in the knee. However, earlier studies lack any consensus on its clinical application and disease modifying effect. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of Orthokin injection treatment on prevention of surgical treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Patients of the previously published Orthokin cohort were contacted to determine whether any intra-articular surgical intervention or osteotomy of the study knee had taken place during the past decade...
November 1, 2017: Cartilage
Tobias Hesper, Christina Neugroda, Christoph Schleich, Gerald Antoch, Harish Hosalkar, Rüdiger Krauspe, Christoph Zilkens, Bernd Bittersohl
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of T2*-mapping for detecting acetabular cartilage damage in patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). Design A total of 29 patients (17 females, 12 males, mean age 35.6 ± 12.8 years, mean body mass index 25.1 ± 4.1 kg/m(2), 16 right hips) with symptomatic FAI underwent T2* MRI and subsequent hip arthroscopy. T2* values were obtained by region of interest analysis in seven radially reformatted planes around the femoral neck (anterior, anterior-superior, superior-anterior, superior, superior-posterior, posterior-superior, posterior)...
November 1, 2017: Cartilage
Eric J Cotter, Kevin C Wang, Adam B Yanke, Susan Chubinskaya
Objective To critically evaluate the current basic science, translational, and clinical data regarding bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) in the setting of focal cartilage defects of the knee and describe clinical indications and future research questions surrounding the clinical utility of BMAC for treatment of these lesions. Design A literature search was performed using the PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases for studies in English (1980-2017) using keywords, including ["bone marrow aspirate" and "cartilage"], ["mesenchymal stem cells" and "cartilage"], and ["bone marrow aspirate" and "mesenchymal stem cells" and "orthopedics"]...
November 1, 2017: Cartilage
Huub M de Visser, Nicoline M Korthagen, Cristina Müller, Ruud M Ramakers, Gerard C Krijger, Floris P J G Lafeber, Freek J Beekman, Simon C Mastbergen, Harrie Weinans
Objective To evaluate the presence and localization of folate receptor expressing macrophages in the rat groove model of osteoarthritis and determine the suitability of a new folate conjugate with albumin-binding entity (cm09) for in vivo SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) analysis. Design In male Wistar rats, local cartilage damage was induced in addition to a standard ( n = 10) or high-fat diet ( n = 6). After 12 weeks, (111)In labeled folate conjugates were administered, and SPECT/CT (computed tomography) imaging was performed after 24 hours...
November 1, 2017: Cartilage
Natalie R Danna, Bryan G Beutel, Austin J Ramme, Thorsten Kirsch, Oran D Kennedy, Eric Strauss
Objective Focal chondral defects alter joint mechanics and cause pain and debilitation. Microfracture is a surgical technique used to treat such defects. This technique involves penetration of subchondral bone to release progenitor cells and growth factors from the marrow to promote cartilage regeneration. Often this results in fibrocartilage formation rather than structured hyaline cartilage. Some reports have suggested use of growth hormone (GH) with microfracture to augment cartilage regeneration. Our objective was to test whether intra-articular (IA) GH in conjunction with microfracture, improves cartilage repair in a rabbit chondral defect model...
January 2018: Cartilage
Lorena Gabriela Rocha Ribeiro, Juneo Freitas Silva, Natália de Melo Ocarino, Cíntia Almeida de Souza, Eliane Gonçalves de Melo, Rogéria Serakides
Objective The aim of this study was to unravel the mechanisms by which thyroxine affects skeletal growth by evaluating proliferative activity and angiogenic profile of growth cartilage of neonatal and weanling rats. Methods Sixteen adult Wistar rats were equally divided into 2 groups: control and treated with thyroxine during pregnancy and lactation. The weight, measurement of plasma free T4 and thyroids, femurs' histomorphometric analysis, and proliferative activity and angiogenic profile by immunohistochemical or real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in growth cartilage was performed...
January 2018: Cartilage
Yuriyo Matsui, Masahiro Hasegawa, Takahiro Iino, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Toshimichi Yoshida, Akihiro Sudo
Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether intra-articular injections of tenascin-C (TNC) could prevent cartilage damage in murine models of osteoarthritis (OA). Design Fluorescently labeled TNC was injected into knee joints and its distribution was examined at 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks postinjection. To investigate the effects of TNC on cartilage degeneration after surgery to knee joints, articular spaces were filled with 100 μg/mL (group I), 10 μg/mL (group II) of TNC solution, or control (group III)...
January 2018: Cartilage
Kenji Takahashi, Hiroshi Nakamura, Hitoshi Ozawa, Sanshiro Hashimoto, Norio Iijima, Shimpei Higo, Hiroshi Watanabe, Yusuke Mochizuki, Shinro Takai
Objective Autophagy was reported to be essential for maintaining chondrocyte function, and reduced autophagy leads to osteoarthritis (OA). Previous studies showed involvement of heat shock stress in the control of autophagy in cells. This study sought to investigate the effect of hyperthermia on the expression of autophagy-related proteins in articular cartilage and the progression of naturally occurring OA in Hartley guinea pigs. Design Radiofrequency pulses of 13.56 MHz were applied to the animals' knees for 20 minutes to induce hyperthermia...
January 2018: Cartilage
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