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Michael B Schultz
Whether one kind of mindfulness applies to all situations or only some (i.e., scope) is controversial. Eating may not be an everyday behavior subsumed under everyday mindfulness. To rigorously test the efficacy of mindfulness-based weight loss interventions, researchers must use scales that measure the type of mindfulness manipulated by the intervention. The mixed findings of mindfulness-based weight loss intervention studies may be related to the lack of conceptual congruence (i.e., the pairing of interventions and measures of the same scope)...
August 2018: Mindfulness
Amanda J Shallcross, Tanya M Spruill
This study examined the potential buffering role of trait mindfulness in the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in a community-based sample of racial and ethnic minority adults. Analyses conducted on 97 participants indicated that self-reported trait mindfulness moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Individuals low in mindfulness experienced elevated depressive symptoms at high levels of discrimination. However, individuals high in mindfulness reported lower depressive symptoms at high levels of discrimination...
August 2018: Mindfulness
Christina M Luberto, Nina Shinday, Rhayun Song, Lisa L Philpotts, Elyse R Park, Gregory L Fricchione, Gloria Y Yeh
Increased attention has focused on methods to increase empathy, compassion, and pro-social behavior. Meditation practices have traditionally been used to cultivate pro-social outcomes, and recently investigations have sought to evaluate their efficacy for these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of meditation for pro-social emotions and behavior. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and Cochrane databases (inception-April 2016) using the search terms: mindfulness, meditation, mind-body therapies, tai chi, yoga, MBSR, MBCT, empathy, compassion, love, altruism, sympathy, or kindness...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Tracy-Leigh McIntyre, Diane Elkonin, Margo de Kooker, Jessica F Magidson
Despite the recent growth of mindfulness research worldwide, there remains little research examining the application of mindfulness-based interventions in resource-limited, international settings. This study examined the application of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for HIV-infected individuals in South Africa, where rates of HIV are highest in the world. Mixed methods were used to examine the following over a three-month follow up: (1) feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary adaptation of MBSR for this new context; and (2) effects of MBSR on immune functioning, self-reported mindfulness (MAAS, FFMQ), depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21)...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Christina M Luberto, Elyse R Park, Janice H Goodman
Anxiety is common during pregnancy and associated with poorer outcomes for mother and child. Our single-arm pilot study of an eight-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) intervention for pregnant women with elevated anxiety showed significant pre- to post-intervention improvements in anxiety, depression, worry, mindfulness, and self-compassion. It remains unclear whether these improvements are maintained post-partum and whether amount of formal mindfulness practice is correlated with outcomes. The current study examined whether 1) improvements in psychosocial outcomes were maintained three months postpartum; 2) women were adherent to formal practice recommendations; and 3) amount of mindfulness practice was correlated with outcomes...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Na Zhang, Jessie H Rudi, Osnat Zamir, Abigail H Gewirtz
Mindfulness has drawn increased attention in prevention programs targeting parents. Commonly, mindfulness-based programs are provided to reduce parental stress and improve child outcomes. Less often, researchers incorporate a mindfulness-informed approach, integrating a low dose of mindfulness exercises into an existing evidence-based parent training model. Little is known about participant engagement with mindfulness exercises in such programs. This non-experimental study focuses on families who are at risk for impaired parenting due to the unique stressor of a parent's deployment to war...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Adam W Hanley, Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
Relationships between dispositional mindfulness and the personality metatraits, stability and plasticity, remain unexplored despite continued efforts to more accurately characterize associations between dispositional mindfulness and personality. The metatraits are theorized to constitute basic requirements for biological survival and their expression is believed to be a strong determinant of well-being. As such, this study used path analysis to explore associations between dispositional mindfulness, the metatraits and psychological well-being in a sample of 403 American adults...
June 2018: Mindfulness
Jeffrey Proulx, Raina Croff, Barry Oken, Carolyn M Aldwin, Crystal Fleming, Dessa Bergen-Cico, Thao Le, Misbah Noorani
As many health disparities in American minority communities (AMCs) are stress-related, there has been an increased interest in the development of mindfulness programs as potential stress reduction measures in these communities. However, the bulk of the extant literature on mindfulness research and mindfulness interventions is based upon experiences with the larger White community. The intent of this commentary is to share a framework that includes key cultural considerations for conducting research and developing culturally-salient mindfulness programs with AMCs...
April 2018: Mindfulness
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Michelle L Kelley
Previous research on trait mindfulness facets using person-centered analyses (e.g., latent profile analysis [LPA]) has identified four distinct mindfulness profiles among college students: a high mindfulness group (high on all facets of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire [FFMQ]), a judgmentally observing group (highest on observing, but low on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness), a non-judgmentally aware group (high on non-judging of inner experience and acting with awareness, but very low on observing), and a low mindfulness group (low on all facets of the FFMQ)...
February 2018: Mindfulness
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Adam D Wilson, Katie Witkiewitz
Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs...
February 2018: Mindfulness
Lise Juul, Karen Johanne Pallesen, Jacob Piet, Christine Parsons, Lone Overby Fjorback
We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) when implemented in a community setting as a self-referred and self-paid course. Pre-post changes and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for questionnaire measures of mindfulness, perceived stress, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. We compared these effect sizes with those from intervention groups in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), with populations similar to our study sample. These RCTs reported significant effects of MBSR compared to control condition...
2018: Mindfulness
Jenny Gu, Kate Cavanagh, Clara Strauss
Previous research examining the effects of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) and their mechanisms of change has been hampered by failure to control for non-specific factors, such as social support and interaction with group members, facilitator contact and expectation of benefit, meaning that it remained possible that benefits of MBIs could have been attributable, perhaps entirely, to non-specific elements. This experimental study examined the effects of a 2-week online mindfulness-based self-help (MBSH) intervention compared to a well-matched classical music control condition and a waitlist control condition on perceived stress...
2018: Mindfulness
Kate Cavanagh, Alasdair Churchard, Puffin O'Hanlon, Thomas Mundy, Phoebe Votolato, Fergal Jones, Jenny Gu, Clara Strauss
Building on previous research, this study compared the effects of two brief, online mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs; with and without formal meditation practice) and a no intervention control group in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and fifty-five university staff and students were randomly allocated to a 2-week, self-guided, online MBI with or without mindfulness meditation practice, or a wait list control. Measures of mindfulness, perceived stress, perseverative thinking and anxiety/depression symptoms within were administered before and after the intervention period...
2018: Mindfulness
Lisa-Marie Emerson, Connor Heapy, Gemma Garcia-Soriano
Obsessive intrusive thoughts (OITs) are experienced by the majority of the general population, and in their more extreme forms are characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These cognitions are said to exist on a continuum that includes differences in their frequency and associated distress. The key factors that contribute to an increased frequency and distress are how the individual appraises and responds to the OIT. Facets of mindfulness, such as nonjudgment and nonreactivity, offer an alternative approach to OITs than the negative appraisals and commonly utilised control strategies that often contribute to distress...
2018: Mindfulness
Sunjeev K Kamboj, Ylva S E Walldén, Caroline J Falconer, Majdah Raji Alotaibi, Ian S Blagbrough, Stephen M Husbands, Tom P Freeman
3,4-Methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA;'ecstasy') produces prosocial subjective effects that may extend to affiliative feelings towards the self . Behavioural techniques can produce similar self-directed affiliation. For example, compassionate imagery (CI) and ecstasy reduce self-criticism and increase self-compassion to a similar extent, with the effects of CI enhanced in the presence of ecstasy. Here, we examine self-compassion and self-criticism in recreational users who consumed chemically verified MDMA in a within-subjects crossover study...
2018: Mindfulness
Daniel N Racey, Jerry Fox, Vashti L Berry, Kelly V Blockley, Rachel A Longridge, Jennifer L Simmons, Astrid Janssens, Willem Kuyken, Tamsin J Ford
We aimed to evaluate whether mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was feasible and acceptable for young people, their parents and the clinicians working with them; whether a parallel course for parents was a useful addition; and whether attendance at MBCT was associated with improved outcomes. The design was a mixed-method service evaluation of an eight-session MBCT programme for young people who were recovering from depression. The course was a manualised eight-session group intervention. Both young people ( n  = 18) and parents ( n  = 21) completed validated measures before and after the course...
2018: Mindfulness
Imogen C Marsh, Stella W Y Chan, Angus MacBeth
Research indicates that self-compassion is relevant to adolescents' psychological well-being, and may inform the development of mental health and well-being interventions for youth. This meta-analysis synthesises the existing literature to estimate the magnitude of effect for the association between self-compassion and psychological distress in adolescents. Our search identified 19 relevant studies of adolescents (10-19 years; N  = 7049) for inclusion. A large effect size was found for an inverse relationship between self-compassion and psychological distress indexed by anxiety, depression, and stress ( r  = - 0...
2018: Mindfulness
Moitree Banerjee, Kate Cavanagh, Clara Strauss
Little is known about the factors associated with engagement in mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). Moreover, engagement in MBIs is usually defined in terms of class attendance ('physical engagement') only. However, in the psychotherapy literature, there is increasing emphasis on measuring participants' involvement with interventions ('psychological engagement'). This study tests a model that rumination and worry act as barriers to physical and psychological engagement in MBIs and that this in turn impedes learning mindfulness...
2018: Mindfulness
Kate Mackintosh, Kevin Power, Matthias Schwannauer, Stella W Y Chan
Self-compassion has been consistently linked to psychological well-being. The ability to be self-compassionate may be shaped by early attachment experiences and associated with interpersonal difficulties. However, evidence has yet to be extended to clinical populations. This study examined the role of self-compassion and its relationship with attachment and interpersonal problems in clinical patients with anxiety and depression. Participants ( N  = 74; 60% female, mean age 40 years) were recruited from a primary care psychological therapies service in Scotland, UK...
2018: Mindfulness
Kirsty James, Katharine A Rimes
This pilot study compared mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) with a self-help guide based on cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for university students experiencing difficulties due to perfectionism. Participants were randomised to an MBCT intervention specifically tailored for perfectionism or pure CBT self-help. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, 8 weeks later (corresponding to the end of MBCT) and at 10-week follow-up. Post-intervention intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses identified that MBCT participants ( n  = 28) had significantly lower levels of perfectionism and stress than self-help participants ( n  = 32)...
2018: Mindfulness
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