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Melissa L Knothe Tate, Peter W Gunning, Vittorio Sansalone
Stem cell "mechanomics" refers to the effect of mechanical cues on stem cell and matrix biology, where cell shape and fate are intrinsic manifestations of form and function. Before specialization, the stem cell itself serves as a sensor and actuator; its structure emerges from its local mechanical milieu as the cell adapts over time. Coupling of novel spatiotemporal imaging and computational methods allows for linking of the energy of adaptation to the structure, biology and mechanical function of the cell...
October 14, 2016: Bioarchitecture
Caroline Uhler, G V Shivashankar
Cell geometry is tightly coupled to gene expression patterns within the tissue microenvironment. This perspective synthesizes evidence that the 3D organization of chromosomes is a critical intermediate for geometric control of genomic programs. Using a combination of experiments and modeling we outline approaches to decipher the mechano-genomic code that governs cellular homeostasis and reprogramming.
July 3, 2016: Bioarchitecture
Miro Janco, Teresa T Bonello, Alex Byun, Adelle C F Coster, Helene Lebhar, Irina Dedova, Peter W Gunning, Till Böcking
Tropomyosin (Tpm) is an α helical coiled-coil dimer that forms a co-polymer along the actin filament. Tpm is involved in the regulation of actin's interaction with binding proteins as well as stabilization of the actin filament and its assembly kinetics. Recent studies show that multiple Tpm isoforms also define the functional properties of distinct actin filament populations within a cell. Subtle structural variations within well conserved Tpm isoforms are the key to their functional specificity. Therefore, we purified and characterized a comprehensive set of 8 Tpm isoforms (Tpm1...
July 3, 2016: Bioarchitecture
Irina B Alieva, Rustem E Uzbekov
The centrosome is a key component of the cell is involved in the processes of cell division, cell motility, intracellular transport, organization of the microtubules (MT) network and the production of cilia and flagella. The peculiarity of this organelle is that its boundaries are not clearly defined, the centrioles at the center of the centrosome are surrounded by electron dense pericentriolar material, the size and protein composition of this centrosome component experiences significant transformation during the cell cycle...
May 3, 2016: Bioarchitecture
E Emily Joo, Kenneth M Yamada
Cellular cytoskeletal systems play many pivotal roles in living organisms by controlling cell shape, division, and migration, which ultimately govern morphology, physiology, and functions of animals. Although the cytoskeletal systems are distinct and play different roles, there is growing evidence that these diverse cytoskeletal systems coordinate their functions with each other. This coordination between cytoskeletal systems, often termed cytoskeletal crosstalk, has been identified when the dynamic state of one individual system affects the other system...
May 3, 2016: Bioarchitecture
Ponugoti Vasantha Rao, Rupalatha Maddala
The ankyrins are a family of well-characterized metazoan adaptor proteins that play a key role in linking various membrane-spanning proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton; a mechanistic understanding of their role in tissue architecture and mechanics, however, remains elusive. Here we comment on a recent study demonstrating a key role for ankyrin-B in maintaining the hexagonal shape and radial alignment of ocular lens fiber cells by regulating the membrane organization of periaxin, dystrophins/dystroglycan, NrCAM and spectrin-actin network of proteins, and revealing that ankyrin-B deficiency impairs fiber cell shape and mechanical properties of the ocular lens...
2016: Bioarchitecture
Sofia Moreira, Eurico Morais-de-Sá
Intracellular asymmetries, often termed cell polarity, determine how cells organize and divide to ultimately control cell fate and shape animal tissues. The tumor suppressor Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) functions at the core of the evolutionarily conserved cell polarity machinery that controls apico-basal polarization. This function relies on its restricted basolateral localization via phosphorylation by aPKC. Here, we summarize the spatial and temporal control of Lgl during the cell cycle, highlighting two ideas that emerged from our recent findings: 1) Aurora A directly phosphorylates Lgl during symmetric division to couple reorganization of epithelial polarity with the cell cycle; 2) Phosphorylation of Lgl within three conserved serines controls its localization and function in a site-specific manner...
2016: Bioarchitecture
Struan C Murray, Jane Mellor
Non-coding transcription across the antisense strands of genes is an abundant, pervasive process in eukaryotes from yeast to humans, however its biological function remains elusive. Here, we provide commentary on a recent study of ours, which demonstrates a genome-wide role for antisense transcription: establishing a unique, dynamic chromatin architecture over genes. Antisense transcription increases the level of nucleosome occupancy and histone acetylation at the promoter and body of genes, without necessarily modulating the level of protein-coding sense transcription...
2016: Bioarchitecture
Riddhi Atul Jani, Sarmistha Mahanty, Subba Rao Gangi Setty
The early/recycling endosomes of an eukaryotic cell perform diverse cellular functions. In addition, the endosomal system generates multiple organelles, including certain cell type-specific organelles called lysosome-related organelles (LROs). The biosynthesis of these organelles possibly occurs through a sequential maturation process in which the cargo-containing endosomal vesicular/tubular structures are fused with the maturing organelle. The molecular machinery that regulates the cargo delivery or the membrane fusion during LRO biogenesis is poorly understood...
2016: Bioarchitecture
Harriet P Lo, Thomas E Hall, Robert G Parton
Caveolae, small bulb-like pits, are the most abundant surface feature of many vertebrate cell types. The relationship of the structure of caveolae to their function has been a subject of considerable scientific interest in view of the association of caveolar dysfunction with human disease. In a recent study Lo et al. (1) investigated the organization and function of caveolae in skeletal muscle. Using quantitative 3D electron microscopy caveolae were shown to be predominantly organized into multilobed structures which provide a large reservoir of surface-connected membrane underlying the sarcolemma...
2016: Bioarchitecture
Yosuke Senju, Shiro Suetsugu
Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane. The BAR domain proteins form crescent-shaped dimers, and their oligomeric filaments are considered to form spirals at the necks of invaginations, such as clathrin-coated pits and caveolae. PACSIN2/Syndapin II is one of the BAR domain-containing proteins, and is localized at the necks of caveolae. PACSIN2 is thought to function in the scission and stabilization of caveolae, through binding to dynamin-2 and EHD2, respectively. These two functions are considered to be switched by PACSIN2 phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) upon hypotonic stress and sheer stress...
2015: Bioarchitecture
Dion D Richardson, Mar Fernandez-Borja
Leukocyte traffic out of the blood stream is crucial for an adequate immune response. Leukocyte extravasation is critically dependent on the binding of leukocyte integrins to their endothelial counterreceptors. This interaction enables the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the luminal side of the vascular wall and allows for leukocyte polarization, crawling and diapedesis. Leukocyte adhesion, polarization and migration requires the orchestrated regulation of integrin adhesion/de-adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements...
2015: Bioarchitecture
George Galea, Jeremy C Simpson
The Rab family of small GTPases play fundamental roles in the regulation of trafficking pathways between intracellular membranes in eukaryotic cells. In this short commentary we highlight a recent high-content screening study that investigates the roles of Rab proteins in retrograde trafficking from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum, and we discuss how the findings of this work and other literature might influence our thoughts on how the architecture of the Golgi complex is regulated.
2015: Bioarchitecture
Shuoshuo Wang, Talila Volk
Contractile muscle fibers produce enormous intrinsic forces during contraction/relaxation waves. These forces are directly applied to their cytoplasmic organelles including mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and multiple nuclei. Data from our analysis of Drosophila larval somatic muscle fibers suggest that an intricate network of organized microtubules (MT) intermingled with Spectrin-Repeat-Containing Proteins (SRCPs) are major structural elements that protect muscle organelles and maintain their structure and position during muscle contraction...
2015: Bioarchitecture
Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) regulates differentiation and functioning of neurons by accumulating at the cell surface where it mediates the interactions of neurons with the extracellular environment. NCAM also induces a number of intracellular signaling cascades, which coordinate interactions at the cell surface with intracellular processes including changes in gene expression, transport and cytoskeleton remodeling. Since NCAM functions at the cell surface, its transport and delivery to the cell surface play a critical role...
2015: Bioarchitecture
Donghoon M Lee, Tony J C Harris
Plasma membrane organization is under the control of cytoskeletal networks and endocytic mechanisms, and a growing literature is showing how closely these influences are interconnected. Here, we review how plasma membranes are formed around individual nuclei of the syncytial Drosophila embryo. Specifically, we outline the pathways that promote and maintain the growth of pseudocleavage and cellularization furrows, as well as specific pathways that keep furrow growth in check. This system has become important for studies of actin regulators, such as Rho1, Diaphanous, non-muscle myosin II and Arp2/3, and endocytic regulators, such as a cytohesin Arf-GEF (Steppke), clathrin, Amphiphysin and dynamin...
March 2014: Bioarchitecture
Leif Dehmelt
Self-organization of dynamic microtubules via interactions with associated motors plays a critical role in spindle formation. The microtubule-based mechanisms underlying other aspects of cellular morphogenesis, such as the formation and development of protrusions from neuronal cells is less well understood. In a recent study, we investigated the molecular mechanism that underlies the massive reorganization of microtubules induced in non-neuronal cells by expression of the neuronal microtubule stabilizer MAP2c...
March 2014: Bioarchitecture
Lauren Figard, Anna Marie Sokac
Cell surface expansion is a necessary part of cell shape change. One long-standing hypothesis proposes that membrane for this expansion comes from the flattening out of cell surface projections such as microvilli and membrane folds. Correlative EM data of cells undergoing phagocytosis, cytokinesis, and morphogenesis has hinted at the existence of such an unfolding mechanism for decades; but unfolding has only recently been confirmed using live-cell imaging and biophysical approaches. Considering the wide range of cells in which plasma membrane unfolding has now been reported, it likely represents a fundamental mechanism of cell shape change...
March 2014: Bioarchitecture
Christiaan L Slim, Sven C D van IJzendoorn, Francisco Lázaro-Diéguez, Anne Müsch
Columnar epithelia (e.g., kidney, intestine) and hepatocytes embody the two major organizational phenotypes of non-stratified epithelial cells. Columnar epithelia establish their apical and basal domains at opposing poles and organize in monolayered cysts and tubules, in which their apical surfaces form a single continuous lumen whereas hepatocytes establish their apical domains in the midst of their basolateral domains and organize a highly branched capillary luminal network, the bile canaliculi, in which a single hepatocyte can engage in lumen formation with multiple neighbors...
March 2014: Bioarchitecture
Kristine Schauer, Bruno Goud
Eukaryotic cells display an asymmetric distribution of cellular compartments relying on their adhesion and the underlying anisotropy of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Studies using a minimal cell culture system based on confined adhesion on micropatterns have illustrated that trafficking compartments are well organized at the single cell level in response to the geometry of cellular adhesion cues. Expanding our analysis on cellular uptake processes, we have found that cellular adhesion additionally defines the topology of endocytosis and signaling...
March 2014: Bioarchitecture
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