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Roni H G Wright, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Baldomero Oliva, Miguel Beato
The packaging of genetic information in form of chromatin within the nucleus provides cells with the ability to store and protect massive amounts of information within a compact space. Storing information within chromatin allows selective access to specific DNA sequences by regulating the various levels of chromatin structure from nucleosomes, to chromatin fibers, loops and topological associating domains (TADs) using mechanisms that are being progressively unravelled. However, a relatively unexplored aspect is the energetic cost of changing the chromatin configuration to gain access to DNA information...
November 28, 2016: Nucleus
Francesco Romeo, Lucia Falbo, Vincenzo Costanzo
Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication...
November 28, 2016: Nucleus
Marco Pasi, Dimitar Angelov, Jan Bednar, Stefan Dimitrov, Richard Lavery
It has been shown experimentally that the action of the RSC chromatin remodeler leads to the formation of an irregular, partially remodeled nucleosome, termed a remosome. The remosome contains an extra 30-40 base pairs of DNA compared to a canonical nucleosome. Large-scale molecular simulations have provided information on the probable structure of remosomes and have explained why they remain stable in the absence of RSC. Here we explain how these simulations were carried out and what the resulting remosome models imply in terms of the mechanism of action of RSC...
November 22, 2016: Nucleus
Yu Nishioka, Hiromasa Imaizumi, Junko Imada, Jun Katahira, Nariaki Matsuura, Miki Hieda
The LINC complex is a multifunctional protein complex that is involved in various processes at the nuclear envelope, such as nuclear migration, mechanotransduction and chromatin tethering in the meiotic phase. However, it remains unknown how these functions are regulated in different cell contexts. An inner nuclear membrane component of the LINC complex, SUN1, is ubiquitously expressed. The human SUN1 gene produces over 10 variants by alternative splicing. Although functions of SUN1 are relatively well characterized, functional differences among SUN1 splice variants are poorly characterized...
November 18, 2016: Nucleus
Quasar S Padiath
Autosomal Dominant Leukodystrophy (ADLD), a fatal adult onset demyelinating disorder, is the only human disease that has been linked to mutations of the nuclear lamina protein, lamin B1, and is primarily caused by duplications of the LMNB1 gene. Why CNS myelin is specifically targeted and the mechanisms underlying ADLD are unclear. Recent work from our group has demonstrated that over expression of lamin B1 in oligodendrocytes, the myelin producing cells in the CNS, resulted in age dependent epigenetic modifications, transcriptional down-regulation of lipogenic gene expression and significant reductions of myelin-enriched lipids...
November 17, 2016: Nucleus
Nicolas Blavet, Jana Uřinovská, Hana Jeřábková, Ivo Chamrád, Jan Vrána, René Lenobel, Jana Beinhauer, Marek Šebela, Jaroslav Doležel, Beáta Petrovská
Proteins are the most abundant component of the cell nucleus, where they perform a plethora of functions, including the assembly of long DNA molecules into condensed chromatin, DNA replication and repair, regulation of gene expression, synthesis of RNA molecules and their modification. Proteins are important components of nuclear bodies and are involved in the maintenance of the nuclear architecture, transport across the nuclear envelope and cell division. Given their importance, the current poor knowledge of plant nuclear proteins and their dynamics during the cell's life and division is striking...
November 4, 2016: Nucleus
Marie Morimoto, Kunho Choi, Cornelius F Boerkoel, Kyoung Sang Cho
Mutations in SMARCAL1, which encodes a DNA annealing helicase with roles in DNA replication fork restart, DNA repair, and gene expression modulation, cause Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia, renal disease, T-cell immunodeficiency, and arteriosclerosis. The clinical features of SIOD arise from pathological changes in gene expression; however, the underlying mechanism for these gene expression alterations remains unclear. We hypothesized that changes of the epigenome alter gene expression in SIOD...
November 4, 2016: Nucleus
Sigurd Braun, Ramón Ramos Barrales
The nuclear envelope plays a pivotal role in the functional organization of chromatin. Various inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins associate with transcriptionally repressed chromatin, which is often found at the nuclear periphery. A prominent example is the conserved family of LEM (LAP2-Emerin-MAN1) domain proteins that interact with DNA-binding proteins and have been proposed to mediate tethering of chromatin to the nuclear membrane. We recently reported that the fission yeast protein Lem2, a homolog of metazoan LEM proteins, contributes to perinuclear localization and silencing of heterochromatin...
October 31, 2016: Nucleus
Marek Mateusz Drozdz, David John Vaux
The mammalian nuclear envelope (NE) can develop complex dynamic membrane-bounded invaginations in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli. Since the formation of these nucleoplasmic reticulum (NR) structures can occur during interphase, without mitotic NE breakdown and reassembly, some other mechanism must drive their development. Here we consider models for deformation of the interphase NE, together with the evidence for their potential roles in NR formation.
October 31, 2016: Nucleus
Clara Lopes Novo, Peter J Rugg-Gunn
Pluripotent cells are characterized by a globally open and accessible chromatin organization that is thought to contribute to cellular plasticity and developmental decision-making. We recently identified the pluripotency factor Nanog as a key regulator of this form of chromatin architecture in mouse embryonic stem cells. In particular, we demonstrated that the transcription factors Nanog and Sall1 co-dependently mediate the epigenetic state of pericentromeric heterochromatin to reinforce a more open and accessible organization in pluripotent cells...
October 19, 2016: Nucleus
Stephen D Thorpe, Myriam Charpentier
The last decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of the proteins of the nuclear envelope, which have multiple roles including positioning the nucleus, maintaining its structural organisation, and in events ranging from mitosis and meiosis to chromatin positioning and gene expression. Diverse new and stimulating results relating to nuclear organisation and genome function from across kingdoms were presented in a session stream entitled "Dynamic Organisation of the Nucleus" at this year's Society of Experimental Biology (SEB) meeting in Brighton, UK (July 2016)...
October 7, 2016: Nucleus
Andrew M Cobb, Thomas V Murray, Derek T Warren, Yiwen Liu, Catherine M Shanahan
The accumulation of prelamin A is linked to disruption of cellular homeostasis, tissue degeneration and ageing. Its expression is implicated in compromised genome stability and increased levels of DNA damage, but to date there is no complete explanation for how prelamin A exerts its toxic effects. As the nuclear lamina is important for DNA replication we wanted to investigate the relationship between prelamin A expression and DNA replication fork stability. In this study we report that the expression of prelamin A in U2OS cells induced both mono-ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and subsequent induction of Pol η, two hallmarks of DNA replication fork stalling...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Elisabeth Schmidtmann, Tobias Anton, Pascaline Rombaut, Franz Herzog, Heinrich Leonhardt
Chromatin structure and function are determined by a plethora of proteins whose genome-wide distribution is typically assessed by immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Here, we developed a novel tool to investigate the local chromatin environment at specific DNA sequences. We combined the programmable DNA binding of dCas9 with the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA* (CasID) to biotinylate proteins in the direct vicinity of specific loci. Subsequent streptavidin-mediated precipitation and mass spectrometry identified both known and previously unknown chromatin factors associated with repetitive telomeric, major satellite and minor satellite DNA...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Noam Zuela, Jehudith Dorfman, Yosef Gruenbaum
There are numerous heritable diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene. Most of these laminopathic diseases, including several muscular dystrophies, are autosomal dominant and have tissue-specific phenotypes. Our previous studies have shown that the globally expressed Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD)-linked lamin mutation, L535P, disrupts nuclear mechanical response specifically in muscle nuclei of C. elegans leading to atrophy of the body muscle cells and to reduced motility. Here we used RNA sequencing to analyze the global changes in gene expression caused by the L535P EDMD lamin mutation in order to gain better understanding of disease mechanisms and the correlation between transcription and phenotype...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Elsie Jacobson, Jo K Perry, David S Long, Mark H Vickers, Justin M O'Sullivan
Immune cells react to a wide range of environments, both chemical and physical. While the former has been extensively studied, there is growing evidence that physical and in particular mechanical forces also affect immune cell behavior and development. In order to elicit a response that affects immune cell behavior or development, environmental signals must often reach the nucleus. Chemical and mechanical signals can initiate signal transduction pathways, but mechanical forces may also have a more direct route to the nucleus, altering nuclear shape via mechanotransduction...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Christina Li, Alexander Goryaynov, Weidong Yang
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates the shuttle transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. The permeability barrier formed by intrinsically disordered phenylalanine-glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups) in the NPC functions as the critical selective control for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Signal-independent small molecules (< 40 kDa) passively diffuse through the pore, but passage of large cargo molecules is inhibited unless they are chaperoned by nuclear transport receptors (NTRs)...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Claire Picart, Frédéric Pontvianne
The nucleolus forms as a consequence of ribosome biogenesis, but it is also implicated in other cell functions. The identification of nucleolus-associated chromatin domains (NADs) in animal and plant cells revealed the presence of DNA sequences other than rRNA genes in and around the nucleolus. NADs display repressive chromatin signatures and harbour repetitive DNA, but also tRNA genes and RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Furthermore, the identification of NADs revealed a specific function of the nucleolus and the protein Nucleolin 1 (NUC1) in telomere biology...
September 20, 2016: Nucleus
Axel Poulet, Aline V Probst, Katja Graumann, Christophe Tatout, David E Evans
In this study, we explore the plasticity during evolution of proteins of the higher plant nuclear envelope (NE) from the most ancestral plant species to advanced angiosperms. The higher plant NE contains a functional Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex based on conserved Sad1-Unc84 (SUN) domain proteins and plant specific Klarsicht/Anc1/Syne homology (KASH) domain proteins. Recent evidence suggests the presence of a plant lamina underneath the inner membrane and various coiled-coil proteins have been hypothesised to be associated with it including Crowded Nuclei (CRWN; also termed LINC and NMCP), Nuclear Envelope Associated Protein (NEAP) protein families as well as the CRWN binding protein KAKU4...
September 19, 2016: Nucleus
Yiping Tu, Sofía Sánchez-Iglesias, David Araújo-Vilar, Loren G Fong, Stephen G Young
A variety of missense mutations in LMNA (the gene for lamin C and prelamin A) cause familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), a disease associated with reduced adipose tissue, particularly in the limbs. Several studies have reported that fibroblasts from FPLD subjects have an accumulation of prelamin A. Those findings were intriguing but also perplexing because many of the LMNA missense mutations associated with lipodystrophy are located in sequences distant from the sequences required for the farnesylation of prelamin A and ZMPSTE24-mediated conversion of prelamin A to mature lamin A...
September 2, 2016: Nucleus
C A Brackley, D Michieletto, F Mouvet, J Johnson, S Kelly, P R Cook, D Marenduzzo
We discuss a polymer model for the 3D organization of human chromosomes. A chromosome is represented by a string of beads, with each bead being "colored" according to 1D bioinformatic data (e.g., chromatin state, histone modification, GC content). Individual spheres (representing bi- and multi-valent transcription factors) can bind reversibly and selectively to beads with the appropriate color. During molecular dynamics simulations, the factors bind, and the string spontaneously folds into loops, rosettes, and topologically-associating domains (TADs)...
September 2, 2016: Nucleus
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