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Clara Lopes Novo, Peter J Rugg-Gunn
Pluripotent cells are characterized by a globally open and accessible chromatin organization that is thought to contribute to cellular plasticity and developmental decision-making. We recently identified the pluripotency factor Nanog as a key regulator of this form of chromatin architecture in mouse embryonic stem cells. In particular, we demonstrated that the transcription factors Nanog and Sall1 co-dependently mediate the epigenetic state of pericentromeric heterochromatin to reinforce a more open and accessible organization in pluripotent cells...
October 19, 2016: Nucleus
Stephen D Thorpe, Myriam Charpentier
The last decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of the proteins of the nuclear envelope, which have multiple roles including positioning the nucleus, maintaining its structural organisation, and in events ranging from mitosis and meiosis to chromatin positioning and gene expression. Diverse new and stimulating results relating to nuclear organisation and genome function from across kingdoms were presented in a session stream entitled "Dynamic Organisation of the Nucleus" at this year's Society of Experimental Biology (SEB) meeting in Brighton, UK (July 2016)...
October 7, 2016: Nucleus
Andrew M Cobb, Thomas V Murray, Derek T Warren, Yiwen Liu, Catherine M Shanahan
The accumulation of prelamin A is linked to disruption of cellular homeostasis, tissue degeneration and ageing. Its expression is implicated in compromised genome stability and increased levels of DNA damage, but to date there is no complete explanation for how prelamin A exerts its toxic effects. As the nuclear lamina is important for DNA replication we wanted to investigate the relationship between prelamin A expression and DNA replication fork stability. In this study we report that the expression of prelamin A in U2OS cells induced both mono-ubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and subsequent induction of Pol η, two hallmarks of DNA replication fork stalling...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Elisabeth Schmidtmann, Tobias Anton, Pascaline Rombaut, Franz Herzog, Heinrich Leonhardt
Chromatin structure and function are determined by a plethora of proteins whose genome-wide distribution is typically assessed by immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Here, we developed a novel tool to investigate the local chromatin environment at specific DNA sequences. We combined the programmable DNA binding of dCas9 with the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA* (CasID) to biotinylate proteins in the direct vicinity of specific loci. Subsequent streptavidin-mediated precipitation and mass spectrometry identified both known and previously unknown chromatin factors associated with repetitive telomeric, major satellite and minor satellite DNA...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Noam Zuela, Jehudith Dorfman, Yosef Gruenbaum
There are numerous heritable diseases associated with mutations in the LMNA gene. Most of these laminopathic diseases, including several muscular dystrophies, are autosomal dominant and have tissue-specific phenotypes. Our previous studies have shown that the globally expressed Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD)-linked lamin mutation, L535P, disrupts nuclear mechanical response specifically in muscle nuclei of C. elegans leading to atrophy of the body muscle cells and to reduced motility. Here we used RNA sequencing to analyze the global changes in gene expression caused by the L535P EDMD lamin mutation in order to gain better understanding of disease mechanisms and the correlation between transcription and phenotype...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Elsie Jacobson, Jo K Perry, David S Long, Mark H Vickers, Justin M O'Sullivan
Immune cells react to a wide range of environments, both chemical and physical. While the former has been extensively studied, there is growing evidence that physical and in particular mechanical forces also affect immune cell behavior and development. In order to elicit a response that affects immune cell behavior or development, environmental signals must often reach the nucleus. Chemical and mechanical signals can initiate signal transduction pathways, but mechanical forces may also have a more direct route to the nucleus, altering nuclear shape via mechanotransduction...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Taehyun Ryu, Melissa Bonner, Irene Chiolo
Repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) is particularly challenging in heterochromatin, where the abundance of repeated sequences exacerbates the risk of ectopic recombination and chromosome rearrangements. In Drosophila cells, faithful homologous recombination (HR) repair of heterochromatic DSBs relies on a specialized pathway that relocalizes repair sites to the nuclear periphery before Rad51 recruitment. Here we show that HR progression is initially blocked inside the heterochromatin domain by SUMOylation and the coordinated activity of two distinct Nse2 SUMO E3 ligases: Quijote (Qjt) and Cervantes (Cerv)...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Christina Li, Alexander Goryaynov, Weidong Yang
The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates the shuttle transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. The permeability barrier formed by intrinsically disordered phenylalanine-glycine-rich nucleoporins (FG-Nups) in the NPC functions as the critical selective control for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Signal-independent small molecules (< 40 kDa) passively diffuse through the pore, but passage of large cargo molecules is inhibited unless they are chaperoned by nuclear transport receptors (NTRs)...
September 27, 2016: Nucleus
Claire Picart, Frédéric Pontvianne
The nucleolus forms as a consequence of ribosome biogenesis, but it is also implicated in other cell functions. The identification of nucleolus-associated chromatin domains (NADs) in animal and plant cells revealed the presence of DNA sequences other than rRNA genes in and around the nucleolus. NADs display repressive chromatin signatures and harbour repetitive DNA, but also tRNA genes and RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Furthermore, the identification of NADs revealed a specific function of the nucleolus and the protein Nucleolin 1 (NUC1) in telomere biology...
September 20, 2016: Nucleus
Axel Poulet, Aline V Probst, Katja Graumann, Christophe Tatout, David E Evans
In this study, we explore the plasticity during evolution of proteins of the higher plant nuclear envelope (NE) from the most ancestral plant species to advanced angiosperms. The higher plant NE contains a functional Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex based on conserved Sad1-Unc84 (SUN) domain proteins and plant specific Klarsicht/Anc1/Syne homology (KASH) domain proteins. Recent evidence suggests the presence of a plant lamina underneath the inner membrane and various coiled-coil proteins have been hypothesised to be associated with it including Crowded Nuclei (CRWN; also termed LINC and NMCP), Nuclear Envelope Associated Protein (NEAP) protein families as well as the CRWN binding protein KAKU4...
September 19, 2016: Nucleus
Baobing Zhao, Jing Yang, Peng Ji
Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity...
August 31, 2016: Nucleus
Brandon Wyse, Roxanne Oshidari, Hollie Rowlands, Sanna Abbasi, Krassimir Yankulov
Chromatin structures are transmitted to daughter cells through a complex system of nucleosome disassembly and re-assembly at the advancing replication forks. However, the role of replication pausing in the transmission and perturbation of chromatin structures has not been addressed. RRM3 encodes a DNA helicase, which facilitates replication at sites covered with non-histone protein complexes (tRNA genes, active gene promoters, telomeres) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this report we show that the deletion of RRM3 reduces the frequency of epigenetic conversions in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Josefina Ocampo, Feng Cui, Victor B Zhurkin, David J Clark
Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into regularly spaced nucleosomes, resembling beads on a string. Each bead contains ∼147 bp wrapped around a core histone octamer. Linker histone (H1) binds to the linker DNA to drive chromatin folding. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion studies reveal 2 mono-nucleosomal intermediates: the core particle (∼147 bp) and the chromatosome (∼160 bp; a core particle with additional DNA protected by H1). We have recently developed an improved method for mapping nucleosomes, using exonuclease III to remove residual linker (MNase-Exo-seq)...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Balaje Vijayaraghavan, Mohammed Hakim Jafferali, Ricardo A Figueroa, Einar Hallberg
Samp1 is a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), which interacts with the nuclear lamina and the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex in interphase and during mitosis, it localizes to the mitotic spindle. Samp1 was recently found to coprecipitate a protein complex containing Ran, a GTPase with fundamental regulatory functions both in interphase and in mitosis. To investigate the interaction between Samp1 and Ran in further detail, we have designed and expressed recombinant fusion proteins of the Chaetomium thermophilum homolog of Samp1 (Ct...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Yoav Voichek, Raz Bar-Ziv, Naama Barkai
Chromatin can function as an integrator of DNA-related processes, allowing communication, for example, between DNA replication and gene transcription. Such communication is needed to overcome the gene-dosage imbalance introduced during DNA replication, when certain genes are replicated prior to others. Increased transcription of early replicating genes could alter regulatory balances. This does not occur, suggesting a mechanism that suppresses expression from newly replicated DNA. Critical to this buffering is Rtt109, which acetylates the internal K56 residue of newly synthesized histone H3 prior to incorporation onto DNA...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Carlo Randise-Hinchliff, Jason H Brickner
In yeast, inducible genes such as INO1, PRM1 and HIS4 reposition from the nucleoplasm to nuclear periphery upon activation. This leads to a physical interaction with nuclear pore complex (NPC), interchromosomal clustering, and stronger transcription. Repositioning to the nuclear periphery is controlled by cis-acting transcription factor (TF) binding sites located within the promoters of these genes and the TFs that bind to them. Such elements are both necessary and sufficient to control positioning of genes to the nuclear periphery...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Monica Tyagi, Nasir Imam, Kirtika Verma, Ashok K Patel
Chromatin is a highly dynamic structure that imparts structural organization to the genome and regulates the gene expression underneath. The decade long research in deciphering the significance of epigenetics in maintaining cellular integrity has embarked the focus on chromatin remodeling enzymes. These drivers have been categorized as readers, writers and erasers with each having significance of their own. Largely, on the basis of structure, ATP dependent chromatin remodelers have been grouped into 4 families; SWI/SNF, ISWI, IN080 and CHD...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Olga Yurieva, Mike O'Donnell
Eukaryotes require 3 DNA polymerases for normal replisome operations, DNA polymerases (Pol) α, delta and epsilon. Recent biochemical and structural studies support the asymmetric use of these polymerases on the leading and lagging strands. Pol epsilon interacts with the 11-subunit CMG helicase, forming a 15-protein leading strand complex that acts processively in leading strand synthesis in vitro, but Pol epsilon is inactive on the lagging strand. The opposite results are observed for Pol delta with CMG. Pol delta is highly active on the lagging strand in vitro, but has only feeble activity with CMG on the leading strand...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Lisa Hang, Xiaolan Zhao
Faithful duplication of the entire genome during each cell cycle is key for genome maintenance. Each stage of DNA replication, including initiation, progression, and termination, is tightly regulated. Some of these regulations enable replisomes to overcome tens of thousands of template obstacles that block DNA synthesis. Previous studies have identified a large number of proteins that are dedicated to this mission, including protein modification enzymes and scaffold proteins. Protein modification enzymes can bestow fast and reversible changes on many substrates, and thus are ideal for coordinating multiple events needed to promptly overcome replication impediments...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
Kiwon Lee, Gerd A Blobel
RNA polymerase 2 (pol2) associates with enhancers and promoters, followed by transcription initiation and subsequent pausing. Upon release, pol2 proceeds into productive elongation. A wide spread view of transcription holds that during elongation, pol2 and associated factors clear the promoter proximal region to track along the chromatin fiber until a termination site is encountered. However, several studies are compatible with alternative models. One common feature among these models is that transcription elongation results from movement of the gene along a complex consisting of pol2 and associated factors...
July 3, 2016: Nucleus
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