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Cognitive Neuroscience

Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Converging neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence supports the notion that selective attention can modulate neural activity not only in V1 (BA17) - as early as 40-60 ms post-stimulus - but also at subcortical level (thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN). V1 modulation has been documented both in space-based and (especially) object-based selection conditions, most of all in endogenous orienting paradigms. It seems then that an attentional modulation of ERP C1 response - reflecting V1 modulation - would not be especially favoured by exogenous cuing as far as object-based attention is concerned...
September 18, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Yulong Ding
Almost ten years ago, Kelly, Gomez-Ramirez, & Foxe (2008) reported that the earliest component (i.e., the C1) of the visual evoked potential (VEP) could be modulated by spatial attention. Using a similar experimental design and data analysis methods, however, Baumgartner et al. (this issue) recently failed to provide confirmative evidence. In this commentary, I suggest that some minor differences in experimental design may account for the inconsistent results between the two studies. I also propose a hypothesis that the C1 effect reported in Kelly et al...
September 10, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Scott D Slotnick
There is current debate as to whether spatial attention can modulate V1 activity during the initial wave of visual processing. Research on this topic has focused on the event-related potential (ERP) C1 component, which primarily reflects activity in V1. The purpose of the present selective review was to compare experimental parameters across spatial attention studies to determine whether certain stimulus, task, or analysis conditions were more likely to produce significant C1 attention effects. Specifically, C1 attention effects were evaluated as a function of visual field location, presence or absence of distractors, load (perceptual or attentional), cue type (endogenous or exogenous), and electrode location...
September 8, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Shimin Fu
According to the "minority view", the initial afferent processing on C1 can be modulated by attention under certain experimental conditions. However, evidence supporting this "minority view" is relatively rare and needs more replication, and the optimal conditions for eliciting attentional modulations on C1 have not yet been clearly defined. V1-tuned stimuli with distractors, peripheral cuing paradigms, and high perceptual loads seem to be important factors in favor of the "minority view". The signal-noise issue for C1, especially between attended and unattended conditions, needs to be considered...
September 5, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Stanley Klein
This commentary raises three broad questions regarding the Baumgartner et al. (this issue) paper. Topic 1 is about how to deal with the different outcomes of Kelly, Gomez-Ramirez & Foxe (2008) and Baumgartner et al. The methodologies were almost identical yet different results were found. Topic 2 is about statistical issues regarding how to present this type of data. Topic 3 is concerned with the issue of EEG/MEG source localization and whether the C1 component is mainly V1.
August 31, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Gilles Pourtois, Valentina Rossi, Patrik Vuilleumier, Karsten Rauss
Baumgartner and colleagues (this issue) report a replication of an ERP study by Kelly, Gomez-Ramirez, and Foxe (2008). Unlike the original authors, they failed to observe a significant modulation of the C1 by visuo-spatial attention. They conclude that initial afferent processing in V1 is impermeable to visuo-spatial attention. Although their study, like any replication effort, is valuable and important, there are some uncertainties at the methodological and statistical levels suggesting that the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence in the present case...
August 28, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Simon P Kelly, Kieran S Mohr
In Kelly, Gomez-Ramirez and Foxe (2008), we demonstrated strong spatial attentional modulation of initial afferent activity in human area V1 reflected in the C1 visual evoked potential (VEP) component. Using the same task and analysis strategy, Baumgartner and colleagues provide compelling evidence that there is no such modulation in their data. Here, we examine differences in task conditions between this new study and our original study, speculate on how they may account for the discrepant findings, and discuss the broader theoretical implications...
August 27, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Heleen A Slagter, Josipa Alilovic, Simon van Gaal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 27, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Alex Milton, Christopher Pleydell-Pearce
Pre-stimulus phase has been shown to influence temporal judgments concerning order, causality and simultaneity. One hypothesis is that phase cycles frame discrete perceptual snapshots over time. Yet, existing studies have explored the effect of pre-stimulus phase on fine-grained temporal judgments whereas no study has shown whether pre-stimulus phase influences sub-second temporal judgments lasting several phase cycles. If effects of phase on fine-grained temporal judgments reflect perceptual framing, then the perception of longer intervals might show some dependency on the frequency of phase cycles...
August 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Ben D Amsel, Marta Kutas, Seana Coulson
In grapheme-color synesthesia, seeing particular letters or numbers evokes the experience of specific colors. We investigate the brain's real-time processing of words in this population by recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from 15 grapheme-color synesthetes and 15 controls as they judged the validity of word pairs ('yellow banana' vs. 'blue banana') presented under high and low visual contrast. Low contrast words elicited delayed P1/N170 visual ERP components in both groups, relative to high contrast...
August 2, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Pin-Hao Andy Chen, Robert S Chavez, Todd F Heatherton
Failure to maintain a healthy body weight may reflect a long-term imbalance between the executive control and reward systems of the brain. The current study examined whether the anatomical connectivity between these two systems predicted individual variability in achieving a healthy body weight, particularly in chronic dieters. Thirty-six female chronic dieters completed a food-cue reactivity task in the scanner. Two regions-of-interest (ROIs) were defined from the reactivity task: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which engages cognitive control and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which represents reward value...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Alexandra M Gaynor, Elizabeth F Chua
Previous research has implicated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in successful associative encoding and subjective awareness of one's memory performance. We tested the causal role of the PFC in these processes by applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during a verbal associative encoding and judgment-of-learning (JOL) task. tDCS over the PFC impaired associative encoding compared to sham and parietal tDCS, as shown by fewer hits on a subsequent associative recognition test. There were no effects of tDCS on the magnitude or accuracy of JOLs...
July 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Hannah M Baumgartner, Christian J Graulty, Steven A Hillyard, Michael A Pitts
Whether visual spatial attention can modulate feedforward input to human primary visual cortex (V1) is debated. A prominent and long-standing hypothesis is that visual spatial attention can influence processing in V1, but only at delayed latencies suggesting a feedback-mediated mechanism and a lack of modulation during the initial afferent volley. The most promising challenge to this hypothesis comes from an event-related potential (ERP) study that showed an amplitude enhancement of the earliest visual ERP component, called the 'C1', in response to spatially attended relative to spatially unattended stimuli...
June 14, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Laura Herde, Valentina Rossi, Gilles Pourtois, Karsten Rauss
Reports of modulations of early visual processing suggest that retinotopic visual cortex may actively predict upcoming stimuli. We tested this idea by showing healthy human participants images of human faces at fixation, with different emotional expressions predicting stimuli in either the upper or the lower visual field. On infrequent test trials, emotional faces were followed by combined stimulation of upper and lower visual fields, thus violating previously established associations. Results showed no effects of such violations at the level of the retinotopic C1 of the visual evoked potential over the full sample...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Jamie Ward, Michael J Banissy
In this reply to the eight commentaries to our article, we discuss three important challenges. First, we discuss the relationship of mirror-touch to other forms of synesthesia. We note that synesthetic experiences are generally not mistaken as veridical but this does not mean that they lack percept-like qualities. We acknowledge that neither Threshold Theory nor Self-Other Theory offer a direct account of other forms of synesthesia, although we discuss how the latter could. Second, we discuss alternative explanations...
June 5, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Hweeling Lee, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Tony Stöcker, Nikolai Axmacher
Prior multisensory experience influences how we perceive our environment, and hence how memories are encoded for subsequent retrieval. This study investigated if audiovisual (AV) integration and associative memory formation rely on overlapping or distinct processes. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging results demonstrate that the neural mechanisms underlying AV integration and associative memory overlap substantially. In particular, activity in anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is increased during AV integration and also determines the success of novel AV face-name association formation...
May 23, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Scott D Slotnick
In an editorial (this issue), I argued that Eklund, Nichols, and Knutsson's 'null data' reflected resting-state/default network activity that inflated their false-positive rates. Commentaries on that paper were received by Nichols, Eklund, and Knutsson (this issue), Hopfinger (this issue), and Cunningham and Koscik (this issue). In this author response, I consider these commentaries. Many issues stemming from Nichols et al. are identified including: (1) Nichols et al. did not provide convincing arguments that resting-state fMRI data reflect null data...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Olga Kepinska, Niels O Schiller
In response to Voelker et al. (this issue), we argue for a wide array of neural oscillatory mechanisms underlying learning and practice. While the authors propose frontal theta power as the basis for learning-induced neuroplasticity, we believe that the temporal dynamics of other frequency bands, together with their synchronization properties can offer a fuller account of the neurophysiological changes occurring in the brain during cognitive tasks.
April 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Constantinos I Siettos, Nikolaos Smyrnis
Many studies focus on anatomical brain connectivity in an effort to explain the effect of practice on reaction time (RT) that is observed in many cognitive tasks. In this commentary, we suggest that RT reflects a stochastic process that varies in each single repetition of any cognitive task and cannot be attributed only to anatomical properties of the underlying neuronal circuit. Based on recent evidence from Magnetoencephalographic, Electroencephalographic, and fMRI studies, we further propose that the functional properties of key brain areas and their self-organization into functional connectivity networks contribute to the RT and could also explain the effects of training on the distribution of the RT...
April 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
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