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Cognitive Neuroscience

Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Tatiana N Astakhova, Sergey S Tamozhnikov
In this study, we aimed to compare the oscillatory dynamics accompanying self-referential and non-self-referential stimulus-independent thoughts. Electroencephalograms were recorded in 30 healthy participants who were asked to press buttons classifying their spontaneous thoughts as self-referential or non-self-referential. EEG data were analyzed using independent component analysis in conjunction with dipole localization. Self-referential thoughts, as compared to non-self-referential thoughts, were accompanied by more pronounced decrease of theta, alpha, and beta spectral power in the anterior hub of the default-mode network, in the left lateral prefrontal, motor/somatosensory, and temporal cortices...
October 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Cuicui Wang, Zhen Yang, Fan Cao, Li Liu, Sha Tao
Both native language background and second-language proficiency may shape brain responses to a second language. Using cross-modal mismatch negativity (MMN) (pre-attentive processing) and audiovisual P300 (attentive processing) paradigms, this study examined how native Chinese speakers with various second-language proficiency responded to English letter-sound integration and what a role visual attention may play in this process. The results indicated that native Chinese speakers failed to integrate letter-sound in pre-attentive stage of reading, regardless of their English proficiency level, in contrast to the successful letter-sound integration shown by native English speakers...
October 1, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Maureen Ritchey
This Special Issue of Cognitive Neuroscience highlights recent research on the cognitive neuroscience of episodic memory, with an emphasis on interventions designed to modulate memory processes. Collectively, the nine included papers provide a timely overview of the state of memory modulation, including work on pharmacological manipulations, motivational states, and targeted brain stimulation.
September 12, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Brooke M Roberts, Alex Clarke, Richard J Addante, Charan Ranganath
Neural oscillations in the theta band have been linked to episodic memory, but it is unclear whether activity patterns that give rise to theta play a causal role in episodic retrieval. Here, we used rhythmic auditory and visual stimulation to entrain neural oscillations to assess whether theta activity contributes to successful memory retrieval. In two separate experiments, human subjects studied words and were subsequently tested on memory for the words ("item recognition") and context in which each had been previously studied ("source memory")...
September 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Christopher J Stare, Matthias J Gruber, Lynn Nadel, Charan Ranganath, Rebecca L Gómez
Sleep-dependent memory processing is dependent on several factors at learning, including emotion, encoding strength, and knowledge of future relevance. Recent work documents the role of curiosity on learning, showing that memory associated with high-curiosity encoding states is retained better and that this effect may be driven by activity within the dopaminergic circuit. Here, we examined whether this curiosity effect was enhanced by or dependent on sleep-related consolidation. Participants learned the answers to trivia questions that they had previously rated on a curiosity scale, and they were shown faces between each question and answer presentation...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Wei-Chun Wang, Erik A Wing, David L K Murphy, Bruce M Luber, Sarah H Lisanby, Roberto Cabeza, Simon W Davis
Brain stimulation technologies have seen increasing application in basic science investigations, specifically toward the goal of improving memory function. However, proposals concerning the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive enhancement often rely on simplified notions of excitation. As a result, most applications examining the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on functional neuroimaging measures have been limited to univariate analyses of brain activity. We present here analyses using representational similarity analysis (RSA) and encoding-retrieval similarity (ERS) analysis to quantify the effect of TMS on memory representations...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Eda Mizrak, Kamin Kim, Brooke Roberts, Daniel John Ragland, Cameron Carter, Charan Ranganath
Research on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has grown rapidly, but there is controversy regarding whether and how tDCS could impact memory performance. We report a study that addressed this question by examining the effects of oscillatory tDCS (otDCS) on subsequent episodic memory performance and concomitant recordings of neural oscillations. Neural oscillations in the theta band (4-7 Hz) have been shown to be important for episodic memory and especially for source memory retrieval. Here, we tested the effects of anodal otDCS at theta (5...
September 5, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Delia Fuhrmann, Susanne Schweizer, Jovita Leung, Cait Griffin, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Academic diligence is the ability to regulate behavior in the service of goals, and a predictor of educational attainment. Here we combined behavioral, structural MRI, functional MRI and connectivity data to investigate the neurocognitive correlates of diligence. We assessed whether individual differences in diligence are related to the interplay between frontal control and striatal reward systems, as predicted by the dual-systems hypothesis of adolescent development. We obtained behavioral measures of diligence from 40 adolescent girls (aged 14-15 years) using the Academic Diligence Task...
August 27, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Manoj K Doss, Jessica Weafer, Nicholas A Ruiz, David A Gallo, Harriet De Wit
Alcohol and other pharmacologically similar sedatives (i.e., GABAA positive allosteric modulators or PAMs) impair the encoding of new episodic memories but retroactively facilitate the consolidation of recently encoded memories. These effects are consistent for recollection (i.e., the retrieval of details) but some mixed results have been reported for familiarity (i.e., a feeling of knowing a stimulus was presented). Here, with dual-process models, we reanalyzed prior work testing the effects of GABAA PAMs at encoding or consolidation...
August 14, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Carl Michael Galang, Sukhvinder S Obhi
Recent studies have shown that the states of high and low social power (the ability to control or influence another's thoughts, feelings, or behaviours) are related to left and right frontal hemisphere activity, respectively, suggesting a connection with two neurobiological motivational systems-the Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Systems. However, an important and outstanding question is which state of social power is associated with differences in hemispheric activity. In the current study, we addressed this outstanding issue by examining differences in frontal alpha asymmetry while participants engaged in an established episodic recall task, priming states of high, low, or neutral social power...
August 3, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Lidia Y X Wong, Stephen J Gray, David A Gallo
We report 4 experiments aiming to replicate and extend the finding that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after encoding and just prior to retrieval improves accuracy on a recollection task (Gray, Brookshire, Casasanto, & Gallo, 2015). Our first 3 experiments failed to replicate the tDCS effect in planned analyses, but post-hoc analyses uncovered tDCS effects on recollection accuracy during morning sessions. To further investigate, Experiment 4 randomly assigned participants to morning or afternoon sessions...
July 23, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
R Rachel Weintraub-Brevda, Elizabeth F Chua
Negative stimuli are often remembered better than neutral stimuli, which is called the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM). We tested whether the role of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) in the EEM depended on stimulus valence and/or arousal, and attentional resources. Continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) was applied over the left VLPFC, right VLPFC and vertex before encoding 'negative arousing,' 'negative nonarousing,' and 'neutral' words under full and divided attention, followed by a recognition test...
July 19, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Joshua D Koen, Preston P Thakral, Michael D Rugg
The left angular gyrus (AG) is thought to play a critical role in episodic retrieval and has been implicated in the recollection of specific details of prior episodes. Motivated by recent fMRI studies in which it was reported that elevated neural activity in left AG during study is predictive of subsequent associative memory, the present study investigated whether the region plays a causal role in associative memory encoding. Participants underwent online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while encoding word pairs prior to an associative memory test...
July 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Jessica M Karanian, Scott D Slotnick
Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results suggest that true memories, but not false memories, activate early sensory cortex. It is thought that false memories, which reflect conscious processing, do not activate early sensory cortex because these regions are associated with nonconscious processing. We posited that false memories may activate the earliest visual cortical processing region (i.e., V1) when task conditions are manipulated to evoke conscious processing in this region. In an fMRI experiment, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation during encoding...
June 27, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Elizabeth A Shay, Quanjing Chen, Frank E Garcea, Bradford Z Mahon
Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) over functional MRI data can distinguish neural representational states that do not differ in their overall amplitude of BOLD contrast. Here we used MVPA to test whether simple intransitive actions can be distinguished in primary motor cortex. Participants rotated and flexed each of their extremities (hands and feet) during fMRI scanning. The primary motor cortex for the hand/wrist was functionally defined in each hemisphere in each subject. Within those subject-specific ROIs, we found that the average amplitude of BOLD contrast for two different movements of the contralateral hand (rotation, flexion) were higher than for the ipsilateral hand, as well as movements by both feet; however, there was no difference in amplitude between the two different types of movements for the contralateral hand...
April 9, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Ayaka Fujisawa, Shoko Kasuga, Takaharu Suzuki, Junichi Ushiba
The objective of the present study was to clarify the variation in and properties of mental images and policies used to regulate specific image selection when learning to control a brain-computer interface. Healthy volunteers performed a reaching task with a virtually generated monkey tail-like object on a computer monitor by regulating event-related desynchronization (ERD) on the buttock area of the sensorimotor cortex as recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). Participants were instructed to find a free image by which the tail was well controlled...
January 26, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Luca F Ticini, Simone Schütz-Bosbach, Florian Waszak
Numerous studies corroborated the idea that the sound of familiar motor acts triggers a muscle-specific replica of the perceived actions in the listener's brain. We recently contradicted this conclusion by demonstrating that the representation of newly-learned action-related sounds is not somatotopically organised but rather it corresponds to the goal a particular action aims to achieve. In the present study, we aimed at reconciling these results. We measured MEPs to TMS as an index of the functional correspondence between the sensory stimulation and the activity in the listener's motor cortex...
January 16, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Scott D Slotnick
This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience focuses on the debate regarding whether spatial attention can rapidly modulate the event-related potential (ERP) C1 component, which reflects the initial feedforward signal in V1. A discussion paper by Baumgartner, Graulty, Hillyard, and Pitts (this issue) included an empirical experiment that failed to replicate the significant C1 attention effects of Kelly, Gomez-Ramirez, and Foxe. Commentaries were received by Ding (this issue), Klein (this issue), Pourtois, Rossi, Vuilleumier, and Rauss (this issue), Kelly and Mohr (this issue), Slagter, Alilovic, and Van Gaal (this issue), and Fu (this issue)...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Scott D Slotnick
In a discussion paper (Slotnick, this issue), I conducted a selective review of spatial attention studies to compare experimental parameters and determine whether particular stimulus, task, or analysis conditions were more likely to produce significant attentional modulation of the event-related potential (ERP) C1 component. It was concluded that to maximize C1 attention effects, stimuli should be in the upper visual field, there should be distractors, conditions should be high perceptual or attentional load, there should be exogenous cuing, and effects should be measured at midline parietal-occipital electrodes POz, Pz, and CPz...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Zhe Qu, Yulong Ding
During recent years, perceptual/attentional load paradigms have been frequently used to investigate whether the initial visual cortical processing can be modified by spatial attention. For example, Rauss and colleagues reported significant modulations of the earliest component (i.e. the C1) of the visual evoked potential (VEP) as a function of attentional load. It may be questioned, however, whether these load effects represent modulations of the C1 or overlaps from other components. Here we summarize some methods to identify and remove the overlaps, which is important to clarify the question of whether the initial visual cortical processing could be modulated by attention...
January 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
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