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Pan African Medical Journal

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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2016.25.142.7193.].
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Angus Nnamdi Oli, Remigius Uchenna Agu, Chibueze Peter Ihekwereme, Charles Okechukwu Esimone
Introduction: Vaccines are biological products and their efficacy is affected by storage conditions. They are vital in promoting public health. Failures in immunization programmes often times are blamed on disruption in vaccine cold-chain. This study assessed the immunogenicity/potency of the measles vaccines utilized in childhood immunization in South-East, Nigeria and indirectly assessed the effectiveness of the cold-chain technology in the region. Methods: This was an experimental study carried out between December 2011 and June 2013...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Mercy Mvundura, Patrick Lydon, Abdoulaye Gueye, Ibnou Khadim Diaw, Dadja Essoya Landoh, Bafei Toi, Anna-Lea Kahn, Debra Kristensen
Introduction: A recent innovation in support of the final segment of the immunization supply chain is licensing certain vaccines for use in a controlled temperature chain (CTC), which allows excursions into ambient temperatures up to 40°C for a specific number of days immediately prior to administration. However, limited evidence exists on CTC economics to inform investments for labeling other eligible vaccines for CTC use. Using data collected during a MenAfriVac™ campaign in Togo, we estimated economic costs for vaccine logistics when using the CTC approach compared to full cold chain logistics (CCL) approach...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Adebola Emmanuel Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe Orimadegun, Elijah Afolabi Bamgboye
Introduction: Nigeria remains among the few countries that are yet to achieve eradication of neonatal tetanus in the world despite the availability of an effective vaccine. This study investigated immunity against tetanus in primiparous mothers and neonates at birth, and identified associated factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved consecutive selection of 244 primiparous mother-neonate pairs (119 from rural areas, 125 from urban areas, 137 male neonates and 107 female neonates) delivered at primary healthcare facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Marius Zambou Vouking, Carine Nouboudem Tadenfok, Jean Marie Edengue Ekani
World Health Organization (WHO) estimated in 2013 that 49,000 deaths all over the world were caused by neonatal tetanus. Only as recently as the year 2000, neonatal tetanus was a public health problem in 59 countries, but since then it has been eliminated in 36 of the countries concerned. The objective of this piece of work, therefore, was to investigate which strategies intended to increase demand for vaccination are effective in increasing anti-tetanus vaccination coverage of women in Sub Saharan Africa. We searched the following electronic databases from January 1989 to July 2016: Medline, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database), The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), WHOLIS (World Health Organization Library Database), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences) and contacted experts in the field...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Alison Delano Ridpath, Heather Melissa Scobie, Messeret Eshetu Shibeshi, Ahmadu Yakubu, Flint Zulu, Azhar Abid Raza, Balcha Masresha, Rania Tohme
Despite the availability of effective tetanus prevention strategies, as of 2016, Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) has not yet been achieved in 18 countries globally. In this paper, we review the status of MNTE in the World Health Organization African Region (AFR),and provide recommendations for achieving and maintaining MNTE in AFR. As of November 2016, 37 (79%) AFR countries have achieved MNTE, with 10 (21%) countries remaining. DTP3 coverage increased from 52% in 2000 to 76% in 2015. In 2015, coverage with at least 2 doses of tetanus containing vaccine (TT2+) and proportion of newborns protected at birth (PAB) were 69% and 77%, compared with 44% and 62% in 2000, respectively...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Kasidet Manakongtreecheep
Immunization for children against vaccine-preventable diseases is one of the most important health intervention method in the world, both in terms of its health impact and cost-effectiveness. Through EPI and various other programs such as the Decades of Vaccines, immunization has been improving the health of children around the world. However, this progress falls short of global immunization targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). Furthermore, the African region still lags behind in immunization, and suffers from a high proportion of vaccine preventable diseases as a result...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Raoul Kamadjeu, Caroline Gathenji
In April 2013, a case of wild polio virus (WPV) was detected in the Somalia capital Mogadishu. This inaugurated what is now referred to as the 2013-2014 Horn of Africa Polio outbreak with cases reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. By the notification of the last polio case in August 2014, 223 cases of WPV had been reported in Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia of which 199 in Somalia alone. The outbreak response required timely exchange of information between the outbreak response coordination unit (in Nairobi) and local staff located in multiple locations inside the country...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Lora Shimp, Nassor Mohammed, Lisa Oot, Evans Mokaya, Timothy Kiyemba, Gerald Ssekitto, Adriana Alminana
Introduction: Although systematic program review meetings are common practice in many health and immunization programs, there is little documentation on their implementation and role. Adult education principles espouse opportunities for peer exchange to build capacity and cross-learning, for which review meetings have been a forum utilized in immunization programs for many years. This study describes the process and use of review meetings to build immunization technical capacity in four African countries since 2011...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Amalia Benke, Alford Joseph Williams, Adam MacNeil
The availability and use of high quality immunization and surveillance data are crucial for monitoring all components of the Global Polio Eradication Program (GPEI). The Stop Transmission of Polio (STOP) program was initiated in 1999 to train and mobilize human resources to provide technical support to polio endemic and at-risk countries and in 2002 the STOP data management (STOP DM) deployment was created to provide capacity development in the area of data management for immunization and surveillance data for these countries...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Bongomin Bodo, Oliver Ombeva Malande
Vertical Transmission of hepatitis B virus is a major route through which children acquire Hepatitis B infection. Only 10 out of 47 countries in Africa, and none from East Africa; have implemented the WHO recommendation of introducing a birth-dose of hepatitis B vaccine in their EPI program. This article therefore examines the challenges as well as the opportunities that exists for the introduction of a birth-dose of hepatitis vaccine in the National Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) program by countries in the East African Region...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Cynthia Raissa Tamandjou, Tongai Gibson Maponga, Nafiisah Chotun, Wolfgang Preiser, Monique Ingrid Andersson
This commentary describes the need for a birth dose monovalent hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine and an effective programme for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HBV in Africa. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend routine maternal screening for HBV followed by treatment of highly infectious HBV-infected mothers, and HBV birth dose vaccination and the administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin for HBV-exposed infants as an effective strategy for the prevention of HBV MTCT...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Lucy Breakwell, Carol Tevi-Benissan, Lana Childs, Richard Mihigo, Rania Tohme
The World Health Organization (WHO) African Region has approximately 100 million people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This review describes the status of hepatitis B control in the Region. We present hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) coverage data and from available data in the published literature, the impact of HepB vaccination on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence, a marker of chronic infection, among children, HBsAg prevalence in pregnant women, and risk of perinatal transmission...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Amina Ismail, Collins Tabu, Iheoma Onuekwusi, Samuel Kevin Otieno, Peter Ademba, Peter Kamau, Beatrice Koki, Anthony Ngatia, Anthony Wainaina, Robert Davis
Introduction: A Measles rubella campaign that targeted 9 months to 14 year old children was conducted in all the 47 counties in Kenya between 16th and 24th of May 2016. Micro-planning using an android phone-based app was undertaken to map out the target population and logistics in all the counties 4 weeks to the campaign implementation instead of 6 months as per the WHO recommendation. The outcomes of the micro-planning exercise were a detailed micro-plan that served as a guide in ensuring that every eligible individual in the population was vaccinated with potent vaccine...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Kasidet Manakongtreecheep, Robert Davis
Despite the existence of a highly effective measles vaccine and the decrease in worldwide deaths from measles by more than 79% from the 2000 baseline levels, measles today remains one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths in the world. The African region is a key player in the global fight against measles. Africa has made tremendous progress in its effort to immunize children and to control the disease, increasing its regional measles vaccination coverage from 56% in 2001 to 85% in 2010. The Republic of Kenya has been a strong follower of the World Health Assembly and Measles Elimination 2020 resolutions, which aims to eliminate measles from the country...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Robin Julian Biellik, Robert Davis
The new W.H.O. recommendation, which drops the coverage criterion for adoption of the 2-dose measles vaccine schedule, makes some African countries eligible for the 2-dose schedule which were previously ineligible. We look at the implications of the new recommendation for Ethiopia and Nigeria, the two largest African countries which are eligible under the new recommendation.
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Balcha Masresha, Richard Luce, Regis Katsande, Amadou Fall, Meseret Eshetu, Richard Mihigo
Periodic measles supplemental immunisation activities (SIAs) increase population immunity and thereby reduce the pool of accumulated susceptible children. They are typically conducted every 2 - 4 years, and most often target children up to five years of age. Between 2012 and 2015, after surveillance data indicated a shift in the epidemiological profile of measles towards older age groups, 11 countries were supported to conduct wide age range SIAs based on their local epidemiological patterns. Six other countries conducted SIAs with measles-rubella vaccines targeting ages 9 months to 14 years as an initial step of introducing rubella vaccine into the immunization program...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Richard Mihigo, Joseph Okeibunor, Blanche Anya, Pascal Mkanda, Felicitas Zawaira
Immunization has made significant contribution to public health in the African Region, including elimination, eradication and control of life threatening diseases. Hospitalization due to vaccine preventable diseases has been drastically reduced due to introduction of new effective vaccines. However, optimizing the benefits of immunization by achieving high universal coverage has met with many challenges. The Regional immunization coverage, though raised from its low 57% in 2000 to 76% in 2015 has remained below expected target...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Robert Davis, William Baguma Mbabazi
The case for global eradication of measles was first made in 1982. Since then, technical aspects of measles eradication have concluded that measles satisfied all criteria required for eradication. To date, only smallpox, among human diseases, has been eradicated, with polio, the next eradication candidate. In all previous eradication programmes, the pattern of slow implementation and missed deadlines is similar. Lessons from these past eradication programs should inform development of a time-limited measles eradication program...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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