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International Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843454/localisation-of-lactate-transporters-in-rat-and-rabbit-placentae
#1
Nigel P Moore, Catherine A Picut, Jeffrey H Charlap
The distribution of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) isoforms 1 and 4, which mediate the plasmalemmal transport of l-lactic and pyruvic acids, has been identified in the placentae of rats and rabbits at different ages of gestation. Groups of three pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits were sacrificed on gestation days (GD) 11, 14, 18, or 20 and on GD 13, 18, or 28, respectively. Placentae were removed and processed for immunohistochemical detection of MCT1 and MCT4. In the rat, staining for MCT1 was associated with lakes and blood vessels containing enucleated red blood cells (maternal vessels) while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing nucleated red blood cells (embryofoetal vessels)...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840640/microwave-assisted-tissue-preparation-for-rapid-fixation-decalcification-antigen-retrieval-cryosectioning-and-immunostaining
#2
REVIEW
Kazuo Katoh
Microwave irradiation of tissue during fixation and subsequent histochemical staining procedures significantly reduces the time required for incubation in fixation and staining solutions. Minimizing the incubation time in fixative reduces disruption of tissue morphology, and reducing the incubation time in staining solution or antibody solution decreases nonspecific labeling. Reduction of incubation time in staining solution also decreases the level of background noise. Microwave-assisted tissue preparation is applicable for tissue fixation, decalcification of bone tissues, treatment of adipose tissues, antigen retrieval, and other special staining of tissues...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833641/carbohydrate-moieties-and-cytoenzymatic-characterization-of-hemocytes-in-whiteleg-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#3
Norma Estrada, Edwin Velázquez, Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Felipe Ascencio
Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular) exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642298/connexin-s-connection-in-breast-cancer-growth-and-progression
#4
REVIEW
Debarshi Banerjee
Gap junctions are cell-to-cell junctions that are located in the basolateral surface of two adjoining cells. A gap junction channel is composed of a family of proteins called connexins. Gap junction channels maintain intercellular communication between two cells through the exchange of ions, small metabolites, and electrical signals. Gap junction channels or connexins are widespread in terms of their expression and function in maintaining the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of vertebrate tissues...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516776/stem-cells-applications-in-regenerative-medicine-and-disease-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Ranjeet Singh Mahla
Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease. The spectacular progress in the field of stem cell research has laid the foundation for cell based therapies of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The indefinite self-renewal and potential to differentiate into other types of cells represent stem cells as frontiers of regenerative medicine...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26798342/measured-effects-of-wnt3a-on-proliferation-of-hek293t-cells-depend-on-the-applied-assay
#6
Patricia Reischmann, Johanna Fiebeck, Nadine von der Weiden, Oliver Müller
The Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with many essential cell processes. This study aims to examine the effects of Wnt signaling on proliferation of cultured HEK293T cells. Cells were incubated with Wnt3a, and the activation of the Wnt pathway was followed by analysis of the level of the β-catenin protein and of the expression levels of the target genes MYC and CCND1. The level of β-catenin protein increased up to fourfold. While the mRNA levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1 increased slightly, the protein levels increased up to a factor of 1...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26713093/integration-of-mitochondrial-targeting-for-molecular-cancer-therapeutics
#7
REVIEW
Philippe Marchetti, Pierre Guerreschi, Laurent Mortier, Jerome Kluza
Mitochondrial metabolism greatly influences cancer cell survival, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to many anticancer drugs. Furthermore, molecular-targeted therapies (e.g., oncogenic kinase inhibitors) create a dependence of surviving cells on mitochondrial metabolism. For these reasons, inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism represents promising therapeutic pathways in cancer. This review provides an overview of mitochondrial metabolism in cancer and discusses the limitations of mitochondrial inhibition for cancer treatment...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689952/effects-of-activating-mutations-on-egfr-cellular-protein-turnover-and-amino-acid-recycling-determined-using-silac-mass-spectrometry
#8
Michael J Greig, Sherry Niessen, Scott L Weinrich, Jun Li Feng, Manli Shi, Ted O Johnson
Rapid mutations of proteins that are targeted in cancer therapy often lead to drug resistance. Often, the mutation directly affects a drug's binding site, effectively blocking binding of the drug, but these mutations can have other effects such as changing the protein turnover half-life. Utilizing SILAC MS, we measured the cellular turnover rates of an important non-small cell lung cancer target, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Wild-type (WT) EGFR, EGFR with a single activating mutant (Del 746-750 or L858R), and the drug-resistant double mutant (L858R/T790M) EGFR were analyzed...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664363/a-simple-and-efficient-method-for-preparing-cell-slides-and-staining-without-using-cytocentrifuge-and-cytoclips
#9
Xiaotang Hu, Verronika Laguerre, Daniel Packert, Alice Nakasone, Lynn Moscinski
Cell staining is a necessary and useful technique for visualizing cell morphology and structure under a microscope. This technique has been used in many areas such as cytology, hematology, oncology, histology, virology, serology, microbiology, cell biology, and immunochemistry. One of the key pieces of equipment for preparing a slide for cell staining is cytology centrifuge (cytocentrifuge) such as cytospin. However, many small labs do not have this expensive equipment and its accessory, cytoclips (also expensive relatively), which makes them difficult to study cell cytology...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472958/hyaluronan-synthase-the-mechanism-of-initiation-at-the-reducing-end-and-a-pendulum-model-for-polysaccharide-translocation-to-the-cell-exterior
#10
REVIEW
Paul H Weigel
Hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis has been studied for over six decades, but our understanding of the biochemical details of how HA synthase (HAS) assembles HA is still incomplete. Class I family members include mammalian and streptococcal HASs, the focus of this review, which add new intracellular sugar-UDPs at the reducing end of growing hyaluronyl-UDP chains. HA-producing cells typically create extracellular HA coats (capsules) and also secrete HA into the surrounding space. Since HAS contains multiple transmembrane domains and is lipid-dependent, we proposed in 1999 that it creates an intraprotein HAS-lipid pore through which a growing HA-UDP chain is translocated continuously across the cell membrane to the exterior...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448762/selective-activation-of-cancer-stem-cells-by-size-specific-hyaluronan-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Marisa Shiina, Lilly Y W Bourguignon
We determined that human head and neck cancer cells (HSC-3 cell line) contain a subpopulation displaying cancer stem cell (CSC) properties and are very tumorigenic. Specifically, we investigated whether different sizes of hyaluronan (HA) (e.g., 5 kDa, 20 kDa, 200 kDa, or 700 kDa-HA-sizes) play a role in regulating these CSCs. First, we observed that 200 kDa-HA (but not other sizes of HA) preferentially induces certain stem cell marker expression resulting in self-renewal and clonal formation of these cells...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448761/high-sensitivity-method-to-estimate-distribution-of-hyaluronan-molecular-sizes-in-small-biological-samples-using-gas-phase-electrophoretic-mobility-molecular-analysis
#12
Lan Do, Christen P Dahl, Susanne Kerje, Peter Hansell, Stellan Mörner, Ulla Lindqvist, Anna Engström-Laurent, Göran Larsson, Urban Hellman
Hyaluronan is a negatively charged polydisperse polysaccharide where both its size and tissue concentration play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The various functions of hyaluronan depend on its molecular size. Up to now, it has been difficult to study the role of hyaluronan in diseases with pathological changes in the extracellular matrix where availability is low or tissue samples are small. Difficulty to obtain large enough biopsies from human diseased tissue or tissue from animal models has also restricted the study of hyaluronan...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448760/roles-of-proteoglycans-and-glycosaminoglycans-in-wound-healing-and-fibrosis
#13
REVIEW
Shibnath Ghatak, Edward V Maytin, Judith A Mack, Vincent C Hascall, Ilia Atanelishvili, Ricardo Moreno Rodriguez, Roger R Markwald, Suniti Misra
A wound is a type of injury that damages living tissues. In this review, we will be referring mainly to healing responses in the organs including skin and the lungs. Fibrosis is a process of dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) production that leads to a dense and functionally abnormal connective tissue compartment (dermis). In tissues such as the skin, the repair of the dermis after wounding requires not only the fibroblasts that produce the ECM molecules, but also the overlying epithelial layer (keratinocytes), the endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel and white blood cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, which together orchestrate the cytokine-mediated signaling and paracrine interactions that are required to regulate the proper extent and timing of the repair process...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448759/correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy-reveals-the-has3-induced-dorsal-plasma-membrane-ruffles
#14
Kirsi Rilla, Arto Koistinen
Hyaluronan is a linear sugar polymer synthesized by three isoforms of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, 2, and 3) that forms a hydrated scaffold around cells and is an essential component of the extracellular matrix. The morphological changes of cells induced by active hyaluronan synthesis are well recognized but not studied in detail with high resolution before. We have previously found that overexpression of HAS3 induces growth of long plasma membrane protrusions that act as platforms for hyaluronan synthesis. The study of these thin and fragile protrusions is challenging, and they are difficult to preserve by fixation unless they are adherent to the substrate...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448758/hyaluronan-synthase-3-null-mice-exhibit-decreased-intestinal-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-in-the-dss-induced-colitis-model
#15
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Carol de la Motte
Hyaluronan (HA) overproduction is a hallmark of multiple inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hyaluronan can act as a leukocyte recruitment molecule and in the most common mouse model of intestinal inflammation, the chemically induced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis model, we previously determined that changes in colon distribution of HA occur before inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that, during a pathologic challenge, HA promotes inflammation. In this study, we tested the progression of inflammation in mice null for the hyaluronan synthase genes (HAS1, HAS3, or both HAS1 and HAS3) in the DSS-colitis model...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448757/the-rise-and-fall-of-hyaluronan-in-respiratory-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Mark E Lauer, Raed A Dweik, Stavros Garantziotis, Mark A Aronica
In normal airways, hyaluronan (HA) matrices are primarily located within the airway submucosa, pulmonary vasculature walls, and, to a lesser extent, the alveoli. Following pulmonary injury, elevated levels of HA matrices accumulate in these regions, and in respiratory secretions, correlating with the extent of injury. Animal models have provided important insight into the role of HA in the onset of pulmonary injury and repair, generally indicating that the induction of HA synthesis is an early event typically preceding fibrosis...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448756/hyperglycemia-induced-changes-in-hyaluronan-contribute-to-impaired-skin-wound-healing-in-diabetes-review-and-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Sajina Shakya, Yan Wang, Judith A Mack, Edward V Maytin
Ulcers and chronic wounds are a particularly common problem in diabetics and are associated with hyperglycemia. In this targeted review, we summarize evidence suggesting that defective wound healing in diabetics is causally linked, at least in part, to hyperglycemia-induced changes in the status of hyaluronan (HA) that resides in the pericellular coat (glycocalyx) of endothelial cells of small cutaneous blood vessels. Potential mechanisms through which exposure to high glucose levels causes a loss of the glycocalyx on the endothelium and accelerates the recruitment of leukocytes, creating a proinflammatory environment, are discussed in detail...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448755/regulatory-t-cells-resist-cyclosporine-induced-cell-death-via-cd44-mediated-signaling-pathways
#18
Shannon M Ruppert, Ben A Falk, S Alice Long, Paul L Bollyky
Cyclosporine A (CSA) is an immunosuppressive agent that specifically targets T cells and also increases the percentage of pro-tolerogenic CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) through unknown mechanisms. We previously reported that CD44, a receptor for the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), promotes Treg stability in IL-2-low environments. Here, we asked whether CD44 signaling also promotes Treg resistance to CSA. We found that CD44 cross-linking promoted Foxp3 expression and Treg viability in the setting of CSA treatment...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448754/size-matters-molecular-weight-specificity-of-hyaluronan-effects-in-cell-biology
#19
REVIEW
Jaime M Cyphert, Carol S Trempus, Stavros Garantziotis
Hyaluronan signaling properties are unique among other biologically active molecules, that they are apparently not influenced by postsynthetic molecular modification, but by hyaluronan fragment size. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the generation of hyaluronan fragments of different size and size-dependent differences in hyaluronan signaling as well as their downstream biological effects.
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448753/utilization-of-glycosaminoglycans-proteoglycans-as-carriers-for-targeted-therapy-delivery
#20
REVIEW
Suniti Misra, Vincent C Hascall, Ilia Atanelishvili, Ricardo Moreno Rodriguez, Roger R Markwald, Shibnath Ghatak
The outcome of patients with cancer has improved significantly in the past decade with the incorporation of drugs targeting cell surface adhesive receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases, and modulation of several molecules of extracellular matrices (ECMs), the complex composite of collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans that dictates tissue architecture. Cancer tissue invasive processes progress by various oncogenic strategies, including interfering with ECM molecules and their interactions with invasive cells...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
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