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International Journal of Cell Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487741/regeneration-and-regrowth-potentials-of-digit-tips-in-amphibians-and-mammals
#1
REVIEW
Yohan Choi, Fanwei Meng, Charles S Cox, Kevin P Lally, Johnny Huard, Yong Li
Tissue regeneration and repair have received much attention in the medical field over the years. The study of amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, has uncovered many of the processes that occur in these animals during full-limb/digit regeneration, a process that is highly limited in mammals. Understanding these processes in amphibians could shed light on how to develop and improve this process in mammals. Amputation injuries in mammals usually result in the formation of scar tissue with limited regrowth of the limb/digit; however, it has been observed that the very tips of digits (fingers and toes) can partially regrow in humans and mice under certain conditions...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465688/thrombopoietin-secretion-by-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#2
Samaher Besbes, Shahid Shah, Iman Al-Dybiat, Shahsoltan Mirshahi, Helene Helfer, Haythem Najah, Caroline Fourgeaud, Marc Pocard, Ibtissem Ghedira, Jeannette Soria, Massoud Mirshahi
The thrombopoietin (TPO) gene expression in human ovary and cancer cells from patients with ovarian carcinomatosis, as well as several cancer cell lines including MDA-MB231 (breast cancer), K562 and HL60 (Leukemic cells), OVCAR-3NIH and SKOV-3 (ovarian cancer), was performed using RT PCR, real-time PCR, and gene sequencing. Human liver tissues are used as controls. The presence of TPO in the cells and its regulation by activated protein C were explored by flow cytometry. TPO content of cell extract as well as plasma of a patient with ovarian cancer was evaluated by ELISA...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321257/class-specific-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-promote-11-beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2-expression-in-jeg-3-cells
#3
Katie L Togher, Louise C Kenny, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Exposure to maternal cortisol plays a crucial role in fetal organogenesis. However, fetal overexposure to cortisol has been linked to a range of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Normally, this is prevented by the expression of an enzyme in the placenta called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) which converts active cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone. Placental 11β-HSD2 is known to be reduced in a number of adverse pregnancy complications, possibly through an epigenetic mechanism...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286521/pulling-a-ligase-out-of-a-hat-pcaf-mediates-ubiquitination-of-the-class-ii-transactivator
#4
Julie E Morgan, Susanna F Greer
The Class II Transactivator (CIITA) is essential to the regulation of Major Histocompatibility Class II (MHC II) genes transcription. As the "master regulator" of MHC II transcription, CIITA regulation is imperative and requires various posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in order to facilitate its role. Previously we identified various ubiquitination events on CIITA. Monoubiquitination is important for CIITA transactivity, while K63 linked ubiquitination is involved in crosstalk with ERK1/2 phosphorylation, where together they mediate cellular movement from the cytoplasm to nuclear region...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083070/biologics-for-targeting-inflammatory-cytokines-clinical-uses-and-limitations
#5
REVIEW
Peleg Rider, Yaron Carmi, Idan Cohen
Proinflammatory cytokines are potent mediators of numerous biological processes and are tightly regulated in the body. Chronic uncontrolled levels of such cytokines can initiate and derive many pathologies, including incidences of autoimmunity and cancer. Therefore, therapies that regulate the activity of inflammatory cytokines, either by supplementation of anti-inflammatory recombinant cytokines or by neutralizing them by using blocking antibodies, have been extensively used over the past decades. Over the past few years, new innovative biological agents for blocking and regulating cytokine activities have emerged...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843454/localisation-of-lactate-transporters-in-rat-and-rabbit-placentae
#6
Nigel P Moore, Catherine A Picut, Jeffrey H Charlap
The distribution of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) isoforms 1 and 4, which mediate the plasmalemmal transport of l-lactic and pyruvic acids, has been identified in the placentae of rats and rabbits at different ages of gestation. Groups of three pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand White rabbits were sacrificed on gestation days (GD) 11, 14, 18, or 20 and on GD 13, 18, or 28, respectively. Placentae were removed and processed for immunohistochemical detection of MCT1 and MCT4. In the rat, staining for MCT1 was associated with lakes and blood vessels containing enucleated red blood cells (maternal vessels) while staining for MCT4 was associated with vessels containing nucleated red blood cells (embryofoetal vessels)...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840640/microwave-assisted-tissue-preparation-for-rapid-fixation-decalcification-antigen-retrieval-cryosectioning-and-immunostaining
#7
REVIEW
Kazuo Katoh
Microwave irradiation of tissue during fixation and subsequent histochemical staining procedures significantly reduces the time required for incubation in fixation and staining solutions. Minimizing the incubation time in fixative reduces disruption of tissue morphology, and reducing the incubation time in staining solution or antibody solution decreases nonspecific labeling. Reduction of incubation time in staining solution also decreases the level of background noise. Microwave-assisted tissue preparation is applicable for tissue fixation, decalcification of bone tissues, treatment of adipose tissues, antigen retrieval, and other special staining of tissues...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833641/carbohydrate-moieties-and-cytoenzymatic-characterization-of-hemocytes-in-whiteleg-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#8
Norma Estrada, Edwin Velázquez, Carmen Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Felipe Ascencio
Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular) exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642298/connexin-s-connection-in-breast-cancer-growth-and-progression
#9
REVIEW
Debarshi Banerjee
Gap junctions are cell-to-cell junctions that are located in the basolateral surface of two adjoining cells. A gap junction channel is composed of a family of proteins called connexins. Gap junction channels maintain intercellular communication between two cells through the exchange of ions, small metabolites, and electrical signals. Gap junction channels or connexins are widespread in terms of their expression and function in maintaining the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of vertebrate tissues...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516776/stem-cells-applications-in-regenerative-medicine-and-disease-therapeutics
#10
REVIEW
Ranjeet Singh Mahla
Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease. The spectacular progress in the field of stem cell research has laid the foundation for cell based therapies of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The indefinite self-renewal and potential to differentiate into other types of cells represent stem cells as frontiers of regenerative medicine...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26798342/measured-effects-of-wnt3a-on-proliferation-of-hek293t-cells-depend-on-the-applied-assay
#11
Patricia Reischmann, Johanna Fiebeck, Nadine von der Weiden, Oliver Müller
The Wnt signaling pathway has been associated with many essential cell processes. This study aims to examine the effects of Wnt signaling on proliferation of cultured HEK293T cells. Cells were incubated with Wnt3a, and the activation of the Wnt pathway was followed by analysis of the level of the β-catenin protein and of the expression levels of the target genes MYC and CCND1. The level of β-catenin protein increased up to fourfold. While the mRNA levels of c-Myc and cyclin D1 increased slightly, the protein levels increased up to a factor of 1...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26713093/integration-of-mitochondrial-targeting-for-molecular-cancer-therapeutics
#12
REVIEW
Philippe Marchetti, Pierre Guerreschi, Laurent Mortier, Jerome Kluza
Mitochondrial metabolism greatly influences cancer cell survival, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to many anticancer drugs. Furthermore, molecular-targeted therapies (e.g., oncogenic kinase inhibitors) create a dependence of surviving cells on mitochondrial metabolism. For these reasons, inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism represents promising therapeutic pathways in cancer. This review provides an overview of mitochondrial metabolism in cancer and discusses the limitations of mitochondrial inhibition for cancer treatment...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689952/effects-of-activating-mutations-on-egfr-cellular-protein-turnover-and-amino-acid-recycling-determined-using-silac-mass-spectrometry
#13
Michael J Greig, Sherry Niessen, Scott L Weinrich, Jun Li Feng, Manli Shi, Ted O Johnson
Rapid mutations of proteins that are targeted in cancer therapy often lead to drug resistance. Often, the mutation directly affects a drug's binding site, effectively blocking binding of the drug, but these mutations can have other effects such as changing the protein turnover half-life. Utilizing SILAC MS, we measured the cellular turnover rates of an important non-small cell lung cancer target, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Wild-type (WT) EGFR, EGFR with a single activating mutant (Del 746-750 or L858R), and the drug-resistant double mutant (L858R/T790M) EGFR were analyzed...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26664363/a-simple-and-efficient-method-for-preparing-cell-slides-and-staining-without-using-cytocentrifuge-and-cytoclips
#14
Xiaotang Hu, Verronika Laguerre, Daniel Packert, Alice Nakasone, Lynn Moscinski
Cell staining is a necessary and useful technique for visualizing cell morphology and structure under a microscope. This technique has been used in many areas such as cytology, hematology, oncology, histology, virology, serology, microbiology, cell biology, and immunochemistry. One of the key pieces of equipment for preparing a slide for cell staining is cytology centrifuge (cytocentrifuge) such as cytospin. However, many small labs do not have this expensive equipment and its accessory, cytoclips (also expensive relatively), which makes them difficult to study cell cytology...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472958/hyaluronan-synthase-the-mechanism-of-initiation-at-the-reducing-end-and-a-pendulum-model-for-polysaccharide-translocation-to-the-cell-exterior
#15
REVIEW
Paul H Weigel
Hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis has been studied for over six decades, but our understanding of the biochemical details of how HA synthase (HAS) assembles HA is still incomplete. Class I family members include mammalian and streptococcal HASs, the focus of this review, which add new intracellular sugar-UDPs at the reducing end of growing hyaluronyl-UDP chains. HA-producing cells typically create extracellular HA coats (capsules) and also secrete HA into the surrounding space. Since HAS contains multiple transmembrane domains and is lipid-dependent, we proposed in 1999 that it creates an intraprotein HAS-lipid pore through which a growing HA-UDP chain is translocated continuously across the cell membrane to the exterior...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448762/selective-activation-of-cancer-stem-cells-by-size-specific-hyaluronan-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#16
Marisa Shiina, Lilly Y W Bourguignon
We determined that human head and neck cancer cells (HSC-3 cell line) contain a subpopulation displaying cancer stem cell (CSC) properties and are very tumorigenic. Specifically, we investigated whether different sizes of hyaluronan (HA) (e.g., 5 kDa, 20 kDa, 200 kDa, or 700 kDa-HA-sizes) play a role in regulating these CSCs. First, we observed that 200 kDa-HA (but not other sizes of HA) preferentially induces certain stem cell marker expression resulting in self-renewal and clonal formation of these cells...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448761/high-sensitivity-method-to-estimate-distribution-of-hyaluronan-molecular-sizes-in-small-biological-samples-using-gas-phase-electrophoretic-mobility-molecular-analysis
#17
Lan Do, Christen P Dahl, Susanne Kerje, Peter Hansell, Stellan Mörner, Ulla Lindqvist, Anna Engström-Laurent, Göran Larsson, Urban Hellman
Hyaluronan is a negatively charged polydisperse polysaccharide where both its size and tissue concentration play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The various functions of hyaluronan depend on its molecular size. Up to now, it has been difficult to study the role of hyaluronan in diseases with pathological changes in the extracellular matrix where availability is low or tissue samples are small. Difficulty to obtain large enough biopsies from human diseased tissue or tissue from animal models has also restricted the study of hyaluronan...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448760/roles-of-proteoglycans-and-glycosaminoglycans-in-wound-healing-and-fibrosis
#18
REVIEW
Shibnath Ghatak, Edward V Maytin, Judith A Mack, Vincent C Hascall, Ilia Atanelishvili, Ricardo Moreno Rodriguez, Roger R Markwald, Suniti Misra
A wound is a type of injury that damages living tissues. In this review, we will be referring mainly to healing responses in the organs including skin and the lungs. Fibrosis is a process of dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) production that leads to a dense and functionally abnormal connective tissue compartment (dermis). In tissues such as the skin, the repair of the dermis after wounding requires not only the fibroblasts that produce the ECM molecules, but also the overlying epithelial layer (keratinocytes), the endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel and white blood cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, which together orchestrate the cytokine-mediated signaling and paracrine interactions that are required to regulate the proper extent and timing of the repair process...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448759/correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy-reveals-the-has3-induced-dorsal-plasma-membrane-ruffles
#19
Kirsi Rilla, Arto Koistinen
Hyaluronan is a linear sugar polymer synthesized by three isoforms of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1, 2, and 3) that forms a hydrated scaffold around cells and is an essential component of the extracellular matrix. The morphological changes of cells induced by active hyaluronan synthesis are well recognized but not studied in detail with high resolution before. We have previously found that overexpression of HAS3 induces growth of long plasma membrane protrusions that act as platforms for hyaluronan synthesis. The study of these thin and fragile protrusions is challenging, and they are difficult to preserve by fixation unless they are adherent to the substrate...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448758/hyaluronan-synthase-3-null-mice-exhibit-decreased-intestinal-inflammation-and-tissue-damage-in-the-dss-induced-colitis-model
#20
Sean P Kessler, Dana R Obery, Carol de la Motte
Hyaluronan (HA) overproduction is a hallmark of multiple inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hyaluronan can act as a leukocyte recruitment molecule and in the most common mouse model of intestinal inflammation, the chemically induced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis model, we previously determined that changes in colon distribution of HA occur before inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that, during a pathologic challenge, HA promotes inflammation. In this study, we tested the progression of inflammation in mice null for the hyaluronan synthase genes (HAS1, HAS3, or both HAS1 and HAS3) in the DSS-colitis model...
2015: International Journal of Cell Biology
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