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Case Reports in Neurology

Kristen Lew, Nishith Mewada, Sahana Ramanujam, Bahareh Hassanzadeh, John E Donahue, Leema Reddy Peddareddygari, Robert Moser, Charles Kososky, Raji P Grewal
We report a 35-year-old healthy male who developed central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease consistent with tumefactive multiple sclerosis. About 2 weeks after onset of symptoms and prior to initiation of therapy, the patient had lymphopenia and low CD4 and CD8 levels. His lymphocyte count was 400 cells/µl (850-3,900 cells/µl), CD4 was 193 cells/µl (490-1,740 cells/µl) and CD8 was 103 cells/µl (180-1,170 cells/µl). He was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by therapeutic plasma exchange, the levels of CD4 and CD8 normalized, and ultimately, he recovered completely...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Sira Carrasco García de León, José Manuel Flores Barragán, Natalia Villasanti Rivas
Sacrococcygeal chordoma is a malignant tumour originating from remnants of the notochord. Chordomas are slow-growing tumours whose symptoms develop insidiously. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with a 6-month history of genital pain radiating to the perianal area and exacerbating when she was in a sitting position. MRI and PET studies revealed a large mass in the sacrococcygeal region causing bone destruction and invasion of neurovascular structures. The immunohistochemical study of the surgical specimen determined it to be chordoma...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Elisabeth B Marsh, Wendy C Ziai, Rafael H Llinas
INTRODUCTION: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) typically affects young patients and left untreated can result in hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. Though the disorder has been well characterized in the literature, the most appropriate way to diagnose, treat, and evaluate therapeutic response remains unclear. In previous studies, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has shown elevated velocities indicative of vasospasm. This imaging modality is noninvasive and inexpensive; an attractive option for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring if it is sensitive enough to detect changes in the acute setting given that RCVS often affects the distal vessels early in the course of disease...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Tomoya Shibahara, Tomonaga Matsushita, Ryu Matsuo, Yoshihisa Fukushima, Kenji Fukuda, Hiroshi Sugimori, Masahiro Kamouchi, Takanari Kitazono, Tetsuro Ago
Rheumatoid meningoencephalitis (RM) is a rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This report describes a 63-year-old man with complaints of high-grade fever, headache, and vomiting for several days before admission. Both his serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody and rheumatoid factor, and contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed abnormal gadolinium enhancement of the meninges and high-intensity lesions in the subarachnoid spaces...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Nora Elfiky, Kelly Baldwin
Chronic meningitis and ventriculitis are defined as inflammatory pleocytoses in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and ependyma that persists for at least 1 month without spontaneous resolution. Because the CSF communicates directly with the posterior compartments of the eye, fungal infections in the brain often cause secondary ophthalmologic complications. We report a 23-year-old male who presented to the emergency room with progressive severe headaches associated with insidious monocular vision loss. After extensive workup and a multidisciplinary team effort, the patient was diagnosed with ventriculitis and endogenous endopthalmitis...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Cláudia Borbinha, João Pedro Marto, Sofia Calado, Miguel Viana-Baptista
Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are recognized complications of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections, although uncommon and poorly documented. The authors report the case of a 31-year-old woman admitted with acute ischemic stroke of the right posterior cerebral artery and a history of a thoracic rash 1 month before. Aspirin and simvastatin were prescribed, but the patient suffered a stepwise deterioration the following days, with new areas of infarction on brain imaging. Despite no evidence of cardiac or large vessel embolic sources, anticoagulation was started empirically 6 days after stroke onset...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Waldemar Kafke, Peter Kraft
We describe a 75-year-old female patient with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who presented with acute ischemic stroke during treatment with dabigatran 2 × 110 mg per day. After informed consent, we reversed the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran using idarucizumab and applied an intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (off-label use). An intracerebral hemorrhage was excluded after systemic thrombolysis. Despite the IVT, the patient's clinical condition deteriorated and she developed an ischemic lesion in the right pons, the right thalamus and right cerebellum...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Dietrich Sturm, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke, Tineke Greiner, Christoph Maier, Marc Schargus, Martin Tegenthoff, Matthias Vorgerd
Changes in the subbasal corneal plexus detected by confocal cornea microscopy (CCM) have been described for various types of neuropathy. An involvement of these nerves within light-chain (AL) amyloid neuropathy (a rare cause of polyneuropathy) has never been shown. Here, we report on a case of a patient suffering from neuropathy caused by AL amyloidosis and underlying multiple myeloma. Small-fiber damage was detected by CCM.
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Philippe Dillien, Susana Ferrao Santos, Vincent van Pesch, Vanessa Suin, Sophie Lamoral, Philippe Hantson
A 27-year-old previously healthy woman was admitted to the hospital with recurrent seizures. Status epilepticus developed that became refractory to third-line therapy with propofol and barbiturates. The patient had a very extensive diagnostic workup including autoimmune, viral and genetic investigations. A tentative immune therapy was proposed with high doses of steroids and plasma exchanges. Our patient had an inherited heterozygous single nucleotide variant in the sequence c.1280A>G [p.Lys427Arg] of the SMC3 gene that was insufficient to explain the seizures...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Leema Reddy Peddareddygari, Kinsi Oberoi, Jaasrini Reddy Vellore, Raji P Grewal
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) is an autosomal dominant axonal neuropathy caused by mutations in various genes. The subtype CMT2B results from missense mutations in RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family gene, whereas missense mutations in the Leucine-rich repeat and sterile alpha motif-containing protein 1 (LRSAM1) gene cause CMT2P. We describe the genotype/phenotype analysis of a family in which a previously described mutation in the RAB7A gene and a novel mutation in the LRSAM1 gene were identified...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Andrea Botturi, Antonio Silvani, Gabriella Pravettoni, Riccardo Augusto Paoli, Claudio Lucchiari
Neurological and psychiatric conditions frequently overlap in neuro-oncology. This overlapping negatively affects patients' quality of life and decreases the ability of providers to manage specific symptoms by therapy modulation, especially when psychopharmacotherapy needs to be prescribed. We describe here a patient with recurrent brain tumor, symptomatic epilepsy and depression who developed Pisa syndrome and parkinsonism after several months of valproic acid use. An accurate recognition of symptoms and treatment side effect allowed an appropriate clinical approach so as to rapidly improve both movement disorder and depression without increasing the risk of developing seizure...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Daniela Leupold, Ansgar Felbecker, Barbara Tettenborn, Thomas Hundsberger
INTRODUCTION: The additional value of peripheral nerve ultrasound in acquired immune-mediated neuropathies has recently been reported. Its impact in vasculitic neuropathy is yet to be defined. We report electrophysiological and nerve ultrasound studies in a patient with nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy at first diagnosis and in response to immunosuppression. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old female presented with painful neuropathy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Nabeel Badri, Mohamed Teleb, Saad Syed, Miraie Wardi, Mateo Porres-Aguilar, Salvador Cruz-Flores
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disease, common in white females and rarely reported in Hispanic males. It is usually associated with recurrent demyelinating spectrum that is autoimmune in nature. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by antibody biomarkers; however, they can be negative and lead to more dilemma in diagnosis. Furthermore, the course of disease and prognosis are different in seronegative as compared to seropositive NMO. Treatment is similar in both subgroups with new approaches under investigation for seronegative NMO patients...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Reginald Lafleur, Justyna Watkowska, Guoping Zhou, Phenix Alcide, Henock Saint-Jacques
Atrial myxoma is one of the most common primary cardiac tumors reported in the literature. In very rare instances, stroke has been the sequelae after a myxomatous tumor resection. We report this unique case of late ischemic cerebral event in a 46-year-old female some days after resection of a left atrial myxoma.
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Scott J Sherman, Miguel Estevez, Ari B Magill, Torsten Falk
Ketamine is an FDA-approved drug with a known safety profile. Low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment has led to long-term reduction of treatment-resistant depression and of chronic pain states. We report on low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients by 5 case studies and show a long-lasting therapeutic benefit to reduce l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), improve on time, and reduce depression. Based on the literature we hypothesize that low-dose ketamine may act as a 'chemical deep brain stimulation', by desynchronizing hypersynchronous oscillatory brain activity, including in the basal ganglia and the motor cortex...
January 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Mohammed Alsomaili, Ahmad A Abulaban
Spinal cord schistosomiasis is difficult to diagnose in nonendemic areas. We report the clinical profile of 2 young Saudi males who presented with myelopathy. The first patient arrived at our hospital relatively late, i.e. 3 months following the presentation of initial symptoms, and had received both pulse steroid therapy and a plasma exchange. Praziquantel was administered late and the patient did not recover. The second case presented early, i.e. within around 8 weeks of initial symptoms. This patient received praziquantel without any kind of steroid and had a complete recovery...
January 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Takeshi Satow, Tomotaka Kawase, Atsushi Kitamura, Yuki Kajitani, Takuya Yamaguchi, Nobuhiko Tanabe, Reiko Otoi, Taro Komuro, Akira Kobayashi, Hirokazu Nagata, Tatsuya Mima
BACKGROUND: Walking ability is important in stroke patients to maintain daily life. Nevertheless, its improvement is limited with conventional physical therapy in chronic stage. We report the case of a chronic stroke patient showing a remarkable improvement in gait function after a new neurorehabilitation protocol using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old male with left putaminal hemorrhage suffered from severe right hemiparesis...
January 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Silvia R Delgado, Leticia Tornes, Janice Maldonado, Jeffrey Hernandez, Yesica Campos, Kottil Rammohan
We present the case of a young man who was transferred to our hospital with worsening acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. He developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) without the use of dopamine-modulating drugs. His progressive clinical improvement started after treatment with intravenous cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone. In our patient, acute demyelination with severe bilateral inflammation of the basal ganglia could have caused a state of central dopamine depletion, creating proper conditions for the development of NMS...
January 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Amal Alkhotani, Nouf Alrishi, M Salem Alhalabi, Tahira Hamid
Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) is a diffuse or multifocal malignant infiltration of the pia matter and arachnoid membrane. The most commonly reported cancers associated with LMC are breast, lung, and hematological malignancies. Patients with LMC commonly present with multifocal neurological symptoms. We report a case of LMC secondary to gastroesopha-geal junction cancer present initially with cauda equina syndrome. A 51-year-old male patient with treated adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction presented with left leg pain, mild weakness, and saddle area numbness...
January 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Young Kyoung Jang, Seongbeom Park, Hee Jin Kim, Hanna Cho, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Sang Won Seo, Duk L Na
BACKGROUND: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a degenerative disease that presents as progressive decline of language ability with preservation of other cognitive functions in the early stages. Three subtypes of PPA are known: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic aphasia (LPA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 77-year-old patient with PPA whose clinical findings did not correspond to the three subtypes but mainly fit LPA...
January 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
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