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Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039297/the-impact-of-periconceptional-alcohol-exposure-on-fat-preference-and-gene-expression-in-the-mesolimbic-reward-pathway-in-adult-rat-offspring
#1
E S Dorey, C L Cullen, D Lucia, K M Mah, M-L Roy Manchadi, B S Muhlhausler, K M Moritz
Alcohol consumption around the time of conception is highly prevalent in Western countries. Exposure to ethanol levels during gestation has been associated with altered development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in rats and increased propensity to addiction, however the effect of exposure only around the time of conception is unknown. The current study investigated the effects of periconceptional alcohol exposure (PC:EtOH) on alcohol and palatable food preferences and gene expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens of the adult offspring...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039296/effect-of-human-milk-formula-with-bovine-colostrum-supplementation-on-bone-mineral-density-in-infant-cynomolgus-macaques
#2
N Tay, Y C Tan, K Chng, C Libedinsky, P Gluckman, J P Buschdorf
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a regulator of human growth during infancy and childhood, known to promote bone and muscle growth as well as lipid accumulation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of formula milk with or without IGF1 supplementation (in the form of pure IGF1 or bovine colostrum) on growth and body composition in infant cynomolgus macaques during the first 6 months of life. Three groups of infants were nursery-reared and received formula milk with or without IGF1 or bovine colostrum supplementation for 4 months, and a fourth group consisting of breast-fed infants was included for comparison (n=6 for each group)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017633/associations-between-maternal-prenatal-stress-methylation-changes-in-igf1-and-igf2-and-birth-weight
#3
D Montoya-Williams, J Quinlan, C Clukay, N C Rodney, D A Kertes, C J Mulligan
Maternal stress has been linked to low birth weight in newborns. One potential pathway involves epigenetic changes at candidate genes that may mediate the effects of prenatal maternal stress on birth weight. This relationship has been documented in stress-related genes, such as NR3C1. There is less literature exploring the effect of stress on growth-related genes. IGF1 and IGF2 have been implicated in fetal growth and development, though via different mechanisms as IGF2 is under imprinting control. In this study, we tested for associations between prenatal stress, methylation of IGF1 and IGF2, and birth weight...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017630/poor-perinatal-growth-impairs-baboon-aortic-windkessel-function
#4
A H Kuo, J Li, C Li, H F Huber, P W Nathanielsz, G D Clarke
The ability of the aorta to buffer blood flow and provide diastolic perfusion (Windkessel function) is a determinant of cardiovascular health. We have reported cardiac dysfunction indicating downstream vascular abnormalities in young adult baboons who were intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at birth as a result of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. Using 3 T MRI, we examined IUGR offspring (eight male, eight female; 5.7 years; human equivalent 25 years) and age-matched controls (eight male, eight female; 5...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017617/birth-weight-and-postnatal-microbial-exposures-predict-the-distribution-of-peripheral-blood-leukocyte-subsets-in-young-adults-in-the-philippines
#5
T W McDade, M J Jones, G Miller, J Borja, M S Kobor, C W Kuzawa
The immune system not only provides protection against infectious disease but also contributes to the etiology of neoplastic, atopic, and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Prenatal and postnatal nutritional and microbial environments have lasting effects on multiple aspects of immunity, indicating that immune processes may play important roles in the developmental origins of disease. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between birth weight and the distribution of leukocyte (white blood cell) subsets in peripheral blood in young adulthood...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978364/assisted-reproductive-technologies-a-hierarchy-of-risks-for-conception-pregnancy-outcomes-and-treatment-decisions-erratum
#6
M J Davies, A R Rumbold, V M Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899439/psychological-morbidity-and-parenting-stress-in-mothers-of-primary-school-children-by-timing-of-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-in-rural-south-africa
#7
T J Rochat, B Houle, A Stein, R M Pearson, M L Newell, R M Bland
Longitudinal maternal mental health data are needed from high HIV prevalence settings. The Siyakhula Cohort (SC) is a population-based cohort of HIV-positive and negative mothers (n=1506) with HIV-negative children (n=1536) from rural South Africa. SC includes 767 HIV-negative mothers; 465 HIV-positive in pregnancy; 272 HIV-positive since pregnancy (n=2 missing HIV status). A subgroup (n=890) participated in a non-randomized breastfeeding intervention [Vertical Transmission Study (VTS)]; the remaining (n=616) were resident in the same area and received antenatal care at the time of the VTS, but were not part of the VTS, instead receiving the standard of care Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Programme...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889823/epigenetics-and-dohad-from-basics-to-birth-and-beyond
#8
T Bianco-Miotto, J M Craig, Y P Gasser, S J van Dijk, S E Ozanne
Developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is the study of how the early life environment can impact the risk of chronic diseases from childhood to adulthood and the mechanisms involved. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs are involved in mediating how early life environment impacts later health. This review is a summary of the Epigenetics and DOHaD workshop held at the 2016 DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand Conference. Our extensive knowledge of how the early life environment impacts later risk for chronic disease would not have been possible without animal models...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877776/maternal-body-weight-trajectories-across-the-life-course-and-risk-of-preterm-delivery
#9
J K Straughen, M Bazydlo, S Havstad, F Shafie-Khorassani, D P Misra
We examined the association between life course body weight percentile trajectories and risk for preterm delivery (PTD). Data about women's weight at birth, age 18, and before pregnancy were obtained by retrospective self-report in a cohort of 1410 black women in metropolitan Detroit. Growth mixture models were used to categorize women with similar weight percentile trajectories across these time points. Log-Poisson models were used to examine the association between the trajectory groups and PTD. Four trajectory groups with different beginning and endpoints of their weight percentiles (high-high, high-low, low-high and low-low) best fit the data...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877770/first-trimester-antenatal-depression-and-anxiety-prevalence-and-associated-factors-in-an-urban-population-in-soweto-south-africa
#10
S Redinger, S A Norris, R M Pearson, L Richter, T Rochat
Depression and anxiety in the antenatal period are of public health concern given potential adverse effects for both mother and infant. Both are under-researched in the first trimester of pregnancy, especially in Africa. We examine the prevalence of first trimester antenatal depression and anxiety in a cohort of South African women and investigate associated risk factors. Data were collected from 946 women (2014-2016) in the Soweto First 1000 Days Cohort, a prospective pregnancy cohort in Soweto, South Africa...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870276/the-developing-world-of-dohad
#11
K Suzuki
Since its debut in a ground-breaking report by Barker and Osmond in 1986, the concept of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has been further developed in several aspects. Its methodology and conclusions relating to proposed origins and outcomes of early life events have been developing and spreading internationally. Indeed, the DOHaD concept now seems to have influenced many fields of research. This article aims to briefly review why the DOHaD concept is important in biomedical science, how it has developed, is currently developing, and how it should develop in future...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870272/in-rats-gestational-iron-deficiency-does-not-change-body-fat-or-hepatic-mitochondria-in-the-aged-offspring
#12
W D Rees, S M Hay, H E Hayes, C Birgovan, H J McArdle
Mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting changes in adiposity have been observed in the offspring of animals fed a high fat (HF) diet. As iron is an important component of the mitochondria, we have studied the offspring of female rats fed complete (Con) or iron-deficient (FeD) rations for the duration of gestation to test for similar effects. The FeD offspring were ~12% smaller at weaning and remained so because of a persistent reduction in lean tissue mass. The offspring were fed a complete (stock) diet until 52 weeks of age after which some animals from each litter were fed a HF diet for a further 12 weeks...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847340/genome-organization-connecting-the-developmental-origins-of-disease-and-genetic-variation
#13
E Jacobson, M H Vickers, J K Perry, J M O'Sullivan
An adverse early life environment can increase the risk of metabolic and other disorders later in life. Genetic variation can modify an individual's susceptibility to these environmental challenges. These gene by environment interactions are important, but difficult, to dissect. The nucleus is the primary organelle where environmental responses impact directly on the genetic variants within the genome, resulting in changes to the biology of the genome and ultimately the phenotype. Understanding genome biology requires the integration of the linear DNA sequence, epigenetic modifications and nuclear proteins that are present within the nucleus...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847339/sleep-patterning-changes-in-a-prenatal-stress-model-of-depression
#14
H M Sickmann, C Skoven, J F Bastlund, T B Dyrby, N Plath, K A Kohlmeier, M P Kristensen
Clinical depression is accompanied by changes in sleep patterning, which is controlled in a circadian fashion. It is thus desirable that animal models of depression mirror such diurnally-specific state alterations, along with other behavioral and physiological changes. We previously found several changes in behavior indicative of a depression-like phenotype in offspring of rats subjected to repeated, variable prenatal stress (PNS), including increased locomotor activity during specific periods of the circadian cycle...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829006/responsibility-in-the-age-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-dohad-and-epigenetics
#15
H Ismaili M'hamdi, I de Beaufort, B Jack, E A P Steegers
Insights from the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease paradigm and epigenetics are elucidating the biological pathways through which social and environmental signals affect human health. These insights prompt a serious debate about how the structure of society affects health and what the responsibility of society is to counteract health inequalities. Unfortunately, oversimplified interpretations of insights from Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and epigenetics may be (mis)used to focus on the importance of individual responsibility for health rather than the social responsibility for health...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805180/diabetes-and-pregnancy-in-wistar-rats-renal-effects-for-mothers-in-the-postpartum-period
#16
N França-Silva, N G Reis, P F Santos, A P C Balbi
In this study, diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in Wistar rats during pregnancy and maintained in the postpartum period (PP) and we evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal immunohistochemical and morphometric studies from different groups: G1 (non-pregnant control rats), G2 (non-pregnant diabetic rats), G3 (control mothers) and G4 (diabetic mothers). We found that there were no differences in relation to SBP, but there was a tendency for reduction in GFR from G4 compared with the other groups (G)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805172/the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-and-sustainable-development-goals-mapping-the-way-forward
#17
N Kajee, E Sobngwi, A Macnab, A S Daar
In this paper, meant to stimulate debate, we argue that there is considerable benefit in approaching together the implementation of two seemingly separate recent developments. First, on the global development agenda, we have the United Nations General Assembly's 2015 finalized list of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Several of the SDGs are related to health. Second, the field of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) has garnered enough compelling evidence demonstrating that early exposures in life affect not only future health, but that the effects of that exposure can be transmitted across generations - necessitating that we begin to focus on prevention...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789711/does-growth-restriction-increase-the-vulnerability-to-acute-ventilation-induced-brain-injury-in-newborn-lambs-implications-for-future-health-and-disease
#18
B J Allison, S B Hooper, E Coia, G Jenkin, A Malhotra, V Zahra, A Sehgal, M Kluckow, A W Gill, T Yawno, G R Polglase, M Castillo-Melendez, S L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm birth are frequent co-morbidities, both are independent risks for brain injury. However, few studies have examined the mechanisms by which preterm FGR increases the risk of adverse neurological outcomes. We aimed to determine the effects of prematurity and mechanical ventilation (VENT) on the brain of FGR and appropriately grown (AG, control) lambs. We hypothesized that FGR preterm lambs are more vulnerable to ventilation-induced acute brain injury. FGR was surgically induced in fetal sheep (0...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784190/beyond-the-dyad-making-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-dohad-interventions-more-inclusive
#19
M Pentecost, F C Ross, A Macnab
Pregnant women, children under 2 and the first thousand days of life have been principal targets for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease interventions. This paradigm has been criticized for laying responsibility for health outcomes on pregnant women and mothers and through the thousand days focus inadvertently deflecting attention from other windows for intervention. Drawing on insights from the South African context, this commentary argues for integrated and inclusive interventions that encompass broader social framings...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780912/exercise-during-pregnancy-and-its-impact-on-mothers-and-offspring-in-humans-and-mice
#20
N Ferrari, I Bae-Gartz, C Bauer, R Janoschek, I Koxholt, E Mahabir, S Appel, M A Alejandre Alcazar, N Grossmann, C Vohlen, K Brockmeier, J Dötsch, E Hucklenbruch-Rother, C Graf
Exercise during pregnancy has beneficial effects on maternal and offspring's health in humans and mice. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This comparative study aimed to determine the long-term effects of an exercise program on metabolism, weight gain, body composition and changes in hormones [insulin, leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)]. Pregnant women (n=34) and mouse dams (n=44) were subjected to an exercise program compared with matched controls (period I). Follow-up in the offspring was performed over 6 months in humans, corresponding to postnatal day (P) 21 in mice (period II)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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