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Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease

W Phillips-Beck, S Sinclair, R Campbell, L Star, J Cidro, B Wicklow, L Guillemette, M I Morris, J M McGavock
Indigenous women and children experience some of the most profound health disparities globally. These disparities are grounded in historical and contemporary trauma secondary to colonial atrocities perpetuated by settler society. The health disparities that exist for chronic diseases may have their origins in early-life exposures that Indigenous women and children face. Mechanistically, there is evidence that these adverse exposures epigenetically modify genes associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. Interventions designed to support a resilient pregnancy and first 1000 days of life should abrogate disparities in early-life socioeconomic status...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Majdi Imterat, Tamar Wainstock, Jacob Moran-Gilad, Eyal Sheiner, Asnat Walfisch
Otitis media (OM) carries a tremendous global health burden and potentially severe long-term consequences. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of birth at different gestational ages on the incidence of childhood OM.A population-based cohort analysis was conducted. All singleton deliveries occurring between 1991 and 2014 at a regional tertiary medical center were included. Gestational age on delivery was divided into six subgroups: early (<34 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7) and late (34 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 36 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7) preterm, and early (37 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 38 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7), full (39 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 40 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7), late (41 weeks gestation; 0 out of 7 to 41 weeks gestation; 6 out of 7) and post (⩾42 weeks 0 out of 7) term deliveries...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Betul Kocaadam, Eda Koksal, Kudret Ebru Ozcan, Canan Turkyilmaz
Adiponectin and leptin are involved in appetite control and body weight regulation. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between breast milk adipokine levels and short-term growth of preterm and term infants. Thirty-one preterm (median=35.3 weeks) and 34 term (median=38.7 weeks) infants were enrolled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect adipokines in mature milk. Infant growth was followed during the first 3 months. Although weight gain in the first month was insufficient, positive linear growth was observed in the following months for preterm infants, while term infants had positive steady linear growth...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
N Letourneau, D Dewey, B J Kaplan, H Ntanda, J Novick, J C Thomas, A J Deane, B Leung, K Pon, G F Giesbrecht
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) of parents are associated with a variety of negative health outcomes in offspring. Little is known about the mechanisms by which ACEs are transmitted to the next generation. Given that maternal depression and anxiety are related to ACEs and negatively affect children's behaviour, these exposures may be pathways between maternal ACEs and child psychopathology. Child sex may modify these associations. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the association between ACEs and children's behaviour, (2) whether maternal symptoms of prenatal and postnatal depression and anxiety mediate the relationship between maternal ACEs and children's behaviour, and (3) whether these relationships are moderated by child sex...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
M Desai, M G Ferrini, J K Jellyman, G Han, M G Ross
In utero exposure to the ubiquitous plasticizer, bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with offspring obesity. As adipogenesis is a critical factor contributing to obesity, we determined the effects of in vivo maternal BPA and in vitro BPA exposure on newborn adipose tissue at the stem-cell level. For in vivo studies, female rats received BPA before and during pregnancy and lactation via drinking water, and offspring were studied for measures of adiposity signals. For in vitro BPA exposure, primary pre-adipocyte cell cultures from healthy newborns were utilized...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
A Aylott, A Zwicker, L E MacKenzie, J Cumby, L Propper, S Abidi, A Bagnell, H L Fisher, B Pavlova, M Alda, R Uher
Children of parents with major mood and psychotic disorders are at increased risk of psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. It has been suggested that the risk of psychosis may be more often transmitted from parent to opposite-sex offspring (e.g., from father to daughter) than to same-sex offspring (e.g., from father to son). To test whether sex-specific transmission extends to early manifestations of psychosis, we examined sex-specific contributions to psychotic symptoms among offspring of mothers and fathers with depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
C Miller, D Grynspan, L Gaudet, E Ferretti, S Lawrence, F Moretti, A Lafreniere, A McGee, S Lattuca, A Black
The epidemic of prescription and non-prescription opioid misuse is of particular importance in pregnancy. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada currently recommends opioid replacement therapy with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. This vulnerable segment of the population has been shown to be at increased risk of blood-borne infectious diseases, nutritional insecurity and stress. The objective of this study was to describe an urban cohort of pregnant women on opioid replacement therapy and to evaluate potential effects on the fetus...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
H Rodriguez-Caro, S A Williams
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major problem as they are the leading cause of death and represent a substantial economic cost. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis' proposes that adverse stimuli at different life stages can increase the predisposition to these diseases. In fact, adverse in utero programming is a major origin of these diseases due to the high malleability of embryonic development. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the scientific literature on in utero programming and NCDs highlighting potential medical strategies to prevent these diseases based upon this programming...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
A V Khamoui, M Desai, M G Ross, H B Rossiter
Exposure to maternal over-nutrition in utero is linked with developmental programming of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease in offspring, which may be exacerbated by postnatal high-fat (HF) diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function contributes to substrate metabolism and is impaired in metabolic disease. We examined muscle mitochondrial respiration in male and female mice exposed to maternal HF diet in utero, followed by postweaning HF diet until middle age. After in utero exposure to maternal control (Con) or HF diet (45% kcal fat; 39...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
S K Bhat, L J Beilin, M Robinson, S Burrows, T A Mori
There is an increasing incidence of overweight/obesity and mental health disorders in young adults and the two conditions often coexist. We aimed to investigate the influence of antenatal and postnatal factors that may underlie this association with a focus on maternal prenatal smoking, socio-economic status and gender. Data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (women enrolled 1989-1991) including 1056 offspring aged 20 years (cohort recalled 2010-2012) were analyzed (2015-2016) using multivariable models for associations between offspring depression scores (DASS-21 Depression-scale) and body mass index (BMI), adjusting for pregnancy and early life factors and offspring behaviours...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
S Santos, D Zugna, C Pizzi, L Richiardi
In epidemiologic analytical studies, the primary goal is to obtain a valid and precise estimate of the effect of the exposure of interest on a given outcome in the population under study. A crucial source of violation of the internal validity of a study involves bias arising from confounding, which is always a challenge in observational research, including life course epidemiology. The increasingly popular approach of meta-analyzing individual participant data from several observational studies also brings up to discussion the problem of confounding when combining data from different populations...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
A A Adane, G D Mishra, L R Tooth
There is limited evidence on the association between maternal preconception body mass index (BMI) trajectories and pregnancy complications and child development. This study examined the relationships of maternal BMI trajectories, diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy and offspring's childhood physical and cognitive development. Data were from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and the Mothers and their Children's Health study (n=771). Women's preconception BMI trajectories were identified using group-based trajectory modelling...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
J F Felix, C A M Cecil
Epigenetic changes represent a potential mechanism underlying associations of early-life exposures and later life health outcomes. Population-based cohort studies starting in early life are an attractive framework to study the role of such changes. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic mechanism in population research. We discuss the application of DNA methylation in early-life population studies, some recent findings, key challenges and recommendations for future research. Studies into DNA methylation within the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease framework generally either explore associations between prenatal exposures and offspring DNA methylation or associations between offspring DNA methylation in early life and later health outcomes...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
K Woods-Townsend, H Leat, J Bay, L Bagust, H Davey, D Lovelock, A Christodoulou, J Griffiths, M Grace, K Godfrey, M Hanson, H Inskip
Adolescence is a critical time point in the lifecourse. LifeLab is an educational intervention engaging adolescents in understanding Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concepts and the impact of the early life environment on future health, benefitting both their long-term health and that of the next generation. We aimed to assess whether engaging adolescents with DOHaD concepts improves scientific literacy and whether engagement alone improves health behaviours.Six schools were randomized, three to intervention and three to control...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
C Maurice, M Kaczmarczyk, N Côté, Y Tremblay, S Kimmins, J L Bailey
Elevated levels of organochlorines (OC) have been reported in Inuit populations in the Arctic. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to a Canadian Arctic OC mixture adversely affects male reproductive function and health with age. Sprague-Dawley female rats (F0) were gavaged with an environmentally relevant concentration of an Arctic OC mixture or corn oil (Control) during mating with untreated males until parturition (F1 litters). After postnatal day (PND) 90, the weights of the OC F1 males differed dramatically relative to Controls (P<0...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
F Jabar, S Colatruglio, E Sellers, K Kroeker, B Wicklow
Children of mothers with youth-onset (<18 years) type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at increased risk of youth-onset T2D. In Canada, the highest reported prevalence of youth-onset T2D is in First Nation youth, some of whom harbor a unique genetic predisposition HNF1α polymorphism which has been associated with age of onset and clinical presentation. To describe the characteristics of the Next Generation birth cohort (n=260) at 7-9 years (n=88) and 14-16 years of age (n=27). This is a cross-sectional study of offspring exposed in utero to T2D (Next Generation Birth Cohort)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
C Juvet, U Simeoni, C Yzydorczyk, B Siddeek, J-B Armengaud, K Nardou, P Juvet, M Benahmed, F Cachat, H Chehade
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been identified as a risk factor for adult chronic kidney disease (CKD), including hypertension (HTN). Accelerated postnatal catch-up growth superimposed to IUGR has been shown to further increase the risk of CKD and HTN. Although the impact of excessive postnatal growth without previous IUGR is less clear, excessive postnatal overfeeding in experimental animals shows a strong impact on the risk of CKD and HTN in adulthood. On the other hand, food restriction in the postnatal period seems to have a protective effect on CKD programming...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
S Tu'akoi, M H Vickers, K Tairea, Y Y M Aung, N Tamarua-Herman, M 'Ofanoa, J L Bay
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are island nations that experience specific social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities associated with small populations, isolation and limited resources. Globally, SIDS exhibit exceptionally high rates of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk and incidence. Despite this, there is a lack of context-specific research within SIDS focused on life course approaches to NCD prevention, particularly the impact of the early-life environment on later disease risk as defined by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) framework...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
K Neier, D Cheatham, L D Bedrosian, D C Dolinoy
Developmental exposure to phthalates has been implicated as a risk for obesity; however, epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results and mechanisms are poorly understood. An additional layer of complexity in epidemiological studies is that humans are exposed to mixtures of many different phthalates. Here, we utilize an established mouse model of perinatal exposure to investigate the effects of three phthalates, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), on body weight and organ weights in weanling mice...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
B H Boehmer, L D Brown, S R Wesolowski, W W Hay, P J Rozance
Impaired β-cell development and insulin secretion are characteristic of intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses. In normally grown late gestation fetal sheep pancreatic β-cell numbers and insulin secretion are increased by 7-10 days of pulsatile hyperglycemia (PHG). Our objective was to determine if IUGR fetal sheep β-cell numbers and insulin secretion could also be increased by PHG or if IUGR fetal β-cells do not have the capacity to respond to PHG. Following chronic placental insufficiency producing IUGR in twin gestation pregnancies (n=7), fetuses were administered a PHG infusion, consisting of 60 min, high rate, pulsed infusions of dextrose three times a day with an additional continuous, low-rate infusion of dextrose to prevent a decrease in glucose concentrations between the pulses or a control saline infusion...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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