Read by QxMD icon Read

Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

Alexander Maxan, Francesca Cicchetti
There is compelling evidence that a number of neurodegenerative diseases share common pathogenic mechanisms. Better understanding these mechanisms will allow us to develop new therapeutic strategies. This commentary follows up on our recent findings that tau pathology can be found in healthy fetal tissue transplanted into the brain of patients with either Huntington or Parkinson disease. We will examine how tau appears to be shared in a number of different conditions and how its expression relates to cognitive decline and disease progression...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Bhavana Muralidharan, Leora D'Souza, Shubha Tole
We established an efficient cell culture assay that permits combinatorial genetic perturbations in hippocampal progenitors to examine cell-autonomous mechanisms of fate specification. The procedure begins with ex vivo electroporation of isolated, intact embryonic brains, in a manner similar to in utero electroporation but with greatly improved access and targeting. The electroporated region is then dissected and transiently maintained in organotypic explant culture, followed by dissociation and plating of cells on coverslips for in vitro culture...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Areeba Patel, Farooq Ali Khan, Arindam Sikdar, Amit Mondal, Sunil Dutt Shukla, Sukant Khurana
Phytomedicine has often been used as "alternative therapy," which in our opinion is unfortunate as it prevents its main actions being systematically studied, side effects explored, and toxicity tested, like all single-compound-based medicine. Our group is interested in finding which traditional or modern phytomedicines actually work and which are simply "working" through placebo, standardizing phytomedicine preparations, studying their toxicity, and finding active molecules in plants for modification and chemical synthesis as single compounds...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Antonio Mateus-Pinheiro, Nuno Dinis Alves, Nuno Sousa, Luisa Pinto
Since the recognition that the mammalian brain retains the ability to generate newborn neurons with functional relevance throughout life, the matrix of molecular regulators that govern adult neurogenesis has been the focus of much interest. In a recent study published in Molecular Psychiatry , we demonstrate Activating Protein 2γ (AP2γ), a transcription factor previously implicated in cell fate determination in the developing cortex, as a novel player in the regulation of glutamatergic neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Artem P Gureev, Ekaterina A Shaforostova, Anatoly A Starkov, Vasily N Popov
β-guanidinopropionic acid (β-GPA) has been used as a nutritional supplement for increasing physical strength and endurance with positive and predictable results. In muscles, it works as a nonadaptive stimulator of mitochondria biogenesis; it also increases lipid metabolism. There are data indicating that β-GPA can be also neuroprotective, but its mechanisms of action in the brain are less understood. We studied the effects of β-GPA on animal behavior and mitochondrial biogenesis in the cortex and midbrain of mid-age healthy mice...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Kimitoshi Kimura, Hirohiko Hohjoh, Takashi Yamamura
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, in which myelin and oligodendrocytes are the main targets recognized by inflammatory CD4+ T cells reactive to myelin peptides. Regulatory CD4+ T (Treg) cells normally keep homeostasis of the immune system by inhibiting detrimental effects of inflammatory T cells. However, Treg cells are reduced in patients with MS for unknown reason. This commentary highlights a novel function of circulating exosomes to inhibit the differentiation of Treg cells in MS...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Susanna Ambrosio, Barbara Majello
The autophagy-lysosome pathway sustains cellular homeostasis and is a protective mechanism against neurodegenerative diseases. Recent findings highlight the role of the histone demethylases LSD1/LDM1A as a pivotal regulator of autophagy process, by controlling the mTORC1 cascade, in neuroblastoma cells. LSD1 binds to the promoter region of the SESN2 gene, where LSD1-mediated demethylation leads to the accumulation of repressive histone marks that maintain SESN2 expression at low levels. LSD1 depletion results in enhanced SESN2 expression and consequently mTORC1 inhibition, thereby triggering the induction of autophagy...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Danielle E Mor, Harry Ischiropoulos
In Parkinson's disease (PD), the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) leads to severe motor impairment, and pathological inclusions known as Lewy bodies contain aggregated α-synuclein protein. The relationship of α-synuclein aggregation and dopaminergic degeneration is unclear. This commentary highlights a recent study showing that the interaction of α-synuclein with dopamine may be an important mechanism underlying disease. Elevating dopamine levels in mice expressing human α-synuclein with the A53T familial PD mutation recapitulated key features of PD, including progressive neurodegeneration of the SN and decreased ambulation...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Daniel Pensold, Geraldine Zimmer
The correct establishment of inhibitory circuits is crucial for cortical functionality and defects during the development of γ-aminobutyric acid-expressing cortical interneurons contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A critical developmental step is the migration of cortical interneurons from their site of origin within the subpallium to the cerebral cortex, orchestrated by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. In addition to genetic networks, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are suggested to drive stage-specific gene expression underlying developmental processes...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Tanzila Mukhtar, Verdon Taylor
The cerebral cortex is composed of billions of morphologically and functionally distinct neurons. These neurons are produced and organized in a regimental fashion during development. The ability of neurons to encode and elicit complex cognitive and motor functions depends on their precise molecular processes, identity, and connectivity established during development. Elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate development of the neocortex has been a challenge for many years. The cerebral cortical neuronal subtypes are classified based on morphology, function, intrinsic synaptic properties, location, connectivity, and marker gene expression...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma multiforme are mortifying brain tumors that contain a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). These GSCs constitute an autonomous reservoir of aberrant cells able to initiate, maintain, and repopulate the tumor mass. A new therapeutic strategy would consist of targeting the GSC population. The GSCs are situated in perivascular niches, closely associated with brain microvascular endothelial cells thereby involved in bidirectional molecular and cellular interactions...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes
Various regions of the developing brain coordinate their construction so that the correct types and numbers of cells are generated to build a functional network. We previously discovered that wrapping glia in the Drosophila visual system are essential for coordinating retinal and lamina development. We showed that wrapping glia, which ensheath photoreceptor axons, respond to an epidermal growth factor cue from photoreceptors by secreting insulins. Wrapping glial insulins activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of insulin receptor in lamina precursors to induce neuronal differentiation...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Timothy J Petros
The mammalian brain develops from a simple sheet of neuroepithelial cells into an incredibly complex structure containing billions of neurons with trillions of synapses. Understanding how intrinsic genetic programs interact with environmental cues to generate neuronal diversity and proper connectivity is one of the most daunting challenges in developmental biology. We recently explored this issue in forebrain GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, an extremely diverse population of neurons that are classified into distinct subtypes based on morphology, neurochemical markers, and electrophysiological properties...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Laurence A Brown, Stuart N Peirson
Transcriptomic experiments are often used in neuroscience to identify candidate genes of interest for further study. However, the lists of genes identified from comparable transcriptomic studies often show limited overlap. One approach to addressing this issue of reproducibility is to combine data from multiple studies in the form of a meta-analysis. Here, we discuss recent work in the field of circadian biology, where transcriptomic meta-analyses have been used to improve candidate gene selection. With the increasing availability of microarray and RNA-Seq data due to deposition in public databases, combined with freely available tools and code, transcriptomic meta-analysis provides an ideal example of how open data can benefit neuroscience research...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Alexandra Angelova, Marie-Catherine Tiveron, Harold Cremer, Christophe Beclin
In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Bronwyn M Graham
Anxiety and trauma disorders are a significant source of global burden. Although it is clear that there is great heterogeneity in humans' response to trauma and stress, most research on fear and anxiety has focused on the "average" animal. Increased understanding of the sources of individual differences in fear reactions may lead to more refined means of predicting who is at risk for the development of anxiety disorders so that early preventative interventions can be implemented. This commentary highlights recent cross-species work (in rats and humans) indicating that the neurotrophin fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) holds promise as a potential biomarker for anxiety disorder vulnerability...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Hao Guo, Dean P Smith
Insects and other arthropods transmit devastating human diseases, and these vectors use chemical senses to target humans. Understanding how these animals detect, respond, and adapt to volatile odorants may lead to novel ways to disrupt host localization or mate recognition in these pests. The past decade has led to remarkable progress in understanding odorant detection in arthropods. Insects use odorant-gated ion channels, first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster , to detect volatile chemicals. In flies, 60 "tuning" receptor subunits combine with a common subunit, Orco ( o dorant r eceptor co receptor) to form ligand-gated ion channels...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Mc Subhash Peter, Satheesan Simi
Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g-1 for 24 hours) or both...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Clive Bate
Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, a key driver of pathogenesis in Alzheimer disease, bind to cellular prion proteins (PrPC ) expressed on synaptosomes resulting in increased cholesterol concentrations, movement of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) to lipid rafts and activation of cPLA2 . The formation of Aβ-PrPC -cPLA2 complexes was controlled by the cholesterol ester cycle. Thus, Aβ activated cholesterol ester hydrolases which released cholesterol from stores of cholesterol esters; the increased cholesterol concentrations stabilised Aβ-PrPC -cPLA2 complexes...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Kayly M Lembke, David B Morton
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult onset motor neurodegenerative disease. The cause of the disease remains obscure, and as such there is no effective treatment or cure. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases are frequently characterized by dysfunction of the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43. Using model systems to understand the mechanisms underlying TDP-43 dysfunction should accelerate identification of therapeutic targets. A recent report has shown that motor defects caused by the deletion of the Drosophila TDP-43 ortholog, tbph , are not driven by changes in the physiology at the neuromuscular junction...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"