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Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

Elizabeth Harford-Wright, Julie Gavard
Glioblastoma multiforme are mortifying brain tumors that contain a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem-like properties, termed as glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs). These GSCs constitute an autonomous reservoir of aberrant cells able to initiate, maintain, and repopulate the tumor mass. A new therapeutic strategy would consist of targeting the GSC population. The GSCs are situated in perivascular niches, closely associated with brain microvascular endothelial cells thereby involved in bidirectional molecular and cellular interactions...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Anthony M Rossi, Vilaiwan M Fernandes
Various regions of the developing brain coordinate their construction so that the correct types and numbers of cells are generated to build a functional network. We previously discovered that wrapping glia in the Drosophila visual system are essential for coordinating retinal and lamina development. We showed that wrapping glia, which ensheath photoreceptor axons, respond to an epidermal growth factor cue from photoreceptors by secreting insulins. Wrapping glial insulins activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of insulin receptor in lamina precursors to induce neuronal differentiation...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Timothy J Petros
The mammalian brain develops from a simple sheet of neuroepithelial cells into an incredibly complex structure containing billions of neurons with trillions of synapses. Understanding how intrinsic genetic programs interact with environmental cues to generate neuronal diversity and proper connectivity is one of the most daunting challenges in developmental biology. We recently explored this issue in forebrain GABAergic inhibitory interneurons, an extremely diverse population of neurons that are classified into distinct subtypes based on morphology, neurochemical markers, and electrophysiological properties...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Laurence A Brown, Stuart N Peirson
Transcriptomic experiments are often used in neuroscience to identify candidate genes of interest for further study. However, the lists of genes identified from comparable transcriptomic studies often show limited overlap. One approach to addressing this issue of reproducibility is to combine data from multiple studies in the form of a meta-analysis. Here, we discuss recent work in the field of circadian biology, where transcriptomic meta-analyses have been used to improve candidate gene selection. With the increasing availability of microarray and RNA-Seq data due to deposition in public databases, combined with freely available tools and code, transcriptomic meta-analysis provides an ideal example of how open data can benefit neuroscience research...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Alexandra Angelova, Marie-Catherine Tiveron, Harold Cremer, Christophe Beclin
In the perinatal and adult forebrain, regionalized neural stem cells lining the ventricular walls produce different types of olfactory bulb interneurons. Although these postnatal stem cells are lineage related to their embryonic counterparts that produce, for example, cortical, septal, and striatal neurons, their output at the level of neuronal phenotype changes dramatically. Tiveron et al. investigated the molecular determinants underlying stem cell regionalization and the gene expression changes inducing the shift from embryonic to adult neuron production...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Bronwyn M Graham
Anxiety and trauma disorders are a significant source of global burden. Although it is clear that there is great heterogeneity in humans' response to trauma and stress, most research on fear and anxiety has focused on the "average" animal. Increased understanding of the sources of individual differences in fear reactions may lead to more refined means of predicting who is at risk for the development of anxiety disorders so that early preventative interventions can be implemented. This commentary highlights recent cross-species work (in rats and humans) indicating that the neurotrophin fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) holds promise as a potential biomarker for anxiety disorder vulnerability...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Hao Guo, Dean P Smith
Insects and other arthropods transmit devastating human diseases, and these vectors use chemical senses to target humans. Understanding how these animals detect, respond, and adapt to volatile odorants may lead to novel ways to disrupt host localization or mate recognition in these pests. The past decade has led to remarkable progress in understanding odorant detection in arthropods. Insects use odorant-gated ion channels, first discovered in Drosophila melanogaster, to detect volatile chemicals. In flies, 60 "tuning" receptor subunits combine with a common subunit, Orco (odorant receptor coreceptor) to form ligand-gated ion channels...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Mc Subhash Peter, Satheesan Simi
Fishes are equipped to sense stressful stimuli and are able to respond to environmental stressor such as hypoxia with varying pattern of stress response. The functional attributes of brain to hypoxia stress in relation to ion transport and its interaction during immune challenge have not yet delineated in fish. We, therefore, explored the pattern of ion transporter functions and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of α1-subunit isoforms of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in the brain segments, namely, prosencephalon (PC), mesencephalon (MC), and metencephalon (MeC) in an obligate air-breathing fish exposed either to hypoxia stress (30 minutes forced immersion in water) or challenged with zymosan treatment (25-200 ng g-1 for 24 hours) or both...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Clive Bate
Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, a key driver of pathogenesis in Alzheimer disease, bind to cellular prion proteins (PrPC) expressed on synaptosomes resulting in increased cholesterol concentrations, movement of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to lipid rafts and activation of cPLA2. The formation of Aβ-PrPC-cPLA2 complexes was controlled by the cholesterol ester cycle. Thus, Aβ activated cholesterol ester hydrolases which released cholesterol from stores of cholesterol esters; the increased cholesterol concentrations stabilised Aβ-PrPC-cPLA2 complexes...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Kayly M Lembke, David B Morton
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult onset motor neurodegenerative disease. The cause of the disease remains obscure, and as such there is no effective treatment or cure. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases are frequently characterized by dysfunction of the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43. Using model systems to understand the mechanisms underlying TDP-43 dysfunction should accelerate identification of therapeutic targets. A recent report has shown that motor defects caused by the deletion of the Drosophila TDP-43 ortholog, tbph , are not driven by changes in the physiology at the neuromuscular junction...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Jirapa Chetsawang, Sujira Mukda, Rachneekorn Srimokra, Piyarat Govitrapong, Banthit Chetsawang
Excessive intracellular calcium levels induce calpain activation, thereby triggering the cell death cascade. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of the overexpression of calpain inhibitor, calpastatin. In this study, amphetamine-induced degeneration in the substantia nigra of rats was determined by evaluating the decrease in the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation. Amphetamine significantly decreased calpastatin levels but increased calpain levels. An induction in calpain activity was demonstrated by an increase in the formation of calpain spectrin breakdown products...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
John Wall, Hong Xie, Xin Wang
Adult cerebral cortical structure is thought to be statically maintained over short intervals. This view is based on group average findings but has never been studied at the individual level. This issue was examined with an unconventional longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging design which measured hemispheric mean cortical thickness of an adult man repeatedly at week intervals over 6 months. These measures were compared with measurement error estimates to test the current prediction that thickness measures would be statically maintained within measurement error variation...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Danielle L Tomasello, Edward Hurley, Lawrence Wrabetz, Arin Bhattacharjee
The Slick (Kcnt2) sodium-activated potassium (KNa) channel is a rapidly gating and weakly voltage-dependent and sodium-dependent potassium channel with no clearly defined physiological function. Within the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), we show Slick channels are exclusively expressed in small-sized and medium-sized calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing DRG neurons, and a pool of channels are localized to large dense-core vesicles (LDCV)-containing CGRP. We stimulated DRG neurons for CGRP release and found Slick channels contained within CGRP-positive LDCV translocated to the neuronal membrane...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Karyry Nascimento Ferro, Thiago Mazzoli Moraes, Ana Luiza Zaninotto, Wellingson Silva Paiva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Koshiro Kamiya, Takeo Furuya, Masayuki Hashimoto, Chikato Mannoji, Taigo Inada, Mitsutoshi Ota, Satoshi Maki, Yasushi Ijima, Junya Saito, Mitsuhiro Kitamura, Seiji Ohtori, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuhide Inage, Masashi Yamazaki, Masao Koda
How aging affects the spinal cord at a molecular level is unclear. The aim of this study was to explore spinal cord aging-related proteins that may be involved in pathological mechanisms of age-related changes in the spinal cord. Spinal cords of 2-year-old and 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were dissected from the animals. Protein samples were subjected to 2-dimentional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Screened proteins were further investigated with immunohistochemistry and Western blotting...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Bwarenaba B Kautu, Juliana Phillips, Kellie Steele, M Shawn Mengarelli, Eric A Nord
Kava is a plant root extract that is widely consumed by Pacific Islanders. Kava contains a class of lactone compounds called kavalactones. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of kava are likely attributed to the efficacies of kavalactones on the nervous system. Although some studies have implicated the potencies of certain kavalactone species on γ-aminobutyric acid transmission, evidence supporting the action of kavalactones on the eukaryotic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and acetylcholine (ACh) transmission is scant...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Nombuso Valencia Pearl Mkhize, Lihle Qulu, Musa Vuyisile Mabandla
Febrile seizures are childhood convulsions resulting from an infection that leads to an inflammatory response and subsequent convulsions. Prenatal stress has been shown to heighten the progression and intensity of febrile seizures. Current medications are costly and have adverse effects associated with prolonged use. Quercetin flavonoid exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and anti-stress effects. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of quercetin in a prenatally stressed rat model of febrile seizures...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Cyril Eleftheriou, Fabrizia Cesca, Luca Maragliano, Fabio Benfenati, Jose Fernando Maya-Vetencourt
Several fields in neuroscience have been revolutionized by the advent of optogenetics, a technique that offers the possibility to modulate neuronal physiology in response to light stimulation. This innovative and far-reaching tool provided unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution to explore the activity of neural circuits underlying cognition and behaviour. With an exponential growth in the discovery and synthesis of new photosensitive actuators capable of modulating neuronal networks function, other fields in biology are experiencing a similar re-evolution...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Douglas G Ririe, M Danilo Boada, Benjamin S Schmidt, Salem J Martin, Susy A Kim, Thomas J Martin
Involvement of attentional processes is generally evidenced by disruption of behavior in the presence of distracting stimuli. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seems to play a role in fine-tuning activity during attentional tasks. A novel titration variant of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice serial reaction time titration variant [5CTV]) that adjusts task difficulty based on subject performance was used to evaluate the effects of audiovisual distraction (DSTR) on performance and mPFC single spike activity and local field potential (LFP)...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Kimberly E Hawkins, Austin O McCrea, David M Siwarski, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to transport a diverse array of xenobiotics, including therapeutic drugs. A member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, P-gp is a protein encoded by the gene Mdr1 in humans and Abcb1 in rodents (represented by 2 isoforms Abcb1a and Abcb1b). Lining the luminal and abluminal membrane of brain capillary endothelial cells, P-gp is a promiscuous efflux pump extruding a variety of exogenous toxins and drugs. In this study, we measured dynamic changes in Abcb1a and Abcb1b transcripts and P-gp protein in the brain, liver, and kidney after experimental stroke...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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