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Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

Hong Xie, John Wall, Xin Wang
A human brain has separate left and right cerebral cortices, each of which must be continuously structurally maintained during adulthood. There is no understanding of how ongoing structural maintenances of separate parts of a mature individual brain, including the 2 cortices, are related. To explore this issue, this study used an unconventional N-of-1 magnetic resonance imaging time-series paradigm to identify relationships between maintenances of structural thicknesses of the 2 cortices in an adult human brain over week intervals for 6 months...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Mirjana Vucinovic, Goran Kardum, Jonatan Vukovic, Ana Vucinovic
Aims: To compare developmental changes of delta 1 (0.5-2.0 Hz) and delta 2 (2.25-3.75 Hz) power spectra between healthy monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs and among MZ and DZ twin groups during active/REM (AS/REM) and quiet/NREM (QS/NREM) sleep stages at 38th, 46th, and 52nd weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA). Materials and methods: Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were analyzed using fast Fourier transforms. Differences in the developmental changes of delta power within twin pairs and between twin groups were estimated by calculating mean absolute differences of relative spectral values in delta 1 (0...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Dhaval Patel, Stephan N Witt
Retromer is a phylogenetically conserved, multisubunit coat complex that controls endosomal protein trafficking and sorting. Mutations in the retromer gene VPS35 cause late-onset Parkinson disease, suggesting that trafficking defects cause neurodegeneration. Sorting nexins assist retromer to guide cell surface proteins to their assigned destinations, and our interest here is sorting nexin 3 (Snx3). Snx3 binds to membranes via a phox homolog (PX) domain that binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P), and in human cells its cargo proteins are the transferrin and Wnt receptors and the divalent metal ion transporter, whereas in yeast the best characterized cargo is the iron permease Ftr1...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Amanda J Audesse, Ashley E Webb
Adult neurogenesis supports cognitive and sensory functions in mammals and is significantly reduced with age. Quiescent neural stem cells are the source of new neurons in the adult brain and emerging evidence suggests that the failure of these cells to activate and re-enter the cell cycle is largely responsible for reduced neurogenesis in old animals. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting quiescence and activation in the adult and aged brain remain undefined. Recent work published by Leeman et al. in Science uncovers a novel role for lysosomes in supporting neural stem cell activation, and reveals that loss of lysosome function during aging contributes to reduced neural stem cell activity...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Yi-Chun Chen, Chiung-Mei Chen, Yun-Shien Lee, Kuo-Hsuan Chang
Background: Pathway analysis demonstrated associations between deep intracerebral hemorrhage (DICH) and the genetic risk score of complex IV of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway in whites. This study investigated the related genetic variations in the DICH population in Taiwan. Candidate variants were selected from the prior report by the following criteria: (1) nuclear genes encoding mitochondria complex IV, (2) genetic effect >1.08, (3) global minor allele frequency >0...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
David M Smith
At the cellular level, many neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), often considered proteinopathies, are characterized by the accumulation of misfolded and damaged proteins into large insoluble aggregates. Prominent species that accumulate early and play fundamental roles in disease pathogenesis are amyloid β (Aβ) and tau in Alzheimer disease, α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson disease, and polyQ-expanded huntingtin (Htt) in Huntington disease. Although significant efforts have focused on how the cell deals with these protein aggregates, why is it that these misfolded proteins are not degraded normally in the first place? A vast body of literature supports the notion that the cell's protein degradation system for individual proteins-the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS)-does not function sufficiently in many NDs...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Diana I Lurie
Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving both the peripheral circulation and the Central Nervous System (CNS) and is considered to underlie many CNS disorders including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and pain. Stressors including early-life adversity, psychosocial stress, and infection appear to prime microglia toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Subsequent inflammatory challenges then drive an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response involving the upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators that is associated with CNS dysfunction...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Sandra G Gonzalez Malagon, Karen J Liu
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common and deadly childhood cancers. Neuroblastoma arises from transformed cells of the neural crest lineage. Outcomes of the disease vary greatly, ranging from spontaneous regression to aggressive metastases. While this variability may reflect the inherent migratory capabilities and multipotency of neural crest cells, there have been few direct comparisons between neuroblastoma and embryonic neural crest cells, in part because of the limited in vivo accessibility of the mammalian neural crest lineage...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Lei Li, Liping Wang
Among key survival circuits, defensive response circuits are one of the most intensively studied. A consensus is emerging that multiple, independent circuitries are involved in different conditioned and unconditioned defensive responses. Investigating these well-conserved defensive responses would help us to decipher the basic working mechanism of the brain at a circuitry level and thus shed light on new diagnoses and treatments for neural diseases and disorders. We showed that the visually evoked innate defensive response was modulated by a locus coeruleus-superior colliculus (LC-SC) projection...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Swananda V Marathe, Priyal L D'almeida, Garima Virmani, Praveen Bathini, Lavinia Alberi
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting over one-fifth of the population worldwide. Owing to our limited understanding of the pathophysiology of MDD, the quest for finding novel antidepressant drug targets is severely impeded. Monoamine hypothesis of MDD provides a robust theoretical framework, forming the core of a large jigsaw puzzle, around which we must look for the vital missing pieces. Growing evidence suggests that the glial loss observed in key regions of the limbic system in depressed patients, at least partly, accounts for the structural and cognitive manifestations of MDD...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Miriam Meister
The entorhinal cortex, a brain area critical for memory, contains neurons that fire when a rodent is in a certain location (eg, grid cells), or when a monkey looks at certain locations. In rodents, these spatial representations align to visual objects in the environment by firing when the animal is in a preferred location defined by relative position of visual environmental features. Recently, our laboratory found that simultaneously recorded entorhinal neurons in monkeys can exhibit different spatial reference frames for gaze position, including a reference frame of visual environmental features...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
You Kure Wu, Mineko Kengaku
Fine structures of the mammalian brain are formed by neuronal migration during development. Newborn neurons migrate long distances from the germinal zone to individual sites of function by squeezing their largest cargo, the nucleus, through the crowded neural tissue. Nuclear translocation is thought to be orchestrated by microtubules, actin, and their associated motor proteins, dynein and myosin. However, where and how the cytoskeletal forces are converted to actual nuclear movement remains unclear. Using high-resolution confocal imaging of live migrating neurons, we demonstrated that microtubule-dependent forces are directly applied to the nucleus via the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex, and that they induce dynamic nuclear movement, including translocation, rotation, and local peaking...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Alain Dagher, Yashar Zeighami
One of the most exciting recent hypotheses in neurology is that most neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the neuron to neuron propagation of prion-like misfolded proteins. In Parkinson disease, the theory initially emerged from postmortem studies demonstrating a caudal-rostral progression of pathology from lower brainstem to neocortex. Later, animal studies showed that the hallmark protein of PD, α-synuclein, exhibited all the characteristics of a prion. Here, we describe our work using human neuroimaging to test the theory that PD pathology advances via a propagating process along the connectome...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Sarah J Catchlove, Todd B Parrish, Yufen Chen, Helen Macpherson, Matthew E Hughes, Andrew Pipingas
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the response of brain blood vessels to vasoactive stimuli, such as neural activity. The current research assessed age-related changes in regional CVR to 5% CO2 inhalation in younger (n = 30, range: 21-45 years) and older (n = 29, range: 55-75 years) adults, and the contribution of regional CVR to cognitive performance using blood-oxygen-level dependent contrast imaging (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T field strength. CVR was measured by inducing hypercapnia using a block-design paradigm under physiological monitoring...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Myrto Denaxa, Guilherme Neves, Juan Burrone, Vassilis Pachnis
The mammalian cortex consists of two main neuronal types: the principal excitatory pyramidal neurons (PNs) and the inhibitory interneurons (INs). The interplay between these two neuronal populations - which drive excitation and inhibition (E/I balance), respectively - is crucial for controlling the overall activity in the brain. A number of neurological and psychiatric disorders have been associated with changes in E/I balance. It is not surprising, therefore, that neural networks employ several different mechanisms to maintain their firing rates at a stable level, collectively referred as homeostatic forms of plasticity...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Jihwan Myung, Dean Wu, Valérie Simonneaux, Timothy Joseph Lane
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a fluidic part of the brain's microenvironment that isolates the brain from the rest of the body. CSF dilutes metabolites from neuronal activities and removes them from the brain. Its production and resorption are regulated dynamically and are central to maintaining brain homeostasis. We discovered that the major CSF source, the choroid plexus (CP), harbors the brain's strongest circadian clock. Here, we consider some implications of the CP circadian clock for metabolite clearance in the brain...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Jérôme Munuera
Group living can help individuals defend against predators and acquire nutrition. However, conflicts between group members can arise (food sharing, mating, etc), requiring individuals to know the social status of each member to promote survival. In our recent paper, we sought to understand how the brain represents the social status of monkeys living in the same colony. Primates learn the social status of their peers through experience, including observation and direct interactions, just like they learn the rewarding or aversive nature of stimuli that predict different types of reinforcement...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Paul DE Williams, Jeffrey A Zahratka, Bruce A Bamber
Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model to study the neural and biochemical basis of behavior. It combines a small, completely mapped nervous system, powerful genetic tools, and a transparent cuticle, allowing Ca++ imaging without the need for dissection. However, these approaches remain one step removed from direct pharmacological and physiological characterization of individual neurons. Much can still be learned by "getting under the hood" or breaching the cuticle and directly studying the neurons...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Akanksha Mishra, Sonu Singh, Shubha Shukla
Dopamine controls various physiological functions in the brain and periphery by acting on its receptors D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. Dopamine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors involved in the regulation of motor activity and several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Reduction in dopamine content in the nigrostriatal pathway is associated with the development of PD, along with the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra region...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Maria E Ramirez-Roman, Carlos E Billini, Alfredo Ghezzi
Alcohol addiction is a serious condition perpetuated by enduring physiological and behavioral adaptations. An important component of these adaptations is the long-term rearrangement of neuronal gene expression in the brain of the addicted individual. Epigenetic histone modifications have recently surfaced as important modulators of the transcriptional adaptation to alcohol as these are thought to represent a form of transcriptional memory that is directly imprinted on the chromosome. Some histone modifications affect transcription by modulating the accessibility of the underlying DNA, whereas others have been proposed to serve as marks read by transcription factors as a "histone code" that helps to specify the expression level of a gene...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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