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Journal of Experimental Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891053/h3-and-h4-lysine-acetylation-correlates-with-developmental-and-experimentally-induced-adult-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#1
Gabriela Vierci, Bruno Pannunzio, Natalia Bornia, Francesco M Rossi
Histone posttranslational modifications play a fundamental role in orchestrating gene expression. In this work, we analyzed the acetylation of H3 and H4 histones (AcH3-AcH4) and its modulation by visual experience in the mouse visual cortex (VC) during normal development and in two experimental conditions that restore juvenile-like plasticity levels in adults (fluoxetine treatment and enriched environment). We found that AcH3-AcH4 declines with age and is upregulated by treatments restoring plasticity in the adult...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891052/from-ethanol-to-salsolinol-role-of-ethanol-metabolites-in-the-effects-of-ethanol
#2
REVIEW
Alessandra T Peana, Michela Rosas, Simona Porru, Elio Acquas
In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27840579/neurocognitive-treatment-for-a-patient-with-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-virtual-reality-navigational-environment
#3
Paul J F White, Zahra Moussavi
In this case study, a man at the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was enrolled in a cognitive treatment program based upon spatial navigation in a virtual reality (VR) environment. We trained him to navigate to targets in a symmetric, landmark-less virtual building. Our research goals were to determine whether an individual with AD could learn to navigate in a simple VR navigation (VRN) environment and whether that training could also bring real-life cognitive benefits. The results show that our participant learned to perfectly navigate to desired targets in the VRN environment over the course of the training program...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773993/toxico-neurological-effects-of-piroxicam-in-monogastric-animals
#4
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan, Orinya Agbaji Orinya
Piroxicam is a benzothiazine compound with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. Because of the very high efficacy of piroxicam and its increasing use in the treatment of carcinomas in dogs and cats, there is a need for acute toxicity study of piroxicam in monogastric animals and its potential for causing secondary poisoning in puppies. Piroxicam manufactured by Shanxi Federal Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. was used for this study. Revised up-and-down procedure was used for the estimation of median lethal dose in mouse (259...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721656/role-of-mirna-9-in-brain-development
#5
Balachandar Radhakrishnan, A Alwin Prem Anand
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs involved in gene regulation. The regulation is effected by either translational inhibition or transcriptional silencing. In vertebrates, the importance of miRNA in development was discovered from mice and zebrafish dicer knockouts. The miRNA-9 (miR-9) is one of the most highly expressed miRNAs in the early and adult vertebrate brain. It has diverse functions within the developing vertebrate brain. In this article, the role of miR-9 in the developing forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord of vertebrate species is highlighted...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625575/reactive-oxygen-species-physiological-and-physiopathological-effects-on-synaptic-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Thiago Fernando Beckhauser, José Francis-Oliveira, Roberto De Pasquale
In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578996/plasticity-and-recovery-after-dorsal-column-spinal-cord-injury-in-nonhuman-primates
#7
REVIEW
Jamie L Reed, Chia-Chi Liao, Hui-Xin Qi, Jon H Kaas
Here, we review recent work on plasticity and recovery after dorsal column spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Plasticity in the adult central nervous system has been established and studied for the past several decades; however, capacities and limits of plasticity are still under investigation. Studies of plasticity include assessing multiple measures before and after injury in animal models. Such studies are particularly important for improving recovery after injury in patients. In summarizing work by our research team and others, we suggest how the findings from plasticity studies in nonhuman primate models may affect therapeutic interventions for conditions involving sensory loss due to spinal cord injury...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547038/mirnas-in-astrocyte-derived-exosomes-as-possible-mediators-of-neuronal-plasticity
#8
Carlos Lafourcade, Juan Pablo Ramírez, Alejandro Luarte, Anllely Fernández, Ursula Wyneken
Astrocytes use gliotransmitters to modulate neuronal function and plasticity. However, the role of small extracellular vesicles, called exosomes, in astrocyte-to-neuron signaling is mostly unknown. Exosomes originate in multivesicular bodies of parent cells and are secreted by fusion of the multivesicular body limiting membrane with the plasma membrane. Their molecular cargo, consisting of RNA species, proteins, and lipids, is in part cell type and cell state specific. Among the RNA species transported by exosomes, microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to modify gene expression in recipient cells...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478387/amphetamine-withdrawal-differentially-increases-the-expression-of-organic-cation-transporter-3-and-serotonin-transporter-in-limbic-brain-regions
#9
Rajeshwari R Solanki, Jamie L Scholl, Michael J Watt, Kenneth J Renner, Gina L Forster
Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199570/the-extracellular-regulated-kinase-effector-lk6-is-required-for-glutamate-receptor-localization-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#10
Nizar A Hussein, Taylor L Delaney, Brittany L Tounsel, Faith L W Liebl
The proper localization and synthesis of postsynaptic glutamate receptors are essential for synaptic plasticity. Synaptic translation initiation is thought to occur via the target of rapamycin (TOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal-integrating kinase (Mnk) signaling pathways, which is downstream of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK). We used the model glutamatergic synapse, the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, to better understand the roles of the Mnk and TOR signaling pathways in synapse development...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168724/differential-effects-of-trpa-and-trpv-channels-on-behaviors-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#11
Jennifer Thies, Vanessa Neutzler, Fidelma O'Leary, He Liu
TRPA and TRPV ion channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel superfamily, which mediates various sensory transductions. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the TRPV channels are known to affect chemosensation, while the TRPA-1 channel is associated with thermosensation and mechanosensation. We examined thermosensation, chemosensation, and osmosensation in strains lacking TRPA-1 or TRPV channels. We found that TRPV channel knockout worms exhibited similar behavioral deficits associated with thermotaxis as the TRPA-1 channel knockout, suggesting a dual role for TRPV channels...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158222/exogenous-testosterone-aging-and-changes-in-behavioral-response-of-gonadally-intact-male-mice
#12
Olakunle J Onaolapo, Adejoke Y Onaolapo, Tope A Omololu, Adedunke T Oludimu, Toluwalase Segun-Busari, Taofeeq Omoleke
This study tested the hypothesis that aging significantly affects the influence of exogenous testosterone on neurobehavior in gonadally intact male mice. Groups of prepubertal and aged male mice received daily vehicle or testosterone propionate (TP; 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal [i.p.]) for 21 days. Behaviors were assessed on days 1 and 21. Weight gain was significant in prepubertal mice. Locomotion and rearing increased in prepubertal mice after first dose and decreased after last dose of TP. Rearing was suppressed in aged mice throughout...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27081316/effect-of-motor-impairment-on-analgesic-efficacy-of-dopamine-d2-3-receptors-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathy
#13
Margarida Dourado, Helder Cardoso-Cruz, Clara Monteiro, Vasco Galhardo
Testing the clinical efficacy of drugs that also have important side effects on locomotion needs to be properly designed in order to avoid erroneous identification of positive effects when the evaluation depends on motor-related tests. One such example is the evaluation of analgesic role of drugs that act on dopaminergic receptors, since the pain perception tests used in animal models are based on motor responses that can also be compromised by the same substances. The apparent analgesic effect obtained by modulation of the dopaminergic system is still a highly disputed topic...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042141/molecular-mechanisms-of-neurodegeneration-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#14
REVIEW
Saif Ahmad, Kanchan Bhatia, Annapoorna Kannan, Laxman Gangwani
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disease with a high incidence and is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is primarily characterized by degeneration of the spinal motor neurons that leads to skeletal muscle atrophy followed by symmetric limb paralysis, respiratory failure, and death. In humans, mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene shifts the load of expression of SMN protein to the SMN2 gene that produces low levels of full-length SMN protein because of alternative splicing, which are sufficient for embryonic development and survival but result in SMA...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949341/a-simple-model-to-study-tau-pathology
#15
Alexander L Houck, Félix Hernández, Jesús Ávila
Tau proteins play a role in the stabilization of microtubules, but in pathological conditions, tauopathies, tau is modified by phosphorylation and can aggregate into aberrant aggregates. These aggregates could be toxic to cells, and different cell models have been used to test for compounds that might prevent these tau modifications. Here, we have used a cell model involving the overexpression of human tau in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing tau in a stable manner, we have been able to replicate the phosphorylation of intracellular tau...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917974/isolation-and-identification-of-a-flavone-apigenin-from-marine-red-alga-acanthophora-spicifera-with-antinociceptive-and-anti-inflammatory-activities
#16
Gihan A El Shoubaky, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim, Mohamed H Mansour, Essam A Salem
Physicochemical investigation of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera (Vahl) Borgesen, collected from Al-Shoaiba coast, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, led to the isolation of a flavone from the algal tissue with acetone. Preparative chromatography on silica gel thin-layer chromatography was used for the separation of the flavone and eluted with the methanol:chloroform:ethyl acetate (1:7:2) solvent system. The physicochemical analyses infrared, mass spectra, and ultraviolet spectra in addition to shift reagents (NaOMe, NaOAc, NaOAc + H3BO3, AlCl3, and AlCl3 + HCl) were used for the identification and elucidation of the structure of the flavone compound (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavonoids)...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26848276/neuroprotective-effects-against-pocd-by-photobiomodulation-evidence-from-assembly-disassembly-of-the-cytoskeleton
#17
REVIEW
Ann D Liebert, Roberta T Chow, Brian T Bicknell, Euahna Varigos
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a decline in memory following anaesthesia and surgery in elderly patients. While often reversible, it consumes medical resources, compromises patient well-being, and possibly accelerates progression into Alzheimer's disease. Anesthetics have been implicated in POCD, as has neuroinflammation, as indicated by cytokine inflammatory markers. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is an effective treatment for a number of conditions, including inflammation. PBM also has a direct effect on microtubule disassembly in neurons with the formation of small, reversible varicosities, which cause neural blockade and alleviation of pain symptoms...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429559/neuropeptide-treatment-with-cerebrolysin-enhances-the-survival-of-grafted-neural-stem-cell-in-an-%C3%AE-synuclein-transgenic-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Edward Rockenstein, Paula Desplats, Kiren Ubhi, Michael Mante, Jazmin Florio, Anthony Adame, Stefan Winter, Hemma Brandstaetter, Dieter Meier, Herbert Moessler, Eliezer Masliah
Neuronal stem cell (NSC) grafts have been investigated as a potential neuro-restorative therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) but their use is compromised by the death of grafted cells. We investigated the use of Cerebrolysin (CBL), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, as an adjunct to NSC therapy in the α-synuclein (α-syn) transgenic (tg) model of PD. In vehicle-treated α-syn tg mice, there was decreased survival of NSCs. In contrast, CBL treatment enhanced the survival of NSCs in α-syn tg groups and ameliorated behavioral deficits...
2015: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168726/stabilization-and-degradation-mechanisms-of-cytoplasmic-ataxin-1
#19
REVIEW
Mayumi F Kohiyama, Sarita Lagalwar
Aggregation-prone proteins in neurodegenerative disease disrupt cellular protein stabilization and degradation pathways. The neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is caused by a coding polyglutamine expansion in the Ataxin-1 gene (ATXN1), which gives rise to the aggregation-prone mutant form of ATXN1 protein. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons, preferentially vulnerable in SCA1, produce ATXN1 protein in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Cytoplasmic stabilization of ATXN1 by phosphorylation and 14-3-3-mediated mechanisms ultimately drive translocation of the protein to the nucleus where aggregation may occur...
2015: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168725/role-of-nuclear-receptors-in-central-nervous-system-development-and-associated-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Ana Maria Olivares, Oscar Andrés Moreno-Ramos, Neena B Haider
The nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) superfamily is composed of a wide range of receptors involved in a myriad of important biological processes, including development, growth, metabolism, and maintenance. Regulation of such wide variety of functions requires a complex system of gene regulation that includes interaction with transcription factors, chromatin-modifying complex, and the proper recognition of ligands. NHRs are able to coordinate the expression of genes in numerous pathways simultaneously. This review focuses on the role of nuclear receptors in the central nervous system and, in particular, their role in regulating the proper development and function of the brain and the eye...
2015: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
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