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Translational Stroke Research

Axel Neulen, Simon Meyer, Andreas Kramer, Tobias Pantel, Michael Kosterhon, Svenja Kunzelmann, Hermann Goetz, Serge C Thal
Clinical studies on subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have shown discrepancies between large vessel vasospasm, cerebral perfusion, and clinical outcome. We set out to analyze the contribution of large vessel vasospasm to impaired cerebral perfusion and neurological impairment in a murine model of SAH. SAH was induced in C57BL/6 mice by endovascular filament perforation. Vasospasm was analyzed with microcomputed tomography, cortical perfusion by laser SPECKLE contrast imaging, and functional impairment with a quantitative neuroscore...
July 12, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Joshua A Santucci, Stephen R Ross, John C Greenert, Faranak Aghaei, Lance Ford, Kimberly M Hollabaugh, Benjamin O Cornwell, Dee H Wu, Bin Zheng, Bradley N Bohnstedt, Bappaditya Ray
Acute phase after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with several metabolic derangements including stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH). The present study is designed to identify objective radiological determinants for SIH to better understand its contributory role in clinical outcomes after aSAH. A computer-aided detection tool was used to segment admission computed tomography (CT) images of aSAH patients to estimate intracranial blood and cerebrospinal fluid volumes. Modified Graeb score (mGS) was used as a semi-quantitative measure to estimate degree of hydrocephalus...
July 11, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Eva-Verena Griemert, Kirsten Recarte Pelz, Kristin Engelhard, Michael K Schäfer, Serge C Thal
After stroke, secondary brain damage is influenced by the extent of fibrin clot formation. This is counteracted by the endogenous fibrinolysis. Of major interest are the key players of the fibrinolytic plasminogen activator system including the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and their endogenous inhibitors plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and PAI-2. The role of PAI-1 in brain injury is well established, whereas the importance of PAI-2 is unknown at present...
July 5, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Alessandro Adami, Carolina Gentile, Thomas Hepp, Giulio Molon, Gian Luigi Gigli, Mariarosaria Valente, Vincent Thijs
Patients at short-term risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) often exhibit increased RR interval variability during sinus rhythm. We studied if RR dynamic analysis, applied in the first hours after stroke unit (SU) admission, identified acute ischemic stroke patients at higher risk for subsequent PAF episodes detected within the SU hospitalization. Acute ischemic stroke patients underwent continuous cardiac monitoring (CCM) using standard bedside monitors immediately after SU admission. The CCM tracks from the first 48 h were analyzed using a telemedicine service (SRA clinic, Apoplex Medical, Germany)...
July 3, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Chih-Ping Chung, Li-Ning Peng, Kun-Hsien Chou, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Ching-Po Lin, Liang-Kung Chen, Pei-Ning Wang
High phosphate is linked to vascular calcification and endothelial dysfunction; however, its relationship with cerebral small-vessel diseases (CSVDs) is still unknown. Study subjects were prospectively recruited from the community-based I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study. CSVDs including lacunes, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), and cerebral microbleeds were evaluated using 3T magnetic resonance images. Multivariate analyses were performed to study the associations between circulatory phosphate level and the presence of CSVDs...
June 25, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Weihua Guan, Sandra J Clay, Gloria J Sloan, Lester G Pretlow
Several studies worldwide have demonstrated significant relationships between meteorological parameters and stroke events. However, authors often reported discordant effects of both barometric pressure and air temperature on stroke occurrence. The present study investigated whether there was an association between weather parameters (barometric pressure and temperature) and ischemic stroke hospitalization. The aim of the study was to find out whether daily barometric pressure may be used as a prognostic variable to evaluate the workload change of a neurological intensive care unit...
June 24, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
John R Gatti, Xiaojie Zhang, Ejona Korcari, Soo Jung Lee, Nya Greenstone, Jon G Dean, Snehaa Maripudi, Michael M Wang
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) undergo a series of dramatic changes in CADASIL, the most common inherited cause of vascular dementia and stroke. NOTCH3 protein accumulates and aggregates early in CADASIL, followed by loss of mature SMCs from the media of brain arteries and marked intimal proliferation. Similar intimal thickening is seen in peripheral arterial disease, which features pathological intimal cells including proliferative, dedifferentiated, smooth muscle-like cells deficient in SMC markers. Limited studies have been performed to investigate the differentiation state and location of SMCs in brain vascular disorders...
June 22, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Deepaneeta Sarmah, Harpreet Kaur, Jackson Saraf, Kanchan Vats, Kanta Pravalika, Madhuri Wanve, Kiran Kalia, Anupom Borah, Akhilesh Kumar, Xin Wang, Dileep R Yavagal, Kunjan R Dave, Pallab Bhattacharya
Stroke is a debilitating condition which is also the second leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite the benefits and promises shown by numerous neuroprotective agents in animal stroke models, their clinical translation has not been a complete success. Hence, search for treatment options have directed researchers towards utilising stem cells. Mitochondria has a major involvement in the pathophysiology of stroke and a number of other conditions. Stem cells have shown the ability to transfer mitochondria to the damaged cells and to help revive cell energetics in the recipient cell...
June 20, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
K Duris, J Lipkova, Z Splichal, T Madaraszova, Michal Jurajda
The main objective was to evaluate, whether the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-associated early inflammatory response has focal or global character, i.e., whether areas distant to hematoma may be affected by an early inflammatory response. The second objective was to evaluate the association of anesthesia recovery time for basic reflexes/neurological functions with severity of SAH. SAH was induced in rats using an endovascular perforation model. Anesthesia recovery time was evaluated for pain reaction recovery time (spinal level), spontaneous ventilation recovery time (brain stem level), and consciousness recovery time (neocortical level)...
June 20, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Wan Jiang, Wei Hu, Li Ye, Yanghua Tian, Ren Zhao, Juan Du, Bing Shen, Kai Wang
Apelin, an essential mediator of homeostasis, is crucially involved in cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. However, the functional roles of apelin-17 in cerebral collateral circulation and ischemic stroke protection are unknown. Here, we investigated the association between plasma apelin-17 levels and collateral circulation in patients with ischemic stroke and examined the mechanism undergirding the effects of apelin-17 on cerebral artery contraction and ischemic stroke protection in an animal model...
June 18, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Federico Carbone, Giorgio Busto, Marina Padroni, Andrea Bernardoni, Stefano Colagrande, Franco Dallegri, Fabrizio Montecucco, Enrico Fainardi
Cerebral reperfusion and arterial recanalization are radiological features of the effectiveness of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Here, an investigation of the prognostic role of early recanalization/reperfusion on clinical outcome was performed. In AIS patients (n = 55), baseline computerized tomography (CT) was performed ≤ 8 h from symptom onset, whereas CT determination of reperfusion/recanalization was assessed at 24 h. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to correlate reperfusion/recanalization with radiological (i...
June 14, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Colby A Nadeau, Kristen Dietrich, Cassandra M Wilkinson, Andrew M Crawford, Graham N George, Helen K Nichol, Frederick Colbourne
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage along with altered element levels in the brain. BBB permeability was quantified at 3, 7, and 14 days with Evans Blue dye after collagenase-induced ICH in rat. At peak permeability (day 3), a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent was injected to further characterize BBB disruption, and X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) was used to map Gd, Fe, Cl, and other elements. XFI revealed that Ca, Cl, Gd, and Fe concentrations were significantly elevated, whereas K was significantly decreased...
June 14, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Lingna Deng, Qingxia Peng, Hongxuan Wang, Jingrui Pan, Ying Zhou, Kuang Pan, Jinteng Li, Yanfeng Wu, Yidong Wang
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into multiple tissues. Preclinical studies have shown that MSC-based therapy is a potential new treatment approach for ischemic stroke. These results support the urgent need for further studies of MSC transplantation in the treatment of ischemic stroke in humans. Here, we develop a prospective, randomized, controlled, observer-blinded phase II trial to assess the clinical safety, feasibility, and therapeutic mechanisms of allogenic bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) by intrathecal infusion in the treatment of patients with cerebral infarction within the middle cerebral artery and with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from 15 to 25...
May 23, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Arjang Salehi, Amandine Jullienne, Kara M Wendel, Mary Hamer, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce, Richard A DeFazio, Zinaida S Vexler, Andre Obenaus
We introduce a novel protocol to stain, visualize, and analyze blood vessels from the rat and mouse cerebrum. This technique utilizes the fluorescent dye, DiI, to label the lumen of the vasculature followed by perfusion fixation. Following brain extraction, the labeled vasculature is then imaged using wide-field fluorescence microscopy for axial and coronal images and can be followed by regional confocal microscopy. Axial and coronal images can be analyzed using classical angiographic methods for vessel density, length, and other features...
May 15, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Ran Liu, Haijiao Li, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Jiangxi Xiao, Guohua Xi, Yining Huang
Early hemolysis occurs in the hematoma within 24 h in rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The present study investigated the prevalence of early hemolysis in ICH patients using MRI and the relationship between early hemolysis and perihematomal edema. Thirty ICH patients were prospectively enrolled within 24 h of onset. All patients had cranial CT on admission. Cranial MRI with T2 FLAIR-weighted imaging and T2*-weighted imaging were undertaken at days 1 and 14. The evolution of a non-hypointense lesion on T2*-weighted images and the relationship between the volume of that non-hypointense lesion and perihematomal edema volume were investigated...
May 15, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Yongqiu Xie, Yi-Ju Li, Beilei Lei, Dawn Kernagis, Wen-Wei Liu, Ellen R Bennett, Talagnair Venkatraman, Christopher D Lascola, Daniel T Laskowitz, David S Warner, Michael L James
Sex dimorphism has been demonstrated after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Decreased mortality and improved neurobehavioral outcomes occur in female compared to male mice after intrastriatal autologous blood or collagenase injection. Sex-specific differences in post-ICH gene and protein expression may provide mechanistic insight into this phenomenon. Ten- to 12-week-old C57BL/6 male (M) and female in high estrous state (HE-F) underwent left intrastriatal collagenase injection. We assessed neurobehavioral outcomes over the first 30 days, hematoma volume and cerebral edema evolution over the first 24 h, and transcriptomic gene and protein expression at pre-selected time points during the acute phase of injury...
May 13, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Hongyu Xie, Kewei Yu, Naiyun Zhou, Xueyan Shen, Shan Tian, Bei Zhang, Yuyang Wang, Junfa Wu, Gang Liu, Congyu Jiang, Ruiping Hu, Cenk Ayata, Yi Wu
Brain has limited capacity for spontaneous recovery of lost function after stroke. Exposure to enriched environment (EE) can facilitate functional recovery, but mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. Here, we used a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model to investigate the impact of EE on angiogenesis in the post-ischemic brain in adult male Sprague Dawley rats, and examined whether blood-borne factors may contribute. Compared with standard cage (SC), exposure to EE was associated with greater improvement in neurological function, higher peri-infarct vascular density, and higher chronic post-ischemic cerebral blood flow assessed by laser speckle imaging...
April 26, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Maria E Ramos-Araque, Cristina Rodriguez, Rebeca Vecino, Elisa Cortijo Garcia, Mercedes de Lera Alfonso, Mercedes Sanchez Barba, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Francisco Purroy, Juan F Arenillas, Angeles Almeida, Maria Delgado-Esteban
Cerebral preconditioning (PC) confers endogenous brain protection after stroke. Ischemic stroke patients with a prior transient ischemic attack (TIA) may potentially be in a preconditioned state. Although PC has been associated with the activation of pro-survival signals, the mechanism by which preconditioning confers neuroprotection is not yet fully clarified. Recently, we have described that PC-mediated neuroprotection against ischemic insult is promoted by p53 destabilization, which is mediated by its main regulator MDM2...
April 23, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Francesco Arba, Benedetta Piccardi, Vanessa Palumbo, Betti Giusti, Patrizia Nencini, Anna Maria Gori, Alice Sereni, Mascia Nesi, Giovanni Pracucci, Giorgio Bono, Paolo Bovi, Enrico Fainardi, Domenico Consoli, Antonia Nucera, Francesca Massaro, Giovanni Orlandi, Francesco Perini, Rossana Tassi, Maria Sessa, Danilo Toni, Rosanna Abbate, Domenico Inzitari
Small vessel disease (SVD) is frequent in aging and stroke patients. Inflammation and remodeling of extracellular matrix have been suggested as concurrent mechanisms of SVD. We investigated the relationship between imaging features of SVD and circulating metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in patients with ischaemic stroke. In patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis, we took blood samples before intravenous thrombolysis and 90 days after the acute stroke and analysed levels of MMPs and TIMPs...
April 23, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Jiang Wu, Bingren Hu
The author name "Dr. Jiang Wu" needed to be added as the 3rd author. The author institutional affiliations are correspondingly adjusted. The authors regret these errors.The original article has been corrected.
June 2018: Translational Stroke Research
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