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Translational Stroke Research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910074/evolutional-characterization-of-photochemically-induced-stroke-in-rats-a-multimodality-imaging-and-molecular-biological-study
#1
Nai-Wei Liu, Chien-Chih Ke, Yonghua Zhao, Yi-An Chen, Kim-Chuan Chan, David Tat-Wei Tan, Jhih-Shian Lee, You-Yin Chen, Tun-Wei Hsu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Chi-Wei Chang, Bang-Hung Yang, Wen-Sheng Huang, Ren-Shyan Liu
Photochemically induced cerebral ischemia is an easy-manipulated, reproducible, relatively noninvasive, and lesion controllable model for translational study of ischemic stroke. In order to longitudinally investigate the characterization of the model, magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-2-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, fluorescence, and bioluminescence imaging system were performed in correlation with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), hematoxylin-eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry examinations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD68, NeuN, von willebrand factor, and α-smooth muscle actin in the infarct zone...
December 1, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896625/mri-characterization-in-the-acute-phase-of-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#2
Dewei Guo, D Andrew Wilkinson, B Gregory Thompson, Aditya S Pandey, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi, Ya Hua
A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated the radiographic characteristics and influence of gender on early brain injury after experimental SAH. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in male and female rats. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in a 7.0-T Varian MR scanner at 24 h after SAH. The occurrence and size of T2 lesions, ventricular dilation, and white matter injury (WMI) were determined on T2-weighted images (T2WI)...
November 28, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844274/long-term-effect-of-participation-in-an-early-exercise-and-education-program-on-clinical-outcomes-and-cost-implications-in-patients-with-tia-and-minor-non-disabling-stroke
#3
James Faulkner, Lee Stoner, Jeremy Lanford, Evan Jolliffe, Andrew Mitchelmore, Danielle Lambrick
Participation in exercise and education programs following transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke may decrease cardiovascular disease risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term effect (3.5 years) of an exercise and education program administered soon after TIA or minor stroke diagnosis on clinical outcome measures (stroke classification and number, patient deaths, hospital/emergency department admission) and cost implications obtained from standard hospital records. Hospital records were screened for 60 adults (male, n = 31; 71 ± 10 years), diagnosed with TIA or non-disabling stroke, who had previously been randomised and completed either an 8-week exercise and education program, or usual care control...
November 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844273/sex-differences-in-the-cerebral-collateral-circulation
#4
James E Faber, Scott M Moore, Jennifer L Lucitti, Amir Aghajanian, Hua Zhang
Premenopausal women and intact female rodents sustain smaller cerebral infarctions than males. Several sex-dependent differences have been identified as potential contributors, but many questions remain unanswered. Mice exhibit wide variation in native collateral number and diameter (collateral extent) that is dependent on differences in genetic background, aging, and other comorbidities and that contributes to their also-wide differences in infarct volume. Likewise, variation in infarct volume correlates with differences in collateral-dependent blood flow in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
November 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27838820/increased-12-15-lipoxygenase-leads-to-widespread-brain-injury-following-global-cerebral-ischemia
#5
Kazim Yigitkanli, Yi Zheng, Anton Pekcec, Eng H Lo, Klaus van Leyen
Global ischemia following cardiac arrest is characterized by high mortality and significant neurological deficits in long-term survivors. Its mechanisms of neuronal cell death have only partially been elucidated. 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is a major contributor to delayed neuronal cell death and vascular injury in experimental stroke, but a possible role in brain injury following global ischemia has to date not been investigated. Using a mouse bilateral occlusion model of transient global ischemia which produced surprisingly widespread injury to cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, we show here that 12/15-LOX is increased in a time-dependent manner in the vasculature and neurons of both cortex and hippocampus...
November 12, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837475/pericytes-in-brain-injury-and-repair-after-ischemic-stroke
#6
REVIEW
Wei Cai, Huan Liu, Jingyan Zhao, Lily Y Chen, Jun Chen, Zhengqi Lu, Xiaoming Hu
Pericytes are functional components of the neurovascular unit (NVU). They provide support to other NVU components and maintain normal physiological functions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The brain ischemia and reperfusion result in pathological alterations in pericytes. The intimate anatomical and functional interactions between pericytes and other NVU components play pivotal roles in the progression of stroke pathology. In this review, we depict the biology and functions of pericytes in the normal brain and discuss their effects in brain injury and repair after ischemia/reperfusion...
November 12, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807801/role-of-glibenclamide-in-brain-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Bing Jiang, Lin Li, Qianwei Chen, Yihao Tao, Liming Yang, Bo Zhang, John H Zhang, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen, Jun Tang, Gang Zhu
Brain edema following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes severe secondary brain injury, and no efficient pharmacological preventions are available. The present study was designed to demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of glibenclamide on brain edema and key factors of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The study was divided into two parts. First, we utilized an autoblood-induced rat model to investigate the expression of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1). Second, rats were randomized into sham, vehicle, and glibenclamide groups...
November 3, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796945/inhibition-of-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-by-an-apolipoprotein-e-mimetic-peptide-ameliorates-early-brain-injury-in-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#8
Jinwei Pang, Yitian Chen, Li Kuai, Ping Yang, Jianhua Peng, Yue Wu, Yue Chen, Michael P Vitek, Ligang Chen, Xiaochuan Sun, Yong Jiang
Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-mimetic peptides have been demonstrated to be beneficial in secondary brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these benefits in SAH models have not been clearly identified. This study investigated whether an ApoE-mimetic peptide affords neuroprotection in early brain injury (EBI) following SAH by attenuating BBB disruption. SAH was induced by an endovascular perforation in young, healthy, male wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice...
October 31, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783383/early-erythrolysis-in-the-hematoma-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#9
Ge Dang, Yuefan Yang, Gang Wu, Ya Hua, Richard F Keep, Guohua Xi
Erythrolysis occurs in the clot after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and the release of hemoglobin causes brain injury, but it is unclear when such lysis occurs. The present study examined early erythrolysis in rats. ICH rats had an intracaudate injection of 100 μl autologous blood, and sham rats had a needle insertion. All rats had T2 and T2* magnetic response imaging (MRI) scanning, and brains were used for histology and CD163 (a hemoglobin scavenger receptor) and DARPP-32 (a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry...
October 25, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714670/mechanisms-imaging-and-therapy-in-stroke-recovery
#10
Changhong Xing, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Eng H Lo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650774/enhanced-procoagulant-activity-on-blood-cells-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#11
Zhipeng Yao, Lixiu Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Lu Zhao, Chunling Chi, Li Guo, Dongxia Tong, Xiaoyan Yang, Zengxiang Dong, Ruijuan Deng, Valerie A Novakovic, Hemant S Thatte, Yayan Bi, Ye Tian, Jialan Shi, Jin Zhou, Junjie Kou, Shaoshan Hu
The role of phosphatidylserine (PS)-mediated procoagulant activity (PCA) in stroke remains unclear. To ascertain this role, early dynamic evolution of PS exposure on blood cells and released microparticles (MPs) and the corresponding PCA were evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Flow cytometry analyses revealed that initial levels of PS exposure on erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte were 2.40-, 1.36-, and 1.38-fold higher, respectively, in AIS than the risk factor-matched (RF) controls...
September 20, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628245/the-cerebrovascular-chronic-kidney-disease-connection-perspectives-and-mechanisms
#12
Wei Ling Lau, Branko N Huisa, Mark Fisher
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cerebrovascular disease, particularly small vessel disease which can manifest in a variety of phenotypes ranging from lacunes to microbleeds. Small vessel disease likely contributes to cognitive dysfunction in the CKD population. Non-traditional risk factors for vascular injury in uremia include loss of calcification inhibitors, hyperphosphatemia, increased blood pressure variability, elastinolysis, platelet dysfunction, and chronic inflammation...
September 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623837/higher-cerebrospinal-fluid-ph-may-contribute-to-the-development-of-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#13
Hidenori Suzuki, Masato Shiba, Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Fumi Nakano, Hirofumi Nishikawa
Recent investigations have shown that many factors may cause delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). To find new potential contributors to DCI, this retrospective study compared gas data in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between patients with and without DCI. The subjects were 61 consecutive patients with SAH classified as Fisher group III on admission computed tomography scans, whose aneurysms were obliterated by clipping or coiling within 24 h post-SAH. Thirty-three patients were treated with CSF drainage...
September 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714669/a-post-stroke-therapeutic-regimen-with-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-that-promotes-white-matter-integrity-and-beneficial-microglial-responses-after-cerebral-ischemia
#14
Xiaoyan Jiang, Hongjian Pu, Xiaoming Hu, Zhishuo Wei, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Yejie Shi
White matter injury induced by ischemic stroke elicits sensorimotor impairments, which can be further deteriorated by persistent proinflammatory responses. We previously reported that delayed and repeated treatments with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve spatial cognitive functions and hippocampal integrity after ischemic stroke. In the present study, we report a post-stroke n-3 PUFA therapeutic regimen that not only confers protection against neuronal loss in the gray matter but also promotes white matter integrity...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614618/dimethyl-fumarate-and-monomethyl-fumarate-promote-post-ischemic-recovery-in-mice
#15
Yang Yao, Weimin Miao, Zhijia Liu, Wei Han, Kaibin Shi, Yi Shen, Handong Li, Qiang Liu, Ying Fu, DeRen Huang, Fu-Dong Shi
Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) are antioxidant agents that can activate the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway and induce the expression of antioxidant proteins. Here, we evaluated the impact of DMF and MMF on ischemia-induced brain injury and whether the Nrf2 pathway mediates the effects provided by DMF and MMF in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586681/secondary-stroke-prevention-improving-diagnosis-and-management-with-newer-technologies
#16
Yahia Z Imam, Atlantic D'Souza, Rayaz A Malik, Ashfaq Shuaib
Treatment of hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking cessation, and healthy lifestyle have all contributed to the decline in the incidence of vascular disease over the last several decades. Patients who suffer an acute stroke are at a high risk for recurrence. Introduction of newer technologies and their wider use allows for better identification of patients in whom the risk of recurrence following an acute stroke may be very high. Traditionally, the major focus for diagnosis and management has focused on patient history, examination, imaging for carotid stenosis/occlusion, and detection of AF and paroxysmal AF (PAF) with 24-48 h cardiac monitoring...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566736/delayed-docosahexaenoic-acid-treatment-combined-with-dietary-supplementation-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-promotes-long-term-neurovascular-restoration-after-ischemic-stroke
#17
Hongjian Pu, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xiaoming Hu, Jinchao Xia, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Yejie Shi
Prophylactic dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been shown to remarkably ameliorate ischemic brain injury. However, the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFA administration post-stroke, especially its impact on neurovascular remodeling and long-term neurological recovery, has not been fully characterized thus far. In this study, we investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation, as well as in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) injections, on long-term stroke outcomes...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539574/severity-dependent-long-term-spatial-learning-memory-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Chengrui An, Xiaoyan Jiang, Hongjian Pu, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Yanqin Gao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in young adults. Long-term mental disability often occurs in patients suffering moderate and severe TBI while not as frequent in the victims of mild TBI. To explore the potential mechanism underlying this severity-dependent cognitive deficit, we subjected C57/BL6 mice to different severities of controlled cortical impact (CCI) and assessed their learning-memory functions. The mice subjected to moderate and severe TBI exhibited significantly impaired long-term spatial learning-memory ability, which was accompanied by marked white matter injury and hippocampus damage...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515852/recent-advances-in-stem-cell-based-therapeutics-for-stroke
#19
EDITORIAL
Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510769/cpkc%C3%AE-modulated-autophagy-in-neurons-alleviates-ischemic-injury-in-brain-of-mice-with-ischemic-stroke-through-akt-mtor-pathway
#20
Haiping Wei, Yun Li, Song Han, Shuiqiao Liu, Nan Zhang, Li Zhao, Shujuan Li, Junfa Li
We have reported that neuron-specific conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ is involved in the development of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) and the neuroprotection against ischemic injuries, but its molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, the adult and postnatal 24 h C57BL/6J wild-type (cPKCγ(+/+)) and cPKCγ knockout (cPKCγ(-/-)) mice were respectively used to establish the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated primarily cultured cortical neurons as cell ischemia in vitro...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
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