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Translational Stroke Research

Changhong Xing, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Eng H Lo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 7, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Zhipeng Yao, Lixiu Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Lu Zhao, Chunling Chi, Li Guo, Dongxia Tong, Xiaoyan Yang, Zengxiang Dong, Ruijuan Deng, Valerie A Novakovic, Hemant S Thatte, Yayan Bi, Ye Tian, Jialan Shi, Jin Zhou, Junjie Kou, Shaoshan Hu
The role of phosphatidylserine (PS)-mediated procoagulant activity (PCA) in stroke remains unclear. To ascertain this role, early dynamic evolution of PS exposure on blood cells and released microparticles (MPs) and the corresponding PCA were evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Flow cytometry analyses revealed that initial levels of PS exposure on erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte were 2.40-, 1.36-, and 1.38-fold higher, respectively, in AIS than the risk factor-matched (RF) controls...
September 20, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Wei Ling Lau, Branko N Huisa, Mark Fisher
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cerebrovascular disease, particularly small vessel disease which can manifest in a variety of phenotypes ranging from lacunes to microbleeds. Small vessel disease likely contributes to cognitive dysfunction in the CKD population. Non-traditional risk factors for vascular injury in uremia include loss of calcification inhibitors, hyperphosphatemia, increased blood pressure variability, elastinolysis, platelet dysfunction, and chronic inflammation...
September 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Hidenori Suzuki, Masato Shiba, Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Fumi Nakano, Hirofumi Nishikawa
Recent investigations have shown that many factors may cause delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). To find new potential contributors to DCI, this retrospective study compared gas data in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between patients with and without DCI. The subjects were 61 consecutive patients with SAH classified as Fisher group III on admission computed tomography scans, whose aneurysms were obliterated by clipping or coiling within 24 h post-SAH. Thirty-three patients were treated with CSF drainage...
September 14, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Emiri T Mandeville, Cenk Ayata, Yi Zheng, Joseph B Mandeville
Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a critical clinical tool for diagnosing focal ischemic stroke severity, staging treatment, and predicting outcome. Imaging during the acute phase focuses on tissue viability in the stroke vicinity, while imaging during recovery requires the evaluation of distributed structural and functional connectivity. Preclinical MRI of experimental stroke models provides validation of non-invasive biomarkers in terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms, while also providing a translational platform for evaluation of prospective therapies...
August 31, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Naohiro Egawa, Josephine Lok, Kazuo Washida, Ken Arai
Central nervous system (CNS) injury initiates spatial and temporal neurodegeneration. Under pathologic conditions, damaged glial cells cannot supply sufficient metabolites to neurons, leading to energy deficiency for neuronal axons. The widespread disruption of cellular membranes causes disturbed intracellular signaling via dysregulated ionic gradients in neurons. Although several deleterious cascades are activated during the acute phase of CNS injury, some compensatory responses may tend to promote axonal repair during the chronic/remodeling phase...
August 27, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Lesley Baerts, Raf Brouns, Kaat Kehoe, Robert Verkerk, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Peter Paul De Deyn, Dirk Hendriks, Ingrid De Meester
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) inhibition may be a promising therapeutic strategy for acute stroke treatment, given its potential to prolong the biological half-life of neuroprotective substrates. A related protease, fibroblast activation protein (FAP), was recently shown to inactivate the same substrates. Therefore, it should also be investigated as a potential target in stroke. The study aimed to investigate whether stroke severity and outcome correlate with DPPIV and FAP activities and their kinetics shortly after acute ischemic stroke...
August 26, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Etienne Atangana, Ulf C Schneider, Kinga Blecharz, Salima Magrini, Josephin Wagner, Melina Nieminen-Kelhä, Irina Kremenetskaia, Frank L Heppner, Britta Engelhardt, Peter Vajkoczy
Activation of innate immunity contributes to secondary brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (eSAH). Microglia accumulation and activation within the brain has recently been shown to induce neuronal cell death after eSAH. In isolated mouse brain capillaries after eSAH, we show a significantly increased gene expression for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin. Hence, we hypothesized that extracerebral intravascular inflammatory processes might initiate the previously reported microglia accumulation within the brain tissue...
August 1, 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Xiaoyan Jiang, Hongjian Pu, Xiaoming Hu, Zhishuo Wei, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Yejie Shi
White matter injury induced by ischemic stroke elicits sensorimotor impairments, which can be further deteriorated by persistent proinflammatory responses. We previously reported that delayed and repeated treatments with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) improve spatial cognitive functions and hippocampal integrity after ischemic stroke. In the present study, we report a post-stroke n-3 PUFA therapeutic regimen that not only confers protection against neuronal loss in the gray matter but also promotes white matter integrity...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Yang Yao, Weimin Miao, Zhijia Liu, Wei Han, Kaibin Shi, Yi Shen, Handong Li, Qiang Liu, Ying Fu, DeRen Huang, Fu-Dong Shi
Oxidative stress plays an important role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) are antioxidant agents that can activate the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway and induce the expression of antioxidant proteins. Here, we evaluated the impact of DMF and MMF on ischemia-induced brain injury and whether the Nrf2 pathway mediates the effects provided by DMF and MMF in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Yahia Z Imam, Atlantic D'Souza, Rayaz A Malik, Ashfaq Shuaib
Treatment of hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking cessation, and healthy lifestyle have all contributed to the decline in the incidence of vascular disease over the last several decades. Patients who suffer an acute stroke are at a high risk for recurrence. Introduction of newer technologies and their wider use allows for better identification of patients in whom the risk of recurrence following an acute stroke may be very high. Traditionally, the major focus for diagnosis and management has focused on patient history, examination, imaging for carotid stenosis/occlusion, and detection of AF and paroxysmal AF (PAF) with 24-48 h cardiac monitoring...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Hongjian Pu, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xiaoming Hu, Jinchao Xia, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Jun Chen, Yejie Shi
Prophylactic dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) has been shown to remarkably ameliorate ischemic brain injury. However, the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFA administration post-stroke, especially its impact on neurovascular remodeling and long-term neurological recovery, has not been fully characterized thus far. In this study, we investigated the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation, as well as in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) injections, on long-term stroke outcomes...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Chengrui An, Xiaoyan Jiang, Hongjian Pu, Dandan Hong, Wenting Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Yanqin Gao
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in young adults. Long-term mental disability often occurs in patients suffering moderate and severe TBI while not as frequent in the victims of mild TBI. To explore the potential mechanism underlying this severity-dependent cognitive deficit, we subjected C57/BL6 mice to different severities of controlled cortical impact (CCI) and assessed their learning-memory functions. The mice subjected to moderate and severe TBI exhibited significantly impaired long-term spatial learning-memory ability, which was accompanied by marked white matter injury and hippocampus damage...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Eleonora Napoli, Cesar V Borlongan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Haiping Wei, Yun Li, Song Han, Shuiqiao Liu, Nan Zhang, Li Zhao, Shujuan Li, Junfa Li
We have reported that neuron-specific conventional protein kinase C (cPKC)γ is involved in the development of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) and the neuroprotection against ischemic injuries, but its molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, the adult and postnatal 24 h C57BL/6J wild-type (cPKCγ(+/+)) and cPKCγ knockout (cPKCγ(-/-)) mice were respectively used to establish the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic stroke in vivo and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated primarily cultured cortical neurons as cell ischemia in vitro...
December 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Johannes Boltze, Cenk Ayata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Keith W Muir, I Mhairi Macrae
Standard imaging in acute stroke enables the exclusion of non-stroke structural CNS lesions and cerebral haemorrhage from clinical and pre-clinical ischaemic stroke trials. In this review, the potential benefit of imaging (e.g., angiography and penumbral imaging) as a translational tool for trial recruitment and the use of imaging endpoints are discussed for both clinical and pre-clinical stroke research. The addition of advanced imaging to identify a "responder" population leads to reduced sample size for any given effect size in phase 2 trials and is a potentially cost-efficient means of testing interventions...
October 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Ulrike Hoffmann, Huaxin Sheng, Cenk Ayata, David S Warner
Anesthetics have enabled major advances in development of experimental models of human stroke. Yet, their profound pharmacologic effects on neural function can confound the interpretation of experimental stroke research. Anesthetics have species-, drug-, and dose-specific effects on cerebral blood flow and metabolism, neurovascular coupling, autoregulation, ischemic depolarizations, excitotoxicity, inflammation, neural networks, and numerous molecular pathways relevant for stroke outcome. Both preconditioning and postconditioning properties have been described...
October 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Sarah K McCann, Fala Cramond, Malcolm R Macleod, Emily S Sena
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA) is an anti-inflammatory protein used clinically to treat rheumatoid arthritis and is considered a promising candidate therapy for stroke. Here, we sought to update the existing systematic review and meta-analysis of IL-1 RA in models of ischaemic stroke, published in 2009, to assess efficacy, the range of circumstances in which efficacy has been tested and whether the data appear to be confounded due to reported study quality and publication bias. We included 25 sources of data, 11 of which were additional to the original review...
October 2016: Translational Stroke Research
Marc Hommel, Olivier Detante, Isabelle Favre, Emmanuel Touzé, Assia Jaillard
In clinical trials, assessing efficacy is based on validated scales, and the primary endpoint is usually based on a single scale. The aim of the review is to revisit the concepts and methods to design and analyze studies focused on restoration, recovery and or compensation. These studies are becoming more frequent with the development of restorative medicine. After discussing the definitions of recovery, we address the concept of recovery as the regain of lost capabilities, when the patient reaches a new equilibrium...
October 2016: Translational Stroke Research
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