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International Health

Kelsey Vaughan, Ngozi Akwataghibe, Babatunde Fakunle, Liezel Wolmarans
BACKGROUND: A key aspect of monitoring and evaluating health programs is ensuring that benefits are reaching their target population. We conducted a benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of a Shell-sponsored community health insurance scheme in Nigeria to determine the extent to which the target group (the poor) was benefitting. METHODS: We examined a sample of 616 patients' hospital attendance, financial and administrative records from 2012-2013. We estimated annual utilization rates and average unit costs for inpatient and outpatient services...
October 15, 2016: International Health
Evelyn K Ansah, Christopher Jm Whitty, Constance Bart-Plange, Margaret Gyapong
BACKGROUND: Most people with febrile illness are treated in the private drug retail sector. Ghana was among nine countries piloting the Global Fund Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm). AMFm aimed to: increase artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) affordability; increase ACT availability; increase ACT use; and 'crowd out' artemisinin monotherapies. METHODS: Three censuses were carried out 2 months before (2010), 2 months after and 2.5 years after (2013) the first co-paid ACTs to assess changes in antimalarial (AM) availability and price in private retail shops in a Ghanaian rural district to assess the sustainability of the initial gains...
October 15, 2016: International Health
Bérangère Gohy, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Erin Schillberg, Masood Nasim, Muhammad Mahmood Naimi, Sophia Cheréstal, Pauline Falipou, Eric Weerts, Peter Skelton, Catherine Van Overloop, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015...
October 13, 2016: International Health
Helen Campbell, Shamez Ladhani
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, use of the quadrivalent MenACWY conjugate vaccines has increased with the emergence of a hypervirulent MenW:cc11 strain in certain parts of the world, especially South America. In England, MenW:cc11 IMD cases increased rapidly after 2009 and was responsible for 24% of all IMD cases in 2014/15 compared to <5% previously, leading to the emergency introduction of a national teenage MenACWY conjugate vaccine programme in August 2015...
September 12, 2016: International Health
Flavia C D Andrade, Fan Wu, Ruopeng An, Angela Stellrecht
BACKGROUND: Employment is a key determinant of health disparity. We examined gender-specific relationships between employment status and health outcomes among Brazilian adults. METHODS: Nationally representative data (n=463 223) came from the 2003 and 2008 Brazilian National Household Surveys. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate gender-specific associations between employment status and health outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with employed counterparts, the odds of depression were higher among unemployed men (AOR 2...
September 12, 2016: International Health
Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Qais Alefan, Raya N Alzayadeen
BACKGROUND: Drug-related problems (DRPs) can be defined as any event that is drug related that results in harm or in providing less than optimum medical care to patients. The aim of this study is to determine the types and frequency of each type of DRP in selected outpatient settings in Jordan, with emphasis on gender as a grouping variable. METHODS: This study was a non-randomized controlled trial, carried out over 3 days, at Alsarih Medical Health Center in the north of Jordan...
August 23, 2016: International Health
Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub, Mariana Gaspar Garcia, Elisa Birri, Nathalie Severy, Marie-Christine Ferir, Engy Ali, Katie Tayler-Smith, Dinah Palmera Nadera, Mark Van Ommeren
BACKGROUND: Severe mental disorders are often neglected following a disaster. Based on Médecins Sans Frontières' (MSF) experience of providing mental health (MH) care after the 2013 typhoon in the Philippines, we describe the monthly volume of MH activities and beneficiaries; characteristics of people seeking MH care; profile and outcomes of people with severe mental disorders; prescription of psychotropic medication; and factors facilitating the identification and management of individuals with severe mental disorders...
September 2016: International Health
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Michael Parker, Arjen M Dondorp
Over 90% of deaths attributable to malaria are in African children under 5 years old. Yet, new treatments are often tested primarily in adult patients and extrapolations have proven to be sometimes invalid, especially in dosing regimens. For studies in severe malaria an additional complication is that the decline in severe malaria in adult patients precludes sufficiently powered trials in adults, before the intervention can be tested in the ultimate target group, paediatric severe malaria. In this paper we propose an alternative pathway to the development of drugs for use in paediatric severe malaria...
September 2016: International Health
Fred P Martineau
The 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak demonstrated the extent to which local social and political dynamics shape health system responses to crises such as epidemics. Many post-Ebola health system strengthening programmes are framed around a notion of health system 'resilience' that focuses on global rather than local priorities and fails to account for key local social dynamics that shape crisis responses. Post-crisis health system strengthening efforts require a shift towards a more 'people-centred' understanding of resilience that attends to the people, relationships and local contexts that constitute health systems and the practices that produce crisis responses...
September 2016: International Health
Bethina Loiseau, Darren Benedict, Rebekah Sibbald, Salem A Raman, Lawrence C Loh, Helen Dimaras
Short-term international volunteering has become enormously popular among individuals from high-income countries who travel to low-income countries to offer support on initiatives often related to health and development. However, their impact on global development is questionable, particularly when volunteer skills are not matched to local needs, or when teams operate outside the local health system. Furthermore, the impact of these volunteer programs is rarely evaluated. Theory of Change is a framework for program design meant to facilitate measurable social change...
September 2016: International Health
Girmay Tsegay, Abreham Tamiru, Tsige Amberbir, Gail Davey, Kebede Deribe
BACKGROUND: In Northern Ethiopia, use of footwear by the rural community is limited, and non-governmental organizations provide footwear for school children as a means of preventing podoconiosis. However, this is not a sustainable strategy. This study assessed willingness to pay for footwear among people with and without podoconiosis. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in Mecha and Gozamen woredas among randomly selected people with and without podoconiosis...
September 2016: International Health
Sarah C Walpole, Clare Shortall, May Ci van Schalkwyk, Abi Merriel, Jayne Ellis, Lucy Obolensky, Marisa Casanova Dias, Jessica Watson, Colin S Brown, Jennifer Hall, Luisa M Pettigrew, Steve Allen
BACKGROUND: Globalisation is having profound impacts on health and healthcare. We solicited the views of a wide range of stakeholders in order to develop core global health competencies for postgraduate doctors. METHODS: Published literature and existing curricula informed writing of seven global health competencies for consultation. A modified policy Delphi involved an online survey and face-to-face and telephone interviews over three rounds. RESULTS: Over 250 stakeholders participated, including doctors, other health professionals, policymakers and members of the public from all continents of the world...
September 2016: International Health
Anna Crepet, Ernestina Repetto, Ahmad Al Rousan, Monica Sané Schepisi, Enrico Girardi, Tullio Prestileo, Luigi Codecasa, Silvia Garelli, Salvatore Corrao, Giuseppe Ippolito, Tom Decroo, Barbara Maccagno
BACKGROUND: Between June 2012 and December 2013 Médecins Sans Frontières launched a pilot project with the aim of testing a strategy for improving timely diagnosis of active pulmonary TB among migrants hosted in four centres of identification and expulsion (CIE) in Italy. METHODS: This is a descriptive study. For active TB case finding we used an active symptom screening approach among migrants at admission in four CIE's. Here we describe the feasibility and the yield of this programme...
September 2016: International Health
Denna Michael, Dotto Kezakubi, Adinan Juma, Jim Todd, Hugh Reyburn, Jenny Renju
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major contributor to ill health in sub-Saharan Africa. Developing countries need to increase access for screening. This study assesses the feasibility and acceptability of using private sector drug retail outlets to screen for hypertension in Mwanza region, Tanzania. METHODS: A pilot study took place in eight drug retail outlets from August 2013 to February 2014. Customers ≥18 years were invited for screening. Socio-demographic characteristics, hypertension knowledge, hypertension screening and treatment history were collected...
September 2016: International Health
Victor M Oguoma, Ezekiel U Nwose, Timothy C Skinner, Ross S Richards, Kester A Digban, Innocent C Onyia
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and consequential cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are on the increase in Nigeria. The study aimed to identify the prevalence of 10-year CVD risk in a Nigerian population and assess its relationship with different indices of MetS. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons aged 18 years of age or older. Ten-year risk was calculated using the ATPIII/Framingham criteria. Subjects with risk score <10% were considered as having low risk, 10-20% moderate risk and >20% at high risk of developing CVD in 10 years...
September 2016: International Health
Ijeoma N Diaku-Akinwumi, Sani B Abubakar, Samuel A Adegoke, Solomon Adeleke, Oyebade Adewoye, Titilayo Adeyemo, Akinsegun Akinbami, Norah O Akinola, Adebola Akinsulie, Adeline Akinyoola, John Aneke, Sani Awwalu, Ahmadu Babadoko, Biobele Brown, Obuoha Ejike, Ifeoma Emodi, Innocent George, Ahmed Girei, Abdulaziz Hassan, Garba U Kangiwa, Olubunmi A Lawal, Cecilia Mabogunje, Anazoeze J Madu, Akeem Mustapha, Muhammad Ndakotsu, Obiageli E Nnodu, Damian Nwaneri, Friday Odey F, Chinatu Ohiaeri, Rasaq Olaosebikan, Oladele S Olatunya O, Oluseyi Oniyangi, Hyginus Opara, Ngozi I Ugwu, Abubakar U Musa, Shehu Abdullahi, Abubakar Usman, Enobong Utuk, Binta W Jibir, Adekunle D Adekile
BACKGROUND: Safe, timely red blood cell transfusion saves lives and chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) prevents or limits morbidities such as stroke, therefore improving quality of life of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). METHODS: This questionnaire-based study assessed the ability of sickle cell centers in Nigeria to provide safe blood to patients with SCD between March and August 2014. RESULTS: Out of the 73 hospitals contacted, responses were obtained from 31...
September 2016: International Health
Matthew Hunt, John Pringle, Markus Christen, Lisa Eckenwiler, Lisa Schwartz, Anushree Davé
New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation...
July 2016: International Health
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Nicholas J White
Falciparum malaria is a major cause of death and illness in tropical countries, particularly in childhood. In endemic countries, a significant proportion of the community is infected with malaria asymptomatically. One promising way to eliminate malaria is to give the entire population malaria treatment. This is called mass drug administration (MDA) and it raises a number of ethical issues, as possible long-term benefits are uncertain. The effectiveness of MDA is critically dependent on level of participation, so the promised benefits to the community can be annulled by non-participation of a small number of individuals...
July 2016: International Health
Laura Dean, Samantha Page, Kate Hawkins, Russell Stothard, Rachael Thomson, Samuel Wanji, Margaret Gyapong, Ifeoma Anagbogu, David Molyneux, Sally Theobald
The concept of a technological quick fix or 'magic-bullet' for control and elimination of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is flawed. NTDs are embedded within complex biological and social systems that are shaped by ecological and political contexts. This commentary emphasises the need for implementation research to address implementation gaps in the control of NTDs. With a specific focus on sub-Saharan Africa and helminth diseases amenable to preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration, we explore the important role of context, programme partnerships and community in achieving equitable and effective NTD control...
July 2016: International Health
D N Durrheim, A Adams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: International Health
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