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International Health

Kingsley N Ukwaja, Isaac Alobu, Gidado Mustapha, Olajumoke Onazi, Daniel C Oshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: International Health
Dixon Chibanda
Depression is a global public health problem affecting more than 300 million people. People living with HIV (PLWH) are twice as likely to suffer from depression when compared to matched non-HIV infected persons. Untreated, depression may hasten HIV disease progression. A large treatment gap for depression, particularly in low and middle income countries exists. There is, however, emerging evidence suggesting that trained lay health workers (LHW) can deliver evidence-based treatments in the absence of mental health professionals...
January 22, 2017: International Health
Levent Soydan, Ali Aslan Demir, Atadan Tunaci
BACKGROUND: Lungs are particularly vulnerable to both acute infections, including TB, and chronic diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as to malignancies, all of which require particular attention during war times in which health conditions are far from optimal. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 1149 refugees that underwent thoracic computed tomography (CT) for respiratory symptoms between March 2013 and February 2015 in Turkey...
January 18, 2017: International Health
Carlos Andres Gallegos, William F Waters, Anne Sebert Kuhlmann
BACKGROUND: Traditional beliefs, knowledge and practices are formally integrated into the Ecuadorian health system. We sought to understand whether they are integrated in practice. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected in two rural parishes in the central highlands of Ecuador through four focus group discussions (30 participants), eight key informant interviews, three participatory exercises (24 participants), structured observations of health facilities and analysis of official documents...
December 18, 2016: International Health
Gabriel D Empaire, Maria E Guzman Siritt, Victor D Rosenthal, Fernando Pérez, Yvis Ruiz, Claudia Díaz, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Evelyn Salinas, Nelva Orozco
BACKGROUND: Device-associated healthcare-acquired infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety in the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: A DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in two adult medical/surgical ICUs at two hospitals in Caracas, Venezuela, in different periods from March 2008 to April 2015, using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and criteria, and INICC methods...
January 2017: International Health
Surianti Sukeri, Masoud Mirzaei, Stephen Jan
BACKGROUND: Malaysia is an upper-middle income country with a tax-based health financing system. Health care is relatively affordable, and safety nets are provided for the needy. The objectives of this study were to determine the out-of-pocket health spending, proportion of catastrophic health spending (out-of-pocket spending >40% of non-food expenditure), economic hardship and financial coping strategies among patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Malaysia under the present health financing system...
January 2017: International Health
Joseph N Chukwu, Anthony O Meka, Charles C Nwafor, Daniel C Oshi, Nelson O Madichie, Ngozi Ekeke, Moses C Anyim, Alphonsus Chukwuka, Mbah Obinna, Julie Adegbesan, Martin Njoku, Festus O Soyinka, Adebola O Adelokiki, Isreal O Enemuoh, Patrick I Okolie, Joseph E Edochie, Jonah B Offor, Joseph Ushaka, Kingsley N Ukwaja
BACKGROUND: The economic burden of Buruli ulcer for patients has not been well-documented. This study assessed the costs of Buruli ulcer care to patients from the onset of illness to diagnosis and to the end of treatment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cost of illness study conducted among patients with Buruli ulcer in four States in Nigeria between July and September 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the patients' characteristics, household income and out-of-pocket costs of care...
January 2017: International Health
Victoria Y Fan, Feng-Jen J Tsai, Zubin C Shroff, Branden Nakahara, Nabil Vargha, Scott Weathers
BACKGROUND: This study aims to understand the determinants of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria's dedicated channel for health systems strengthening (HSS) funding across countries and to analyze their health system priorities expressed in budgets and performance indicators. METHODS: We obtained publicly available data for disease-specific and HSS grants from the Global Fund over 2004-2013 prior to the new funding model. Regression analysis was employed to assess the determinants of dedicated HSS funding across 111 countries...
January 2017: International Health
Baba M Musa, Musa A Garbati, Ibrahim M Nashabaru, Shehu M Yusuf, Aisha M Nalado, Daiyabu A Ibrahim, Melynda N Simmons, Muktar H Aliyu
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports of sex differences in HIV treatment outcomes in Africa. We investigated sex disparities in treatment outcomes for adults on first line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Nigeria. METHODS: We compared clinical and immunologic responses to ART between HIV-infected men (n=205) and women (n=140) enrolled in an ART program between June 2004 and December 2007, with follow-up through June 2014. We employed Kaplan-Meier estimates to examine differences in time to immunologic failure and loss to follow-up (LTFU), and generalized estimating equations to assess changes in CD4+ count by sex...
January 2017: International Health
Gobopamang Letamo, Mpho Keetile, Kannan Navaneetham, Mpho Phatsimo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases and their correlates in Botswana. This is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of respondents aged 10-64 years using data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV conducted in 2013. Three self-reported non-communicable diseases, namely, hypertension, diabetes and asthma were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify their correlates...
January 2017: International Health
Muazzam Nasrullah, Sana Muazzam, Faisal Khosa, Muhammad Mobarak Hussain Khan
BACKGROUND: Child marriage (before 18 years) is widely prevalent in Pakistan, and disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and poorly-educated households. Our study aims to determine the association of child marriage and attitude towards wife beating among currently married Pakistani women aged 15-24 after controlling for social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence). METHODS: We limited the data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013 to currently married women aged 15-24 years (n=2648)...
January 2017: International Health
Nassim Matin, Roya Kelishadi, Ramin Heshmat, Nazgol Motamed-Gorji, Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Tahereh Arefirad, Rasool Mohammadi, Saeid Safiri, Mostafa Qorbani
BACKGROUND: Self-rated health and life satisfaction are two subjective measures for assessing overall health status. This study aims to investigate the association of self-rated health and life satisfaction with physical activity and screen time. METHODS: As part of the fourth survey of a national surveillance program in Iran (CASPIAN-IV study), 14 880 students aged 6 to 18 years were selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Data were obtained from the WHO Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire...
January 2017: International Health
Joseph Freer
Achieving universal health coverage by 2030 requires that lessons from the Millennium Development Goals must be heeded. The most important lesson is that the workforce underpins every function of the health system, and is the rate-limiting step. The three dimensions that continue to limit the success of the development agenda are availability, distribution and performance of health workers - and the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved without addressing all three. Hence, the traditional response of scaling up supply is inadequate: a paradigm shift is required in the design of systems that can properly identify, train, allocate and retain health workers...
January 2017: International Health
Chia-Hao Chang, Leng-Chieh Lin, I-Chuan Chen, Ching-Ho Yen
BACKGROUND: In order to evaluate the discrimination performance of an ordinal model for improved disease screening, a new test was proposed where information was obtained across all samples simultaneously. METHODS: The ordinal c-index builds upon the volume under the surface methodology without focusing on the accompanying receiver operating characteristic surfaces. However, it can be simplified to an average of pairwise c-indexes. In this paper, a set-based estimate (information was obtained across all samples simultaneously) was proposed by summing all correctly ordered groups...
January 2017: International Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Health
Shie Li, Tong Wang, Chao Ye, Qi Li, Zidan Guo, Huan Wu, Hong Liu, Xiangzhi Gao, Huihui Zhou, Hongyang Pang, Jing Deng, Xin Jiang, Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to pilot a method of a small-scale survey for the assessment of Keshan disease (KD) elimination at township level. METHODS: The prevalence of chronic KD was obtained by case-searching the whole population. The endemic village with the highest prevalence of chronic KD was selected as the key village for the survey of latent KD prevalence rate among permanent residents. The selenium levels in the head hair of individuals in the key village was measured...
November 2016: International Health
Timothy C Hardcastle, Siddarth D David
Over the years healthcare services during conflict have informed healthcare practice especially in trauma care. Conflict zones have constraints not very different from low-resource settings specifically in dealing with urban violence. Yet, there is limited in-depth study on conflict medicine. This is being slowly recognised in health literature. Two recent papers in International Health have indicated that trauma care packages in conflict settings could be adapted in low-resource settings. There is a need to overview and audit healthcare services in conflict zones further to identify more areas of overlap and possible lessons it holds for improving trauma outcomes in other settings...
November 2016: International Health
Benjamin B Massenburg, Nakul P Raykar, Amul Pawaskar, Jesudian Gnanaraj, Nobhojit Roy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Health
Pola Valles, Rafael Van den Bergh, Wilma van den Boogaard, Katherine Tayler-Smith, Olivia Gayraud, Bashir Ahmad Mammozai, Masood Nasim, Sophia Cheréstal, Alberta Majuste, James Philippe Charles, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of death and represents a major problem in developing countries where access to good quality emergency care is limited. Médecins Sans Frontières delivered a standard package of care in two trauma emergency departments (EDs) in different violence settings: Kunduz, Afghanistan, and Tabarre, Haiti. This study aims to assess whether this standard package resulted in similar performance in these very different contexts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using routine programme data, comparing patient characteristics and outcomes in two EDs over the course of 2014...
November 2016: International Health
Robert L Tennyson, Christopher G Kemp, Deepa Rao
The gap between need and access to mental health care is widest in low-resource settings. Health systems in these contexts devote few resources to expanding mental health care, and it is missing from the agenda of most global health donors. This is partially explained by the paucity of data regarding the nature and extent of the mental health burden in these settings, so accurate and comparable measurement is essential to advocating for, developing, and implementing appropriate policies and services. Inaccurate estimation of mental illness prevalence, and misunderstandings regarding its etiologies and expressions, are associated with unnecessary costs to health systems and people living with mental illness...
November 2016: International Health
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