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International Health

Muazzam Nasrullah, Sana Muazzam, Faisal Khosa, Muhammad Mobarak Hussain Khan
BACKGROUND: Child marriage (before 18 years) is widely prevalent in Pakistan, and disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and poorly-educated households. Our study aims to determine the association of child marriage and attitude towards wife beating among currently married Pakistani women aged 15-24 after controlling for social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence). METHODS: We limited the data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2012-2013 to currently married women aged 15-24 years (n=2648)...
November 17, 2016: International Health
Nassim Matin, Roya Kelishadi, Ramin Heshmat, Nazgol Motamed-Gorji, Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Tahereh Arefirad, Rasool Mohammadi, Saeid Safiri, Mostafa Qorbani
BACKGROUND: Self-rated health and life satisfaction are two subjective measures for assessing overall health status. This study aims to investigate the association of self-rated health and life satisfaction with physical activity and screen time. METHODS: As part of the fourth survey of a national surveillance program in Iran (CASPIAN-IV study), 14 880 students aged 6 to 18 years were selected via multi-stage cluster sampling from 30 provinces. Data were obtained from the WHO Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire...
November 10, 2016: International Health
Joseph Freer
Achieving universal health coverage by 2030 requires that lessons from the Millennium Development Goals must be heeded. The most important lesson is that the workforce underpins every function of the health system, and is the rate-limiting step. The three dimensions that continue to limit the success of the development agenda are availability, distribution and performance of health workers - and the Sustainable Development Goals cannot be achieved without addressing all three. Hence, the traditional response of scaling up supply is inadequate: a paradigm shift is required in the design of systems that can properly identify, train, allocate and retain health workers...
November 4, 2016: International Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Health
Shie Li, Tong Wang, Chao Ye, Qi Li, Zidan Guo, Huan Wu, Hong Liu, Xiangzhi Gao, Huihui Zhou, Hongyang Pang, Jing Deng, Xin Jiang, Feng Chen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to pilot a method of a small-scale survey for the assessment of Keshan disease (KD) elimination at township level. METHODS: The prevalence of chronic KD was obtained by case-searching the whole population. The endemic village with the highest prevalence of chronic KD was selected as the key village for the survey of latent KD prevalence rate among permanent residents. The selenium levels in the head hair of individuals in the key village was measured...
November 2016: International Health
Timothy C Hardcastle, Siddarth D David
Over the years healthcare services during conflict have informed healthcare practice especially in trauma care. Conflict zones have constraints not very different from low-resource settings specifically in dealing with urban violence. Yet, there is limited in-depth study on conflict medicine. This is being slowly recognised in health literature. Two recent papers in International Health have indicated that trauma care packages in conflict settings could be adapted in low-resource settings. There is a need to overview and audit healthcare services in conflict zones further to identify more areas of overlap and possible lessons it holds for improving trauma outcomes in other settings...
November 2016: International Health
Benjamin B Massenburg, Nakul P Raykar, Amul Pawaskar, Jesudian Gnanaraj, Nobhojit Roy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: International Health
Pola Valles, Rafael Van den Bergh, Wilma van den Boogaard, Katherine Tayler-Smith, Olivia Gayraud, Bashir Ahmad Mammozai, Masood Nasim, Sophia Cheréstal, Alberta Majuste, James Philippe Charles, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of death and represents a major problem in developing countries where access to good quality emergency care is limited. Médecins Sans Frontières delivered a standard package of care in two trauma emergency departments (EDs) in different violence settings: Kunduz, Afghanistan, and Tabarre, Haiti. This study aims to assess whether this standard package resulted in similar performance in these very different contexts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using routine programme data, comparing patient characteristics and outcomes in two EDs over the course of 2014...
November 2016: International Health
Robert L Tennyson, Christopher G Kemp, Deepa Rao
The gap between need and access to mental health care is widest in low-resource settings. Health systems in these contexts devote few resources to expanding mental health care, and it is missing from the agenda of most global health donors. This is partially explained by the paucity of data regarding the nature and extent of the mental health burden in these settings, so accurate and comparable measurement is essential to advocating for, developing, and implementing appropriate policies and services. Inaccurate estimation of mental illness prevalence, and misunderstandings regarding its etiologies and expressions, are associated with unnecessary costs to health systems and people living with mental illness...
November 2016: International Health
Kelsey Vaughan, Ngozi Akwataghibe, Babatunde Fakunle, Liezel Wolmarans
BACKGROUND: A key aspect of monitoring and evaluating health programs is ensuring that benefits are reaching their target population. We conducted a benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of a Shell-sponsored community health insurance scheme in Nigeria to determine the extent to which the target group (the poor) was benefitting. METHODS: We examined a sample of 616 patients' hospital attendance, financial and administrative records from 2012-2013. We estimated annual utilization rates and average unit costs for inpatient and outpatient services...
November 2016: International Health
Evelyn K Ansah, Christopher Jm Whitty, Constance Bart-Plange, Margaret Gyapong
BACKGROUND: Most people with febrile illness are treated in the private drug retail sector. Ghana was among nine countries piloting the Global Fund Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria (AMFm). AMFm aimed to: increase artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) affordability; increase ACT availability; increase ACT use; and 'crowd out' artemisinin monotherapies. METHODS: Three censuses were carried out 2 months before (2010), 2 months after and 2.5 years after (2013) the first co-paid ACTs to assess changes in antimalarial (AM) availability and price in private retail shops in a Ghanaian rural district to assess the sustainability of the initial gains...
November 2016: International Health
Bérangère Gohy, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Erin Schillberg, Masood Nasim, Muhammad Mahmood Naimi, Sophia Cheréstal, Pauline Falipou, Eric Weerts, Peter Skelton, Catherine Van Overloop, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015...
November 2016: International Health
Helen Campbell, Shamez Ladhani
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recently, use of the quadrivalent MenACWY conjugate vaccines has increased with the emergence of a hypervirulent MenW:cc11 strain in certain parts of the world, especially South America. In England, MenW:cc11 IMD cases increased rapidly after 2009 and was responsible for 24% of all IMD cases in 2014/15 compared to <5% previously, leading to the emergency introduction of a national teenage MenACWY conjugate vaccine programme in August 2015...
November 2016: International Health
Flavia C D Andrade, Fan Wu, Ruopeng An, Angela Stellrecht
BACKGROUND: Employment is a key determinant of health disparity. We examined gender-specific relationships between employment status and health outcomes among Brazilian adults. METHODS: Nationally representative data (n=463 223) came from the 2003 and 2008 Brazilian National Household Surveys. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate gender-specific associations between employment status and health outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with employed counterparts, the odds of depression were higher among unemployed men (AOR 2...
November 2016: International Health
Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Qais Alefan, Raya N Alzayadeen
BACKGROUND: Drug-related problems (DRPs) can be defined as any event that is drug related that results in harm or in providing less than optimum medical care to patients. The aim of this study is to determine the types and frequency of each type of DRP in selected outpatient settings in Jordan, with emphasis on gender as a grouping variable. METHODS: This study was a non-randomized controlled trial, carried out over 3 days, at Alsarih Medical Health Center in the north of Jordan...
November 2016: International Health
Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub, Mariana Gaspar Garcia, Elisa Birri, Nathalie Severy, Marie-Christine Ferir, Engy Ali, Katie Tayler-Smith, Dinah Palmera Nadera, Mark Van Ommeren
BACKGROUND: Severe mental disorders are often neglected following a disaster. Based on Médecins Sans Frontières' (MSF) experience of providing mental health (MH) care after the 2013 typhoon in the Philippines, we describe the monthly volume of MH activities and beneficiaries; characteristics of people seeking MH care; profile and outcomes of people with severe mental disorders; prescription of psychotropic medication; and factors facilitating the identification and management of individuals with severe mental disorders...
September 2016: International Health
Phaik Yeong Cheah, Michael Parker, Arjen M Dondorp
Over 90% of deaths attributable to malaria are in African children under 5 years old. Yet, new treatments are often tested primarily in adult patients and extrapolations have proven to be sometimes invalid, especially in dosing regimens. For studies in severe malaria an additional complication is that the decline in severe malaria in adult patients precludes sufficiently powered trials in adults, before the intervention can be tested in the ultimate target group, paediatric severe malaria. In this paper we propose an alternative pathway to the development of drugs for use in paediatric severe malaria...
September 2016: International Health
Fred P Martineau
The 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak demonstrated the extent to which local social and political dynamics shape health system responses to crises such as epidemics. Many post-Ebola health system strengthening programmes are framed around a notion of health system 'resilience' that focuses on global rather than local priorities and fails to account for key local social dynamics that shape crisis responses. Post-crisis health system strengthening efforts require a shift towards a more 'people-centred' understanding of resilience that attends to the people, relationships and local contexts that constitute health systems and the practices that produce crisis responses...
September 2016: International Health
Bethina Loiseau, Darren Benedict, Rebekah Sibbald, Salem A Raman, Lawrence C Loh, Helen Dimaras
Short-term international volunteering has become enormously popular among individuals from high-income countries who travel to low-income countries to offer support on initiatives often related to health and development. However, their impact on global development is questionable, particularly when volunteer skills are not matched to local needs, or when teams operate outside the local health system. Furthermore, the impact of these volunteer programs is rarely evaluated. Theory of Change is a framework for program design meant to facilitate measurable social change...
September 2016: International Health
Girmay Tsegay, Abreham Tamiru, Tsige Amberbir, Gail Davey, Kebede Deribe
BACKGROUND: In Northern Ethiopia, use of footwear by the rural community is limited, and non-governmental organizations provide footwear for school children as a means of preventing podoconiosis. However, this is not a sustainable strategy. This study assessed willingness to pay for footwear among people with and without podoconiosis. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in Mecha and Gozamen woredas among randomly selected people with and without podoconiosis...
September 2016: International Health
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