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International Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342263/sri-lanka-s-post-tsunami-health-system-recovery-a-qualitative-analysis-of-physician-perspectives
#1
William Collin Schenk, Thuy Bui
Background: The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused significant damage to the health system in Sri Lanka. Rebuilding infrastructure and improving the mental health system were targets of recovery policies. Retrospective analyses of the post-tsunami health system recovery in Sri Lanka lack the perspectives of local stakeholders, including health care providers. Methods: In 2014 we interviewed 23 Sri Lankan physicians from the Eastern and Southern regions. Participants were recruited with snowball sampling...
January 12, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342259/false-starts-in-test-and-start-a-qualitative-study-of-reasons-for-delayed-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland
#2
Christopher Pell, Eva Vernooij, Nelisiwe Masilela, Njabulo Simelane, Fortunate Shabalala, Ria Reis
Background: Test and start, antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive individuals, is a WHO-recommended treatment guideline. In Swaziland, test and start has been evaluated through the MaxART implementation study. This article examines why, in MaxART, some newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients delayed initiating ART. Methods: Thirteen HIV-positive clients who delayed ART for ≥90 d after testing were identified from the MaxART study database and interviewed...
January 12, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342256/comparison-of-pregnancy-outcomes-between-maternity-waiting-home-users-and-non-users-at-hospitals-with-and-without-a-maternity-waiting-home-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Floris Braat, Tienke Vermeiden, Gashaw Getnet, Rita Schiffer, Thomas van den Akker, Jelle Stekelenburg
Objective: To examine the impact of a maternity waiting home (MWH) by comparing pregnancy outcomes between users and non-users at hospitals with and without an MWH. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Ethiopia comparing one hospital with an MWH (Attat) to a second hospital without one (Butajira). A structured questionnaire among sampled women in 2014 and hospital records from 2011 to 2014 were used to compare sociodemographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes between Attat MWH users and non-MWH users, Attat MWH users and Butajira, and Attat non-MWH users and Butajira...
January 12, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329428/perceived-environmental-barriers-to-physical-activity-in-young-adults-in-dhaka-city-bangladesh-does-gender-matter
#4
Riaz Uddin, Nicola W Burton, Asaduzzaman Khan
Background: Physical activity (PA) has demonstrated health benefits, but participation is low in many countries. Little is known about environmental barriers to PA among young Asian adults. The purpose of this study was to identify common perceived environmental barriers to PA in young adults in Dhaka, Bangladesh and to examine if these barriers differed by gender. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a self-administered survey and data collected from a convenience sample of 573 students aged 20...
January 10, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329396/patient-level-benefits-associated-with-decentralization-of-antiretroviral-therapy-services-to-primary-health-facilities-in-malawi-and-uganda
#5
George Abongomera, Levison Chiwaula, Paul Revill, Travor Mabugu, Edward Tumwesige, Misheck Nkhata, Fabian Cataldo, J van Oosterhout, Robert Colebunders, Adrienne K Chan, Cissy Kityo, Charles Gilks, James Hakim, Janet Seeley, Diana M Gibb, Deborah Ford
Background: The Lablite project captured information on access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) at larger health facilities ('hubs') and lower-level health facilities ('spokes') in Phalombe district, Malawi and in Kalungu district, Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among patients who had transferred to a spoke after treatment initiation (Malawi, n=54; Uganda, n=33), patients who initiated treatment at a spoke (Malawi, n=50; Uganda, n=44) and patients receiving treatment at a hub (Malawi, n=44; Uganda, n=46)...
January 10, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329386/the-role-of-service-readiness-and-health-care-facility-factors-in-attrition-from-option-b-in-haiti-a-joint-examination-of-electronic-medical-records-and-service-provision-assessment-survey-data
#6
Lauren Lipira, Christopher Kemp, Jean Wysler Domercant, Jean Guy Honoré, Kesner Francois, Nancy Puttkammer
Background: Option B+ is a strategy wherein pregnant or breastfeeding women with HIV are enrolled in lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. In Haiti, attrition from Option B+ is problematic and variable across health care facilities. This study explores service readiness and other facility factors as predictors of Option B+ attrition in Haiti. Methods: This analysis used longitudinal data from 2012 to 2014 from the iSanté electronic medical record system and cross-sectional data from Haiti's 2013 Service Provision Assessment...
January 10, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325069/effect-of-healthcare-spending-on-the-relationship-between-the-human-development-index-and-maternal-and-neonatal-mortality
#7
Kaamel M Nuhu, Justin T McDaniel, Genevieve A Alorbi, Juan I Ruiz
Background: Several factors affect morbidity and mortality the world over. Previous research shows mortality rates are higher among individuals of lower socio-economic status. We investigated the trajectory of neonatal (NM) and maternal (MM) mortality between 2010 and 2014 and the effect of healthcare spending on the relationship between the Human Development Index (HDI) and NM and MM. Methods: Data were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and World Bank...
January 9, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325056/social-health-insurance-schemes-in-africa-leave-out-the-poor
#8
Ama Pokuaa Fenny, Robert Yates, Rachel Thompson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309591/comparison-of-prescribing-patterns-between-united-states-and-dominican-republic-prescribers-on-short-term-medical-mission-trips
#9
Gina M Prescott, Ciera L Patzke, Peter M Brody, William A Prescott
Background: Short-term medical missions (STMMs) have increased and are viewed as a way to extend care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although benefits may exist, visiting teams may lack insight into using medications safely and effectively. The primary objective was to assess prescribing differences between US-based and Dominican Republic (DR) healthcare providers on STMMs in the DR. Methods: A retrospective database review between January 2013 and 2015 was conducted...
December 22, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236985/how-can-male-rates-of-hiv-testing-be-increased-recommendations-from-a-mixed-methods-study-in-southern-malawi
#10
Amy C Rankin-Williams, Elizabeth M Geoffroy, Ellen S Schell, Andrew M Mguntha
Background: In southern Malawi, 12.8% of adults are HIV positive. Men are less likely to have been tested than women. We investigated men's HIV knowledge and the attitudes, influencers, facilitators and barriers affecting HIV testing. Methods: We conducted an explanatory mixed-methods study with analysis of secondary quantitative data from 425 rural men collected in January 2014 (time 1) and April 2015 (time 2) and qualitative interviews with 50 men in September 2015...
December 11, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228220/the-burden-of-presumed-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-children-in-a-resource-limited-setting-in-papua-new-guinea-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Villa Watch, Jimmy Aipit, Tina Kote-Yarong, Allanie Rero, John W Bolnga, Elvin Lufele, Moses Laman
Background: In Papua New Guinea, TB is considered to be a major public health problem, but little is known about the prevalence and prognosis of presumed TB in children. Methods: As part of a prospective hospital-based surveillance on the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, the authors investigated the admission prevalence and case fatality rate associated with presumed TB over a 6-year period (2011-2016). All children admitted who were diagnosed with TB were followed-up until discharge or death...
December 8, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206926/impact-of-cleaner-fuel-use-and-improved-stoves-on-acute-respiratory-infections-evidence-from-india
#12
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. Methods: We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey...
December 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186497/for-as-long-as-necessary-examining-30-years-of-merck-co-inc-s-focus-on-achieving-elimination-of-onchocerciasis-and-lymphatic-filariasis
#13
Kenneth M Gustavsen, Brenda D Colatrella, Theresa McCoy
Established by Merck & Co., Inc. (known as MSD outside of the United States and Canada) in 1987, the Mectizan Donation Program (MDP) is the longest running disease-specific program of its kind. Initially aimed at control of onchocerciasis (river blindness), the company expanded its commitment through the MDP in 1998 to include lymphatic filariasis (LF). Both diseases are now candidates for elimination and the company is engaged in several global partnerships to help advance towards that goal. To support the steadily growing demand from country-led disease elimination programs, the company has put in place several administrative and operational improvements...
November 23, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325099/quantitative-survey-on-health-and-violence-endured-by-refugees-during-their-journey-and-in-calais-france
#14
Malika Bouhenia, Jihane Ben Farhat, Matthew E Coldiron, Saif Abdallah, Delphine Visentin, Michaël Neuman, Mathilde Berthelot, Klaudia Porten, Sandra Cohuet
Background: In 2015, more than 1 million refugees arrived in Europe. During their travels, refugees often face harsh conditions, violence and torture in transit countries, but there is a lack of quantitative evidence on their experiences. We present the results of a retrospective survey among refugees in the 'Jungle' of Calais, France, to document their health problems and the violence they endured during their journeys. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based survey in November and December 2015...
November 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040565/refugees-migrants-and-displaced-populations-the-united-nations-new-york-declaration-and-the-who-international-health-regulations
#15
Richard Seifman
The World Health Assembly approved the International Health Regulations (IHR) committing countries to strengthen their capacity to address public health emergencies of international concern. A mechanism to assess a country's capacity, the Joint External Evaluation (JEE), is a means to assist countries to assess their health system preparedness. The assessment teams include public health and veterinary experts, but include those with specialized knowledge about refugee, immigrant, and internally displaced persons situations...
October 5, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036551/comparative-study-of-the-growth-and-nutritional-status-of-brazilian-and-nigerian-school-aged-children-with-sickle-cell-disease
#16
Samuel A Adegoke, Maria S Figueiredo, Adekunle D Adekile, Josefina A P Braga
Background: Comparative studies of patients in different sociogeographic/ecological zones may unravel potential environmental and nutritional factors influencing disease phenotype. In sickle cell disease (SCD), differential access to comprehensive care may influence their growth and nutritional status. Methods: From June 2015 to February 2016, steady-state nutritional parameters of 109 Brazilian and 95 Nigerian children with SCD attending routine clinic visits at Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil and Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife (Ilesa unit), respectively, were compared...
September 28, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036444/the-elephant-in-the-room-toward-a-more-ethical-approach-with-accountability-toward-intended-beneficiaries-in-humanitarian-aid
#17
Ramin Asgary, Ronald J Waldman
There is considerable tension between the concept of accountability to beneficiaries and its practice in humanitarian aid. The beneficiaries live in a relationship that is asymmetric; upward or horizontal accountability within the aid system alone-even with the best of intentions-might be short-sighted. Could beneficiaries be effectively involved in programing, priority setting or allocation of resources? Is there space for a rights-based approach in aid delivery and operations? The mind-set, governance and structure of operations in aid agencies may need significant institutional reform to share the process of decision-making, and to transform the current dynamic from connecting resources to brokering better governance, true collaboration and co-operation among all stakeholders...
September 28, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911132/the-neglected-diseases-will-a-new-world-order-reverse-global-gains
#18
Peter J Hotez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911131/addressing-challenges-to-human-health-in-the-anthropocene-epoch-an-overview-of-the-findings-of-the-rockefeller-lancet-commission-on-planetary-health
#19
Andy Haines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911130/on-the-ferries-the-unmet-health-care-needs-of-transiting-refugees-in-greece
#20
REVIEW
Clare K Shortall, Rosanna Glazik, Alvin Sornum, Ceri Pritchard
Background: In 2015, over 850 000 refugees, asylum seekers and migrants arrived in Greece. In response to an overwhelming need for access to healthcare for them, Doctors of the World established the Refugee Ferry Project, which comprised of a clinic providing primary health care, and integrated mental health and psychosocial support on board a commercial ferry. Methods: Of the 1405 service users, 87.5% (1229/1405) originated from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq. The majority were women 801/1405 (57%) and children 511/1405 (36%), including 50 pregnant women and 19 unaccompanied minors...
September 1, 2017: International Health
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