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International Health

Emmanuel Dankwah, Megan Steeves, Dana Ramsay, Cindy Feng, Marwa Farag
Background: Pregnancy termination is an illegal medical procedure in Ghana and 88% of induced abortions are performed in unsafe conditions, thus recipients face an elevated risk of abortion-related complications. This study aims to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors and reporting having terminated a pregnancy among Ghanaian women. Methods: Logistic regression models were estimated using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n=9396)...
May 19, 2018: International Health
Tracey Smythe, Debra Mudariki, Allen Foster, Christopher Lavy
Background: This study aims to determine the indicators for assessing the functionality of clubfoot clinics in a low-resource setting. Methods: The Delphi method was employed with experienced clubfoot practitioners in Africa to rate the importance of indicators of a good clubfoot clinic. The consistency among the participants was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient. Indicators that achieved strong agreement (mean≥9 [SD <1.5]) were included in the final consensus definition...
May 19, 2018: International Health
Clara Chong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: International Health
Samuel Wanji, Jonas A Kengne-Ouafo, Kebede Deribe, Ayok M Tembei, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Dizzel Bita Tayong, David D Sofeu-Feugaing, Fabrice R Datchoua-Poutcheu, Jorge Cano, Emanuele Giorgi, Yolande F Longang-Tchounkeu, Peter A Enyong, Melanie J Newport, Gail Davey
Background: Although podoconiosis is endemic in Cameroon, little is known about its epidemiology and spatial distribution. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled all adults (≥15 y) residing in the districts of the northwest region of Cameroon for 10 or more years. Participants were interviewed and had a physical examination. The study outcomes were prevalence estimates of lymphoedema and podoconiosis. House-to-house screening was conducted by Community Health Implementers (CHIs)...
May 16, 2018: International Health
Rosemary J Burnett, Gloria Mmoledi, Ntombenhle J Ngcobo, Carine Dochez, L Mapaseka Seheri, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Introduction: National population-based immunization coverage surveys provide data for validating official administrative coverage figures. However, these costly and logistically challenging surveys are conducted infrequently. This hospital-based records review determined coverage of birth-dose vaccines, fully immunized under 1-y-old coverage (FIC) of 12- to 59-mo-old children; and the reasons for missed vaccinations. Methods: Rotavirus surveillance in South Africa is based on under-5-y-old children being treated for diarrhoea, and includes photocopying the official vaccination document and collecting data on reasons for missed vaccinations...
May 11, 2018: International Health
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: Improper disposal of child faeces is a major source of faecal pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease. However, this has received relatively less attention in sanitation evaluation literature, which has tended to focus on sanitation provision, implicitly assuming that child faeces disposal behaviour also improves with sanitation. We examined the impact of improved sanitation without safe disposal (households with improved sanitation but not disposing of child faeces in improved sanitation) and improved sanitation with safe disposal (households with improved sanitation and disposal of child faeces in improved sanitation) on diarrhoeal prevalence in rural Nepal...
May 11, 2018: International Health
Assel Sadykova, Zhanar S Shalkharova, Zhanat N Shalkharova, Karlygash Sadykova, Kamshat Madenbay, Mira Zhunissova, Gulnaz Nuskabayeva, Saltanat Askarova, Andrej M Grjibovski
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in southern Kazakhstan. Methods: A total of 965 adults, ages 20-74 y, participated in a cross-sectional study. MetS was defined using National Education Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Social variations in the prevalence of components of MetS were assessed using Poisson regression...
April 27, 2018: International Health
Wejdan A Shroukh, Farouq M Shakhatreh, Nada A Yasein, Ghazi F Sharkas
Background: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care professionals towards pharmacovigilance are strongly associated with reporting adverse drug reactions, as proven by a number of studies. This study aims to evaluate the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards pharmacovigilance among physicians working at health centres of the Jordanian Ministry of Health. Methods: This took the form of a cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were distributed by the researcher and research assistant to the physicians...
April 27, 2018: International Health
Jaline Gerardin, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Philip A Eckhoff, Edward A Wenger
Background: Mass drug administration (MDA) is a control and elimination tool for treating infectious diseases. For malaria, it is widely accepted that conducting MDA during the dry season results in the best outcomes. However, seasonal movement of populations into and out of MDA target areas is common in many places and could potentially fundamentally limit the ability of MDA campaigns to achieve elimination. Methods: A mathematical model was used to simulate malaria transmission in two villages connected to a high-risk area into and out of which 10% of villagers traveled seasonally...
April 9, 2018: International Health
Soraya P A Verstraeten, Carolien L van den Brink, Johan P Mackenbach, Hans A M van Oers
Background: This article examines risk factor and health differences between Antillean migrants in the Netherlands and Antillean and Dutch non-migrants, and relates these findings to four commonly used explanations for migrant health disparities. Methods: Nationally representative data from the 2012 Dutch Public Health Monitor and the 2013 National Health Survey Curaçao was used. The weighted rates were calculated and significance assessed using the χ2 test. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare health behaviours and outcomes between Antillean migrants and the non-migrant populations...
April 9, 2018: International Health
A Brembilla, J-F Faucher, A Garcia, K G Koura, P Deloron, A-L Parmentier, C Pierrat, G Cottrell, F Mauny
Background: Primary healthcare is a key element of management of childhood illness in Africa. The objectives were to identify primary care seeking determinants among infants and young children up to 18 mo in a birth cohort from Benin. Methods: From 2007 to 2009 in Benin, a birth cohort was followed until the age of 18 mo in three health centres. Multilevel Poisson regression models were fitted to identify the factors related to the monthly number of consultations...
April 5, 2018: International Health
Edward K Sutherland, Gloria A Ansa, Frank Baiden, Enoch N B Quaye, Afua A Amoabeng, Christian Amenuveve
Background: An analysis of the causes of death in developing countries is needed to improve healthcare delivery. The aim of this study was to conduct a descriptive analysis of the causes of death at the University of Ghana Hospital from 1979 to 2015. Methods: Data were extracted from the electronic database of the University of Ghana Hospital. Diseases were grouped into three broad groups of causes of death as per the Global Burden of Disease cause list, with some diseases of epidemiological importance outlined and analysed by age, gender and time in years...
April 5, 2018: International Health
Abhishek Sharma, Parash Mani Bhandari, Dipika Neupane, Warren A Kaplan, Shiva Raj Mishra
Background: Nepal is facing an increasing burden of diabetes and relies almost entirely on insulin imported through India. Methods: We employed a modified version of the WHO/Health Action International standard survey to assess insulin availability and prices, along with qualitative interviews with insulin retailers (pharmacists) and wholesalers in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Results: The mean availability of the two human insulins listed on the 2011 Nepal Essential Medicine List were 14...
April 3, 2018: International Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: International Health
M E Tabangin, S Josyula, K K Taylor, J C Vasquez, B D Kamath-Rayne
Background: Helping Babies Breathe (HBB), a basic neonatal resuscitation curriculum, improves early neonatal mortality in low-resource settings. Our goal was to determine retention of resuscitation skills by different cadres of providers using the approved HBB Spanish translation in a rural clinic and community hospital in Honduras. Methods: Twelve clinic and 37 hospital providers were trained in 1 d HBB workshops and followed from July 2012 to February 2014. Resuscitation skills were evaluated by objective structured clinical evaluations (OSCEs) at regular intervals...
March 29, 2018: International Health
Edward Carson, Sifat Sharmin, Andrea B Maier, Johannes J Meij
Background: It remains unclear how indigenous mortality varies between residential areas. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on mortality patterns in urban, rural and very remote areas for the adult and infant indigenous populations of Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the USA. Methods: A literature search was performed using major online electronic publication repositories. Studies presenting indigenous mortality or disease incidence/prevalence in urban, rural or very remote areas were included...
March 29, 2018: International Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: International Health
Asaduzzaman Khan, Riaz Uddin, Nicola W Burton
Background: Although screen time (ST) and insufficient physical activity (PA) are fairly common among adolescents, it is unclear whether these conditions are jointly associated with adolescents' psychosocial difficulties. This study aimed to examine interactive associations of ST and PA with psychosocial difficulties among adolescents in Bangladesh. Methods: Data were from 671 students (ages 13-16 y) from eight secondary schools of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Recreational ST was assessed using the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire...
March 22, 2018: International Health
Megan Bernstein, Anjali Hari, Sahil Aggarwal, Debora Lee, Allison Farfel, Priya Patel, Kaavya Raman, Shella Raja, Reece Fenning, Mark Lieber, William Minteer, Sean Denny, Maureen Ries
Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the development of a 1-wk screening campaign and efforts towards the implementation of a sustainable system that addresses cervical cancer in Mwanza, Tanzania with a screen-and-treat model utilizing visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. Methods: In partnership with CureCervicalCancer (CCC), a non-profit organization based in Los Angeles, CA, USA, 11 medical students at the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine established a model for sustainable human papillomavirus screening practices in Mwanza, Tanzania...
March 22, 2018: International Health
Ali Sié, Charlemagne Tapsoba, Clarisse Dah, Lucienne Ouermi, Pascal Zabre, Till Bärnighausen, Ahmed M Arzika, Elodie Lebas, Blake M Snyder, Caitlin Moe, Jeremy D Keenan, Catherine E Oldenburg
Background: Burkina Faso has a seasonal malnutrition pattern, with higher malnutrition prevalence during the rainy season when crop yields are low. We investigated the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among children aged 6-59 mo during the low crop yield season in rural Burkina Faso to assess the role of dietary diversity during the lean season on childhood nutritional status. Methods: Caregivers reported the dietary diversity of the past 7 d, consisting of 11 food groups, summed into a scale...
March 22, 2018: International Health
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