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International Health

Joyce Namale-Matovu, Arthur H Owora, Carol Onyango-Makumbi, Mike Mubiru, Prossy E Namuli, Mahnaz Motevalli-Oliner, Philippa Musoke, Monica Nolan, Mary G Fowler
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative effects of three breastfeeding promotion interventions on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and any breastfeeding (BF) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Uganda. Methods: Between February 2012 and February 2013, 218 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were randomly assigned to (A) standard care (n=73), (B) enhanced family/peer support (n=72) or (C) enhanced nutrition education (n=73)...
July 17, 2018: International Health
Sahil Aggarwal, David Ju, Angela M Allen, Laura A Rose, Karam P Gill, S Aricia Shen, Jamie E Temko, Irene Chang, Jessica Faraj, Danielle E Brabender, Sasha Herbst de Cortina, Olivia Marik-Reis, Mitul C Mehta
Background: Visual impairment in developing countries has both social and economic impact on individuals and communities. Understanding the subjective visual functioning of populations will allow for local policymakers to identify the need for optometric or ophthalmic services in their communities. Methods: The authors surveyed 644 adult patients in Mwanza, Tanzania at three clinics (Buzuruga, Mwananchi and Kisesa) using a modified Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25...
July 17, 2018: International Health
Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Elvin Geng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: International Health
Lorna Guinness, Repon C Paul, Joao S Martins, Auguste Asante, Jennifer A Price, Andrew Hayen, Stephen Jan, Ana Soares, Virginia Wiseman
Background: Health financing and delivery reforms designed to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) need to be informed by an understanding of factors that both promote access to health care and undermine it. This study examines the level of health care utilisation in Timor-Leste and the factors that drive it. Methods: Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of health care utilisation in 1712 households were used to develop multilevel models exploring how need and predisposing and enabling factors explain health care utilisation at both primary and secondary care facilities...
July 11, 2018: International Health
E Kakalou, E Riza, M Chalikias, N Voudouri, A Vetsika, C Tsiamis, S Choursoglou, A Terzidis, E Karamagioli, T Antypas, E Pikoulis
Background: In 2015-2016, more than a million refugees entered Greece. Along with other organizations, PRAKSIS, a local non-governmental organization, deployed mobile medical units on three islands and in temporary settlements in Athens. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at analysing the demographic and clinical characteristics of the population (n=6688) that received services from PRAKSIS between October 2015 and June 2016 in different locations (islands of Samos, Kos and Leros in the southeastern Aegean Sea and on the mainland at Athens-Piraeus Port Gate E) before and after the closure of European borders in March 2016...
July 10, 2018: International Health
Fasil Wagnew, Wubet Worku, Getiye Dejenu, Animut Alebel, Setegn Eshetie
Background: Mortality of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a devastating problem in Ethiopia. This study estimated the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM among children <5 y of age and its association with comorbidity. Methods: An electronic search was carried out using the database of MEDLINE/PubMed through the HINARI Programme, Google Scholar and Google for grey literature. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM and the hazard ratio (HR) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity using Stata/SE version 14...
July 9, 2018: International Health
Viswas Chhapola, Ankita Goel Sharma, Sandeep Kumar Kanwal, Virendra Kumar, Bijoy Patra
Background: The need for exchange transfusion (ET) as a treatment modality for neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia declined in developed countries with the advent of effective phototherapy. The trends of ET from India are unknown. Our objective was to investigate the trends of ET in India. Methods: Retrospective data (January 2006-December 2016) was collected on total outborn neonatal admissions and ET procedures from a centre in north India. A combination of change-point analysis (CPA) and statistical process control (SPC) was used to investigate the trends of ET...
July 4, 2018: International Health
Mukokinya Kailemia, Nyambura Kariuki, Ahmed Laving, Ambrose Agweyu, Dalton Wamalwa
Background: Diarrhoea is a major cause of child mortality. Although oral rehydration solution (ORS) is an efficacious intervention for correcting dehydration, inadequate monitoring may limit its effectiveness in routine settings. We evaluated the effect of using a caregiver-administered chart to monitor oral fluid therapy on hydration status among children with some dehydration. Methods: An open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted among children 2-59 months of age...
June 28, 2018: International Health
Peeradone Srichan, Saranath Lawpoolsri Niyom, Oranut Pacheun, Sopon Iamsirithawon, Supawat Chatchen, Caroline Jones, Lisa J White, Wirichada Pan-Ngum
Background: This study focused on evaluating the fumigation scheme and identifying problems encountered during the operation in the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration area. Methods: Ten district health officers working in different fumigation teams of the dengue outbreak control programme around Bangkok had participated in an in-depth interview. Five predetermined themes, including (i) dengue surveillance and control strategy, (ii) quality and availability of equipment, (iii) delays, (iv) human resources, and (v) area coverage, and other emerging themes were addressed during the interviews...
June 15, 2018: International Health
Sahil Aggarwal, Luke Yu, Bima Hasjim, Debora H Lee, Esther Kim, Jonathan B Lee, Katrina Lee, Christina Tse, Alexander Anshus, Allen R Yu, Michael Louthan, Thomas Keown, Christopher Gabriel, Catherine Diamond
Background: Young people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWA) are at risk for HIV stigma. Methods: The HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for PLWA was administered to 36 young PLWA across six clinics in Bandung, Indonesia, to assess the fear of contagion (FC), verbal abuse (VA), social isolation (SI), workplace stigma (WS), health care neglect (HCN) and negative self-perception (NSP). Results: The median scores for FC, VA, SI, WS and HCN were all 0 while the median score for NSP was 4...
June 12, 2018: International Health
Sadhana Shrestha, Takashi Nakamura, Jun Magome, Yoko Aihara, Naoki Kondo, Bikash Malla, Junko Shindo, Kei Nishida
Background: Groundwater is a common domestic water source in developing countries, but is persistently contaminated with enteropathogens. However, studies on determinants of diarrhoea have predominantly focused on piped water. This study examines the relationship between groundwater microbial quality and household diarrhoea occurrence (HDO). Methods: Considering it as a proxy of enteropathogens, this study analysed Escherichia coli concentrations in groundwater wells...
May 30, 2018: International Health
Ali Güngör, Arif Ismet Çatak, Bahar Çuhaci Çakir, Alkim Öden Akman, Cüneyt Karagöl, Tülin Köksal, Halil Ibrahim Yakut
Background: Turkey is the leading country among those that accept Syrian refugees. This study aimed to determine the density of Syrian refugees who received inpatient treatment at Ankara Child Health and Diseases Hematology Oncology Training and Research Hospital between January 2016 and August 2017. Methods: Syrian refugees' gender, age, place of birth, duration of hospitalization, admission diagnosis and services required as an inpatient were recorded from the registration system...
May 30, 2018: International Health
Emmanuel Dankwah, Megan Steeves, Dana Ramsay, Cindy Feng, Marwa Farag
Background: Pregnancy termination is an illegal medical procedure in Ghana and 88% of induced abortions are performed in unsafe conditions, thus recipients face an elevated risk of abortion-related complications. This study aims to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors and reporting having terminated a pregnancy among Ghanaian women. Methods: Logistic regression models were estimated using data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (n=9396)...
May 19, 2018: International Health
Tracey Smythe, Debra Mudariki, Allen Foster, Christopher Lavy
Background: This study aims to determine the indicators for assessing the functionality of clubfoot clinics in a low-resource setting. Methods: The Delphi method was employed with experienced clubfoot practitioners in Africa to rate the importance of indicators of a good clubfoot clinic. The consistency among the participants was determined with the intraclass correlation coefficient. Indicators that achieved strong agreement (mean≥9 [SD <1.5]) were included in the final consensus definition...
May 19, 2018: International Health
Clara Chong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2018: International Health
Samuel Wanji, Jonas A Kengne-Ouafo, Kebede Deribe, Ayok M Tembei, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Dizzel Bita Tayong, David D Sofeu-Feugaing, Fabrice R Datchoua-Poutcheu, Jorge Cano, Emanuele Giorgi, Yolande F Longang-Tchounkeu, Peter A Enyong, Melanie J Newport, Gail Davey
Background: Although podoconiosis is endemic in Cameroon, little is known about its epidemiology and spatial distribution. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled all adults (≥15 y) residing in the districts of the northwest region of Cameroon for 10 or more years. Participants were interviewed and had a physical examination. The study outcomes were prevalence estimates of lymphoedema and podoconiosis. House-to-house screening was conducted by Community Health Implementers (CHIs)...
May 16, 2018: International Health
Rosemary J Burnett, Gloria Mmoledi, Ntombenhle J Ngcobo, Carine Dochez, L Mapaseka Seheri, M Jeffrey Mphahlele
Introduction: National population-based immunization coverage surveys provide data for validating official administrative coverage figures. However, these costly and logistically challenging surveys are conducted infrequently. This hospital-based records review determined coverage of birth-dose vaccines, fully immunized under 1-y-old coverage (FIC) of 12- to 59-mo-old children; and the reasons for missed vaccinations. Methods: Rotavirus surveillance in South Africa is based on under-5-y-old children being treated for diarrhoea, and includes photocopying the official vaccination document and collecting data on reasons for missed vaccinations...
May 11, 2018: International Health
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Background: Improper disposal of child faeces is a major source of faecal pathogens that cause diarrhoeal disease. However, this has received relatively less attention in sanitation evaluation literature, which has tended to focus on sanitation provision, implicitly assuming that child faeces disposal behaviour also improves with sanitation. We examined the impact of improved sanitation without safe disposal (households with improved sanitation but not disposing of child faeces in improved sanitation) and improved sanitation with safe disposal (households with improved sanitation and disposal of child faeces in improved sanitation) on diarrhoeal prevalence in rural Nepal...
May 11, 2018: International Health
Assel Sadykova, Zhanar S Shalkharova, Zhanat N Shalkharova, Karlygash Sadykova, Kamshat Madenbay, Mira Zhunissova, Gulnaz Nuskabayeva, Saltanat Askarova, Andrej M Grjibovski
Background: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in southern Kazakhstan. Methods: A total of 965 adults, ages 20-74 y, participated in a cross-sectional study. MetS was defined using National Education Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP), American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Social variations in the prevalence of components of MetS were assessed using Poisson regression...
April 27, 2018: International Health
Wejdan A Shroukh, Farouq M Shakhatreh, Nada A Yasein, Ghazi F Sharkas
Background: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care professionals towards pharmacovigilance are strongly associated with reporting adverse drug reactions, as proven by a number of studies. This study aims to evaluate the levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards pharmacovigilance among physicians working at health centres of the Jordanian Ministry of Health. Methods: This took the form of a cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires were distributed by the researcher and research assistant to the physicians...
April 27, 2018: International Health
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