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International Health

Gonzalo J Domingo, Nicole Advani, Ari W Satyagraha, Carol H Sibley, Elizabeth Rowley, Michael Kalnoky, Jessica Cohen, Michael Parker, Maureen Kelley
Glucose-6-phosphate dehyrdgoenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common X-linked genetic trait, with an associated enzyme phenotype, whereby males are either G6PD deficient or normal, but females exhibit a broader range of G6PD deficiencies, ranging from severe deficiency to normal. Heterozygous females typically have intermediate G6PD activity. G6PD deficiency has implications for the safe treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria. Individuals with this deficiency are at greater risk of serious adverse events following treatment with the only curative class of anti-malarials, 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine...
September 3, 2018: International Health
Harriet J Blundell, Paul Hine
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are branded as the leading cause of global mortality. Global health thinking has dichotomised NCDs from communicable diseases to attract funding and end a dangerous neglect. However, NCDs can also have infectious disease risk factors, and mortality from NCDs is greatest in low- and middle-income countries, which face a syndemic burden of disease. As a non-term, attention is not immediately focused around key 'human-made' risk factors for chronic disease. By continuing to use this flawed and ambiguous label, policymakers risk enforcing an ideological approach, which fails to encourage global health researchers to work collaboratively and to capture the political and public awareness required to motivate sustainable change...
August 31, 2018: International Health
Mohamed E Ahmed, Osama Ahmed Hassan, Abdelrahman K A Khalifa, Eyhab Elobied, Ahmed A A Osman, Sara Lavinia Brair, Osama I E Ahmed, Maisa M A Elfadul, Anne L Cremers, Martin P Grobusch
Introduction: In Sudan, echinococcosis (EC) is a chronic neglected zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Studies have shown high prevalence rates in dogs (50-70%), camels (35%) and sheep, goats and cattle (10-11%). In total, 0.3-1.0% of humans in Central and South Sudan are infected with the G6 camel strain. This strain is almost exclusively the cause of human infections. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding the disease among people living around Tambool city, Central Sudan...
August 25, 2018: International Health
Priyani Dharmawardena, Risintha Premaratne, Kamini Mendis, Rajitha Wickemasinghe, Chaturaka Rodrigo, Arungirinathan Harintheran, Deepika Fernando
Introduction: The effectiveness of the passive case detection (PCD) system for imported malaria was assessed in government hospitals in Sri Lanka post-elimination of malaria. Methods: In 18 medical wards (test wards) in four government hospitals, the referral for malaria testing and the diagnosis of malaria by the ward physicians were monitored. Concurrently, in-ward febrile patients were assessed independently for their eligibility for referral for malaria diagnosis and were tested for malaria...
August 22, 2018: International Health
Christopher Pell, Ria Reis, Njabuliso Dlamini, Eileen Moyer, Eva Vernooij
Introduction: Universal test and treat (UTT)-antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive individuals regardless of CD4 count-is the WHO's recommended treatment guideline. UTT has implications for health providers' workload in areas of high HIV prevalence and for understandings of ART and HIV. This article explores health providers' experiences of implementing UTT in Hhohho Region, Eswatini. Methods: Between March 2015 and October 2016, in-depth interviews were conducted with health providers implementing UTT...
August 18, 2018: International Health
Sètondji G R Padonou, Badirou Aguemon, Gilles M A Bognon, Nicole E Houessou, Georgia Damien, Paul Ayelo, Elisette Djossou
Background: Maternal undernutrition is known to negatively impact newborns' birth weight and length, but this finding is poorly documented in the Beninese population. This study aimed to assess the effect of maternal anthropometry on mean birth weight and length in a Beninese cohort of newborns. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Tori Bossito, Republic of Benin. Pregnant women attending maternity wards between June 2007 and July 2008 were recruited...
August 11, 2018: International Health
Michael Asamoah-Boaheng, Eric Y Tenkorang, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka
Background: Type 2 diabetes affects an increasing number of Ghanaians. The timing of the onset of diabetes is linked to several other co-morbid conditions, yet no study has examined the timing of the onset of type 2 diabetes in Ghana. Methods: To fill this gap in the literature, this study applied logit models to data extracted from the medical records at the Diabetes Clinic of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Gender-specific models were also estimated...
August 11, 2018: International Health
Sarah Bartlett, Dominic Haslam, Simon Bush, Danny Haddad
The Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) is the largest infectious disease survey ever undertaken. With 60 partners, 2.6 million people were examined across 29 countries for the blinding neglected tropical disease (NTD) trachoma, establishing the prevalence of the disease globally. Such an achievement was only made possible by building a diverse worldwide consortium. This article examines that public-private consortium and attempts to highlight key factors in the success of its development and operation. Two critical factors in the project's success were the establishment of an evidence-based common approach and urgency around a shared goal...
August 9, 2018: International Health
Geraldine Vaughan, Kylie Tune, Michael J Peek, Lisa Jackson Pulver, Bo Remenyi, Suzanne Belton, Elizabeth A Sullivan
Background: The global burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is two-to-four times higher in women, with a heightened risk in pregnancy. In Australia, RHD is found predominantly among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Methods: This paper reviews processes developed to identify pregnant Australian women with RHD during a 2-year population-based study using the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System (AMOSS). It evaluates strategies developed to enhance reporting and discusses implications for patient care and public health...
July 25, 2018: International Health
Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Xenophon Theodoridis, Dimitrios Poulimeneas, Maria I Maraki, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Ilias Tirodimos, Theodore Dardavessis, Michael Chourdakis
Background: The health of asylum seekers is of cardinal importance for the future health of Europe. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to assess malnutrition prevalence among refugee children living in reception areas in northern Greece. Methods: A total of 192 refugee children (1-18 y old), inhabitants of the refugee reception centres in Drama and Kavala, were evaluated for acute and chronic malnutrition according to the WHO growth standards and charts...
July 25, 2018: International Health
Colin Pfaff, Victor Singano, Harriet Akello, Alemayehu Amberbir, Josh Berman, Aunex Kwekwesa, Victor Banda, Colin Speight, Theresa Allain, Joep J van Oosterhout
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programmes can be leveraged to manage the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Methods: In October 2015, a model of integrated HIV-NCD care was developed at a large HIV clinic in southeast Malawi. Blood pressure was measured in adults at every visit and random blood glucose was determined every 2 y. Uncomplicated antiretroviral therapy (ART)-only care was provided by nurses, integrated HIV-NCD management was provided by clinical officers...
July 25, 2018: International Health
Ayisha Kausar, Mahmood Ali, Haleema Masud, Farah Akhtar
Background: The aim of this study was to report the vision-related quality of life (QoL) in Pakistani subjects with early or moderate glaucoma. Methods: This case control study was conducted at Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Pakistan, from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015. All the patients having early or moderate glaucoma, with a disease duration of at least 6 mo, and presenting during the study period, were included. Subjects in the control group were recruited from the hospital volunteer staff, spouses and friends of patients...
July 25, 2018: International Health
Hassan Farag, Ekram W Abd El-Wahab, Nessrin A El-Nimr, Hoda A Saad El-Din
Background: Written personalized asthma action plans are recommended as part of patient education and self-management. Objectives: To enable asthmatic adults to proactively self-manage bronchial asthma and sustain asthma quiescent status through utilization of the Asthma Action Plan (AAP), and to establish a feasible asthmatic/care taker-health care provider communication. Design: Randomized controlled trial with cluster sampling by pulmonologists...
July 20, 2018: International Health
Owen Nkoka, Thomas G Mhone, Peter A M Ntenda
Background: Optimal child complementary feeding practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development and health, and ultimately affect child survival. This is the first population-based study in Malawi that aimed to examine factors associated with complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 mo. Methods: Utilizing data from the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS), 4732 children aged 6-23 mo and their mothers were analysed...
July 20, 2018: International Health
Joyce Namale-Matovu, Arthur H Owora, Carol Onyango-Makumbi, Mike Mubiru, Prossy E Namuli, Mahnaz Motevalli-Oliner, Philippa Musoke, Monica Nolan, Mary G Fowler
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative effects of three breastfeeding promotion interventions on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and any breastfeeding (BF) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Uganda. Methods: Between February 2012 and February 2013, 218 HIV-infected pregnant mothers were randomly assigned to (A) standard care (n=73), (B) enhanced family/peer support (n=72) or (C) enhanced nutrition education (n=73)...
July 17, 2018: International Health
Sahil Aggarwal, David Ju, Angela M Allen, Laura A Rose, Karam P Gill, S Aricia Shen, Jamie E Temko, Irene Chang, Jessica Faraj, Danielle E Brabender, Sasha Herbst de Cortina, Olivia Marik-Reis, Mitul C Mehta
Background: Visual impairment in developing countries has both social and economic impact on individuals and communities. Understanding the subjective visual functioning of populations will allow for local policymakers to identify the need for optometric or ophthalmic services in their communities. Methods: The authors surveyed 644 adult patients in Mwanza, Tanzania at three clinics (Buzuruga, Mwananchi and Kisesa) using a modified Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25...
July 17, 2018: International Health
Charles B Holmes, Izukanji Sikazwe, Elvin Geng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: International Health
Lorna Guinness, Repon C Paul, Joao S Martins, Auguste Asante, Jennifer A Price, Andrew Hayen, Stephen Jan, Ana Soares, Virginia Wiseman
Background: Health financing and delivery reforms designed to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) need to be informed by an understanding of factors that both promote access to health care and undermine it. This study examines the level of health care utilisation in Timor-Leste and the factors that drive it. Methods: Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of health care utilisation in 1712 households were used to develop multilevel models exploring how need and predisposing and enabling factors explain health care utilisation at both primary and secondary care facilities...
July 11, 2018: International Health
E Kakalou, E Riza, M Chalikias, N Voudouri, A Vetsika, C Tsiamis, S Choursoglou, A Terzidis, E Karamagioli, T Antypas, E Pikoulis
Background: In 2015-2016, more than a million refugees entered Greece. Along with other organizations, PRAKSIS, a local non-governmental organization, deployed mobile medical units on three islands and in temporary settlements in Athens. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at analysing the demographic and clinical characteristics of the population (n=6688) that received services from PRAKSIS between October 2015 and June 2016 in different locations (islands of Samos, Kos and Leros in the southeastern Aegean Sea and on the mainland at Athens-Piraeus Port Gate E) before and after the closure of European borders in March 2016...
July 10, 2018: International Health
Fasil Wagnew, Wubet Worku, Getiye Dejenu, Animut Alebel, Setegn Eshetie
Background: Mortality of children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a devastating problem in Ethiopia. This study estimated the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM among children <5 y of age and its association with comorbidity. Methods: An electronic search was carried out using the database of MEDLINE/PubMed through the HINARI Programme, Google Scholar and Google for grey literature. A random effects model was used to estimate the pooled case fatality ratio of SAM and the hazard ratio (HR) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity using Stata/SE version 14...
July 9, 2018: International Health
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