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International Health

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March 9, 2018: International Health
Seye Abimbola
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March 8, 2018: International Health
Batha Tariq, Ayesha Ahmed, Atif Habib, Ali Turab, Noshad Ali, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Shanila Nooruddin, Rekha J Kumar, Amin Tariq, Fariha Shaheen, Shabina Ariff
Background: Most congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is not avertable; however, the adverse effects of CH are preventable with early detection and treatment. It is a common congenital endocrine disorder that affects 1 in 2000-4000 newborns globally. The true incidence in Pakistan is unknown. Data from hospital studies quote an incidence of 1 in 1600-2000. The aim of this study was to uncover existing knowledge of CH and screening for the condition and to assess the impact of health education on mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards having their newborns screened...
March 8, 2018: International Health
Mirembe Mandy, Moffat Nyirenda
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, are experiencing rapid increases in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which may not be fully explained by urbanization and associated traditional risk factors such as tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor diet or physical inactivity. In this commentary, we draw attention to the concept of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), where environmental insults in early life can contribute to long-term risk of NCDs, the impact of which would be particularly important in LMICs where poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation and infections are still prevalent...
March 8, 2018: International Health
Christopher Dainton, Charlene H Chu
Background: Gastrointestinal disorders are among the most common conditions encountered on short-term, primary care medical service trips (MSTs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), but their optimal management remains unclear. There have been no previous attempts to describe the protocols that Western volunteer clinicians use in managing these patients. Methods: A systematic web search was used to identify organizations operating MSTs in LAC. Clinical protocols were downloaded from organizational websites, and organizations were contacted online to obtain those that were not publicly available...
March 7, 2018: International Health
Joshua Rivenbark, Lily Martyn, Kathryn Whetten, Lavanya Vasudevan
Background: Globally, street children comprise a growing population of vulnerable children. Understanding how they interact with healthcare systems is fundamental to efforts to improve their health and well-being. Methods: We surveyed 75 street- and community-based children in Battambang, Cambodia regarding their healthcare-seeking practices and related stigma. Results: For demographically similar street and community children, hospitals and pharmacies were preferred healthcare institutions, with this choice being motivated by the caretaker's decision or cost...
March 1, 2018: International Health
Eric Y Tenkorang
Background: Limited studies exist on the effects of knowledge and risk perceptions in Ebola-preventive behaviours in Ghana. Methods: Using data collected from 800 respondents in 40 randomly selected communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, this study employed hierarchical linear modelling to examine the effects of individual- and community-level factors on Ebola-preventive behaviours. Results: The study found individual- and community-level factors are significantly associated with Ebola-preventive behaviours...
March 1, 2018: International Health
Victoria A McCredie, Gentle S Shrestha, Subhash Acharya, Antonio Bellini, Jeffrey M Singh, J Claude Hemphill, Alberto Goffi
Background: The Emergency Neurological Life Support (ENLS) is an educational initiative designed to improve the acute management of neurological injuries. However, the applicability of the course in low-income countries in unknown. We evaluated the impact of the course on knowledge, decision-making skills and preparedness to manage neurological emergencies in a resource-limited country. Methods: A prospective cohort study design was implemented for the first ENLS course held in Asia...
March 1, 2018: International Health
Jad Shedrawy, Knut Lönnroth, Asli Kulane
Background: A voluntary health examination is offered to asylum seekers in Sweden with the purpose of detecting infectious diseases and identifying other health needs. This study aimed to explore the organization, content and perceived value of the health examination from the perspective of asylum seekers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 migrants recruited from different settings in Stockholm. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality framework...
February 21, 2018: International Health
Jiang Y Zeng, Dor J Ciren, Dun Z Yundan, Qiong Pu, Cai W Gongjue, Dor J Jiumei, Ian D Robertson
Background: Little information is available regarding the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the owners of yaks in Tibet with respect to brucellosis. Methods: This manuscript reports on the results of a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire investigating the KAP of 317 yak herders from 34 villages in the three main yak-rearing counties of Maizhokunggar, Damxung and Yadong from April to August 2015. Results: Although 60...
February 17, 2018: International Health
Nurul Ain Azizan, Nithiah Thangiah, Tin Tin Su, Hazreen Abdul Majid
Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the unhealthy dietary habits and practices in a low-income community in an urban area and determine the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low-income housing area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data were collected using a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews by trained enumerators in order to obtain details on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary practices. Results: Descriptive statistics showed that 86...
February 15, 2018: International Health
Boekhtiar Borhanuddin, Norfazilah Ahmad, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Nor Azian Abdul Murad, Syed Zulkifli Syed Zakaria, Mohd Arman Kamaruddin, Nazihah Abd Jalal, Nurul Ain Mhd Yusuf, Afzan Effiza Abdul Patah, Andri Dauni, Wan Ahmad Faisal Wan Sallam, Rahman Jamal
Background: The investigation of risk factors of cardiovascular disease (e.g., major endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases) across job sectors is useful for targeted public health intervention. This study examined the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypercholesterolemia and obesity in 21 job sectors in the general population. Methods: A baseline cross-sectional analysis of the Malaysian Cohort was conducted, which included 105 391 adults. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for these three diseases across 20 job sectors compared with the unemployed/homemaker sector...
February 15, 2018: International Health
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale, Vaibhav Shah, Bernard Kadio, Ogochukwu Udenigwe
Background: As a signatory of the Millennium Development Goals, Ethiopia has made significant achievements towards meeting the maternal mortality related goals since 1990. Despite that, the country is still experiencing unacceptably high maternal mortality rates, and challenges to improving the coverage and utilisation of health facility delivery services which represent a key strategy to combat maternal mortality. Currently, there is limited evidence on the factors associated with health facility delivery in Ethiopia...
February 13, 2018: International Health
Elmang Nchako, Scottie Bussell, Carlos Nesbeth, Chisom Odoh
Africans endure a high burden of pain and suffering from HIV/AIDS and cancer, yet receive a meager amount of the world's pain medication. This tragedy occurs needlessly, given that inexpensive, effective and easily administered interventions are available. WHO has a 'three-step analgesic ladder' framework for managing cancer pain. This widely adopted clinical practice guideline is an integral part of palliative care programs and has also been applied to non-cancer pain. However, untreated pain is a major public health problem due to the discordance between scientific evidence and public policy...
February 13, 2018: International Health
Zenong Yin, Judith Perry, Xiaoqin Duan, Meizi He, Ryan Johnson, Yanling Feng, Mark Strand
Background: The prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes has been on the rise in China. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an evidence-based diabetes prevention program in Yuci, Shanxi Province, China from 2012 to 2014. Methods: Women with pre-diabetes, ages 25-65 y, were assigned randomly to a comparison (n=75) or 6-mo lifestyle intervention condition (n=109). Weight, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c and self-reported diet and physical activity were measured at baseline, 6 mo and 12 mo...
February 13, 2018: International Health
Mohammad Rifat Haider, Mohammad Masudur Rahman, Farahnaz Islam, M Mahmud Khan
Background: In Bangladesh, the neonatal mortality rate has remained relatively high at 23 deaths per 1000 live births. Consistent adoption of essential newborn care (ENC) practices should lower this rate significantly. This study assessed whether the presence of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) in home deliveries improved ENC practices in Bangladesh. Methods: Data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014 on mothers who reported home birth in the previous 3 y was utilized (n=2761 out of 4904 total births)...
February 9, 2018: International Health
Baba Maiyaki Musa, Chisom N Odoh, Najibah A Galadanci, Hadiza Saidu, Muktar H Aliyu
Background: Cardiopulmonary disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with sickle cell disease (SCD). Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRJV) and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1%) predicted are independently associated with death in SCD. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of elevated TRJV and the association, if any, between TRJV and FEV1% predicted among persons with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in Nigeria. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, we enrolled 100 adult Nigerians (≥15 y) with SCA...
February 9, 2018: International Health
Hafsa Imran, Dania Raja, Nicholas C Grassly, M Zubair Wadood, Rana M Safdar, Kathleen M O'Reilly
Background: Within Pakistan, estimates of vaccination coverage with the pentavalent vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV) and measles vaccine (MV) in 2011 were reported to be 74%, 75% and 53%, respectively. These national estimates may mask regional variation. The reasons for this variation have not been explored. Methods: Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) for Balochistan and Punjab (2010-2011) are analysed to examine factors associated with receiving three or more doses of the pentavalent vaccine and one or more MVs using regression modelling...
February 8, 2018: International Health
Andrej M Grjibovski, Daria Dubovichenko, Shynar Saduakassova, Gulmira Zhatkanbayeva, Gulzhakhan Omarova, Gulnar Shalgumbayeva, Lyudmila Valkova, Mikhail Y Valkov
Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women. The evidence from Russia, however, is scarce. We studied the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer in northwest Russia, and assessed determinants of survival among cervical cancer patients. Methods: This registry-based historical cohort study obtained data on all primary cases of cervical cancer in the Arkhangelsk region in 2000-2014 from the Arkhangelsk Regional Cancer Registry. One- and 5-y survival was calculated using life tables...
February 8, 2018: International Health
Barbara Castelnuovo, Frank Mubiru, Shadia Nakalema, Adelline Twimukye, Agnes Kiragga
Background: There is a high rate of lost to programme (LTP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive young adults transitioning from paediatric/adolescent to adult care. Methods: We describe and identify risk factors for LTP in all patients 18-23 y of age at the Infectious Diseases Institute (Kampala, Uganda) from 2010 to 2014. Results: A total of 260 of 907 young adults (28.6%) became LTP. Among those on antiretroviral treatment, 39...
February 1, 2018: International Health
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