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International Health

Conor M McWade, Sheau-Chiann Chenn, Fei Ye, Douglas C Heimburger, Troy D Moon, Sarah V Suiter
Background: To identify individual and household characteristics associated with food security and dietary diversity in seven Haitian-Dominican bateyes. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 667 households were surveyed. Novel household food security scores were calculated from components of the Household Food Insecurity Assessment Scale, while the Food and Agricultural Organization's Household Dietary Diversity Score was utilized to calculate individual dietary diversity scores...
November 12, 2018: International Health
Shyam Sundar Budhathoki, Paras K Pokharel, Nilambar Jha, Emma Moselen, Robyn Dixon, Meika Bhattachan, Richard H Osborne
Background: There is an assumption that health literacy is higher among health professionals, allowing them to improve the health literacy of their patients. This study explored health literacy profiles of health science students in Nepal, the future health professionals and educators of health literacy. Methods: The multidimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire and demographic questions were administered online to medical and other health science students at the B...
November 9, 2018: International Health
Neta HaGani, Samah Hayek, Jalal Tarabeia, Mohammad Yehia, Manfred S Green
Background: In Israel, the whole population is covered by comprehensive universal health insurance. Despite that, most of the population purchases supplementary health insurance (SHI). It has been shown that individuals purchase more health insurance and preventive medicine when they are uncertain of their state of health, while a majority may not fully understand basic concepts in their health insurance coverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of fear of catastrophic health expenditures and unrealistic expectations in purchasing SHI, which does not cover expenses for life-threatening illnesses...
November 9, 2018: International Health
Babayemi O Olakunde, Daniel A Adeyinka, William N A Menson, Olubunmi A Olakunde, Chamberline E Ozigbu
While there has been some progress in expanding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services for females, HIV prevention and treatment coverage among males remain poor. The widening disparity between males and females has garnered little attention- a cause for concern. In this article, we highlight the need to reach more males with HIV services and the importance of disaggregated data to identify age- and gender-specific gaps in HIV service delivery.
November 9, 2018: International Health
Nils Kaehler, Bipin Adhikari, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Nicholas P J Day, Daniel H Paris, Marcel Tanner, Christopher Pell
Background: The emergence of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has prompted urgent containment measures. One possible approach is mass drug administration (MDA). This article explores attitudes towards and perceptions of MDA for malaria elimination among policymakers and leading malariologists. Methods: Thirty-two semistructured interviews (SSI) were conducted with policymakers (n=17) and principal investigators (n=15) selected based on their involvement in malaria prevention, control and elimination in the GMS...
November 3, 2018: International Health
Hannah Rafferty, Oscar Chirro, Clifford Oduor, Elizabeth Wahome, Caroline Ngoi, Elise van der Elst, René Berger, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Susan M Graham, Eduard J Sanders
Background: Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the phase of HIV infection immediately after acquisition, during which many patients develop symptoms and often seek healthcare. However, clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa are not currently taught about AHI. Methods: This study pilot-tested a self-directed AHI training module among clinical officers (COs) in coastal Kenya and assessed knowledge gained and challenges to instituting screening. The training module included four domains: AHI definition and importance of AHI recognition; symptoms and screening algorithms; diagnostic strategies; and management...
November 2, 2018: International Health
Julie Hubbard, Gift Kakwesa, Mike Nyirenda, James Mwambene, Ashley Bardon, Kelvin Balakasi, Kathryn Dovel, Thokozani Kalua, Risa M Hoffman
Background: Viral load (VL) scale-up efforts have largely focused on laboratory systems, with less attention on facility-level strengthening of staff who facilitate VL testing. To address this gap we implemented a quality improvement (QI) program at 13 health facilities in central and southern Malawi. Methods: QI program tools focused on patient and provider VL knowledge and clarification of site-level roles and responsibilities, including the designation of a VL 'focal person' to oversee all VL activities...
November 1, 2018: International Health
Elizabeth W Itote, Lila C Fleming, R Kevin Mallinson, Kathleen F Gaffney, Kathryn H Jacobsen
Background: Kenya did not meet its maternal mortality ratio (MMR) target under the Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to examine the gaps in knowledge of intrapartum care among obstetric care providers (OCPs) in rural Nandi County, Kenya. Methods: This cross-sectional study in 2015 surveyed 326 nurses, midwives, clinical officers and physicians about their knowledge, attitudes and practices related to normal labor and childbirth, immediate newborn care and management of obstetric complications...
November 1, 2018: International Health
Mary McCauley, Nynke van den Broek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: International Health
Per Wändell, Axel C Carlsson, Xinjun Li, Danijela Gasevic, Johan Ärnlöv, Martin J Holzmann, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Aim: To study association between country of birth and risk of first-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in first- and second-generation immigrants to Sweden under 45 y of age. Methods: The study population included all individuals (n = 3 248 457) under the age of 45 y in Sweden, including immigrants (n = 722 249). AF was defined as first registered diagnosis in the National Patient Register. Association between country of birth and risk of AF was assessed by Cox regression, calculating HRs and 95% CIs, using Swedish-born individuals as referents...
October 26, 2018: International Health
Banibrata Das
Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe the health hazards among child labourers in brickfields, and to assess occupational health problems, together with physiological and respiratory stress, compared with child control subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 112 child brickfield workers and 120 control subjects, and a modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by the measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and spirometry of the workers...
October 17, 2018: International Health
Andrew K G Tan, Steven T Yen, Xiangming Fang, Fu-Sung Chiang
Background: This study examined the factors associated with body mass index (BMI) categories of Malaysian adolescents by physical activity (PA) status. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey. Generalized ordered logit regression analysis was conducted on 24 339 adolescents by PA status. Results: Early- (ages 11-13) and middle-stage (ages 14-16) adolescents were associated with higher overweight and obesity risks than their older peers (ages 17-18)...
October 15, 2018: International Health
Varshini Varadaraj, Anju Ranjit, Joseph Nwadiuko, Joseph Canner, Marie Diener-West, Eric B Schneider, Sadras Panchatcharam Thyagarajan, Rajeev Shrestha, Neeraja Nagarajan
Background: Biomedical research from high-income countries often informs practice and policy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with vastly different socioeconomic and health systems. Engagement of LMIC-based researchers is integral to setting research priorities in the local context. Methods: A program, comprising a research seminar and workshop, and utilizing diaspora health professionals to understand research needs and build research capacity in LMICs, was created and pilot-tested at two institutions in India (65 participants) and Nepal (30 participants)...
October 11, 2018: International Health
Michael Asamoah-Boaheng, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, Anthony Boaheng Tuffour, Benjamin Eghan, Jean Claude Mbanya
Background: The prevalence and risk factors for diabetes in Ghana vary from location to location, yet no study has been conducted to quantitatively synthesize the available studies. Methods: The authors conducted a comprehensive literature search in Medline (PubMed), Embase, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus, African journals and grey literature. Two reviewers screened the articles for relevance, identified and selected studies based on inclusion and exclusion criteria...
October 4, 2018: International Health
Manuel Gonzales, Margaret C Baker, Ana Celestino, Danerys Santa Morillo, Amy Chambliss, Sarah Adams, Margaret Gyapong, Dominique Kyelem
Background: While progress has been made in the elimination of lymphatic filariasis, challenges that call for innovative approaches remain. Program challenges are increasingly observed in 'hard-to-reach' populations: urban dwellers, migrant populations, those living in insecurity, children who are out of school and areas where infrastructure is weak and education levels are low. 'Business-as-usual' approaches are unlikely to work. Tailored solutions are needed if elimination goals are to be reached...
October 4, 2018: International Health
Hasan Sohail, Subas Neupane
Background: This study investigated the prevalence of and the factors associated with under-5 mortality across five South Asian countries. Methods: Cross-sectional pooled data from 1999 through 2014 collected from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in five South Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal and Pakistan) were used. Associations of under-5 mortality with sociodemographic characteristics and maternal and child factors were studied using the Cox proportional-hazard method...
October 4, 2018: International Health
Nirma D Bustamante, Christopher D Golden, J Frederick Randrianasolo, Parveen Parmar
Background: Individuals in rural communities in Madagascar must frequently travel long distances, over difficult terrain, to obtain basic care. The quality of care is often inconsistent and inadequate. Methods: An exploratory mixed-methods study was conducted in select coastal communities in the Maroantsetra region of Madagascar to generate a more robust understanding of community and health care provider perceptions and how patients decide to seek health care, including the decision to use traditional medicine vs allopathic medicine...
September 28, 2018: International Health
Micheal Mazzi, Francis Bajunirwe, Emmanuel Aheebwe, Simpson Nuwamanya, Fred N Bagenda
Background: In rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, health facilities are difficult to access for prompt treatment of malaria. Community health workers (CHWs) have been trained and equipped to treat malaria. Utilization of their service has not been adequately evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the level of utilization of CHWs, and whether distance and other factors influence the utilization. Methods: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study among households with a child below 5 y of age and interviewed caregivers in Sheema district, rural western Uganda...
September 28, 2018: International Health
Yusuf Ergün, Tansel Bekiroglu Ergün, Eylem Toker, Esengül Ünal, Mine Akben
Background: Pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have pivotal roles in drug safety. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of health professionals towards pharmacovigilance in a university hospital in Turkey. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional study via a 25-item self-administered questionnaire was conducted among physicians (n=161) and nurses (n=321). Results: Although 66% (320/482) of the subjects were aware of the 'pharmacovigilance' term, the awareness of the Turkish Pharmacovigilance Center was as low as 30% (161/482)...
September 28, 2018: International Health
James H Stark, Eve Wool, Lena Tran, Elizabeth Robinson, Meaghan Chemelski, Daniel Weibel, Wan-Ting Huang, Sonali Kochhar, Janet R Hardy, Steven Bailey, Edward Galiwango, Dan Kajungu
Background: Standardized case definitions for obstetric and neonatal outcomes were developed by the Global Alignment of Immunization Safety Assessment in Pregnancy (GAIA) project. These definitions can facilitate comparable assessment of maternal immunization safety surveillance and research. This study assessed the capabilities of health centers (HC) in Uganda to implement these definitions in a low income country, which has not been explored. Methods: Healthcare practitioners at 15 government-accredited health centers and one government-funded district hospital in the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (IMHDSS) in Uganda were interviewed about the facility's clinical diagnostic and laboratory capabilities...
September 25, 2018: International Health
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