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International Journal of Pediatrics

Priyanga Ranasinghe, Vidarsha Rajini Senadeera, Rashmi Senarathna, Uththara Sapurnika, Vindhya Ramanayake, Ranil Jayawardena
Background: Medical nutritional therapy is an important component of type 1 diabetes (T1D) care in children and carbohydrate counting is one such method. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge of carbohydrate counting among parents of children with T1D from Sri Lanka and study its association with the child's glycaemic control. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among parents of children with T1D. HbA1c measurement was used to assess glycaemic control...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Atalay Getachew, Tadesse Guadu, Alebachew Tadie, Zemichael Gizaw, Mulat Gebrehiwot, Daniel Haile Cherkos, Martha Alemayehu Menberu, Teklay Gebrecherkos
Background: Diarrheal disease remains one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Risk factors for diarrhea vary by settings and have important implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce the burden of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess diarrhea prevalence and sociodemographic factors among under-five children in rural areas of North Gondar Zone. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2016 among 736 randomly selected households with one child under five years old...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Dalal Alkazemi, Munirah Albeajan, Stan Kubow
Objective: Early feeding and infant exposures have been suggested as potential risk factors for immunoglobulin E- (IgE-) mediated food allergy (FA). We aimed to evaluate the association between IgE-mediated FA in children and early exposures including the child's nutritional status, breastfeeding and its duration, the age at which the solid food was first introduced, antibiotic exposure during the first year of life, and the child's vitamin D status during infancy. Design: A case-control study...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Murli Manohar Gupta, Nagendra Chaudhary, Santosh Pathak, Nikhil Agrawal, Jaydev Yadav, Sandeep Shrestha, Om Prakash Kurmi, Baldev Bhatia, Kailash Nath Agarwal
Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a common cause of seizures in children from low and middle income countries (LMICs), if not diagnosed and treated early enough may lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of NCC and its clinical characteristics among those with seizure in South-Western Nepal. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of NCC in children with seizures. Material and Methods: All children admitted to Universal College of Medical Sciences, a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nepal with seizures during 2014-16, were tested for NCC...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Ramón G Carreón-Burciaga, Enrique Castañeda-Castaneira, Rogelio González-González, Nelly Molina-Frechero, Enrique Gaona, Ronell Bologna-Molina
Background: Mucositis is an adverse effect of chemotherapy (QT) and/or radiotherapy (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oral mucositis in children undergoing cancer treatment. Methods: Fifty-one children with cancer who had received QT, RT, or both (QT-RT) underwent clinical evaluations; World Health Organization criteria were used to establish the degree and severity of mucositis. The correlations between the clinical data, type of cancer, and therapy were statistically analysed...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Abdulrahman Al-Dawish, Muhammad Mujammami, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is quite prevalent in the world, with a proportion of 1 in every 300 persons and steadily rising frequency of incidence of about 3% every year. More alarmingly, the incidence of T1DM among infants is also increasing, with children as young as 6 months succumbing to it, instead of that at a rather established vulnerable age of around seven and near puberty, when the hormones antagonize the action of insulin. These reports pose a unique challenge of developing efficient T1DM management system for the young children...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Shigeki Kurasawa, Kiyomi Tateyama, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Taro Ohtoshi, Ken Nakatani, Katsushi Yokoi
Background: No large-scale study of the timing of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis has been performed in Japan to date. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences and annual trends in age at diagnosis of ASD using clinical data. Methods: Clinical data for children aged less than 18 years diagnosed with ASD between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, and in whom follow-up was possible 1 year after diagnosis, were extracted. Results: The mean age at ASD diagnosis was 7...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Gülsüm Alkan, Sevgi Keles, İsmail Reisli
Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) that typically presents with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired antibody production. Objectives: This study aimed to promote the awareness of CVID, whose clinical spectrum is quite broad. Methods: The demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of 12 children (seven males and five females) with CVID were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria of the European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Saad Abdullah Alsaedi
Objective: To determine whether transcutaneous bilirubin measurements (TcB) before and during phototherapy taken from covered skin during phototherapy correlate with total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Study Design: In this prospective observational study, healthy term newborns who required TSB measurements were included. TcB measurements were taken from the forehead before starting and during phototherapy using the BiliChek device. Before starting phototherapy, part of the forehead was covered...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Prince Adoba, Richard K D Ephraim, Kate Adomakowaah Kontor, Joseph-Josiah Bentsil, Patrick Adu, Maxwell Anderson, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Paul Nsiah
Background: Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods: One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Christoph Baumann, Ulla Rakowski, Reiner Buchhorn
Obese children and adolescents are at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life. We hypothesized that cardiovascular prophylaxis with omega-3 fatty acids could benefit them. In our study, 20 children and adolescents (mean body mass index percentile: 99.1; mean age: 11.0 years) underwent two ambulatory 24 h Holter electrocardiography (ECG) recordings (before and after at least 3 months of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation). Time domain heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) were examined for these patients...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Sunil J Pawar, Tejopratap Oleti, Siluvery Bharathi, Shyamsunder Tipparaju, Ershad Mustafa
Objective: Neonatal sepsis is associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes but not with poor growth at 9 to 15 months of corrected age in LBW infants. Design Setting and Participants: This is a prospective cohort study involving 128 eligible preterm low-birth-weight (LBW) infants admitted during the period of 2013-2014 to the Durgabai Deshmukh Hospital and Research Center. All patients were followed up in the outpatient Department of Pediatrics. They were divided into the sepsis and nonsepsis group...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Cairina E Frank, Kathy N Speechley, Jennifer J Macnab, M Karen Campbell
Objectives: To investigate if an association exists between being born large for gestational age (LGA) and verbal ability or externalizing behaviour problems at ages 4-5 years. Method: A secondary analysis was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, including singleton births in 2004-2005 followed till 4-5 years ( n = 1685). LGA was defined as a birth weight > 90th percentile. Outcomes included poor verbal ability (scoring < 15th percentile on the Revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and externalizing behaviour problems (scoring > 90th percentile on externalizing behaviour scales)...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Olanike Abosede Olutekunbi, Adaobi Uzoamaka Solarin, Idowu Odunayo Senbanjo, Elizabeth Aruma Disu, Olisamedua Fidelis Njokanma
Skin fold thickness (SFT) measurement is a reliable, cheap, simple, noninvasive method of body fat estimation at all ages including the neonatal period. Objective . To determine reference values of biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thickness measurements in term Nigerian newborns. Method . A prospective cross-sectional study over a six-month period (Dec 2010-May 2011) was carried out on term and healthy neonates delivered between 37 and 41 weeks. The anthropometric measurements were taken within the first 48 hours of life including the skinfold thickness...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Asrat Meleko, Mesfin Geremew, Frehiwot Birhanu
Immunization remains one of the most important and cost-effective public health interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity. Globally, it is estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year. In Ethiopia, immunization coverage rates stagnated and remained very low for many years. Thus, this study was aimed to assess child immunization coverage and factors associated with full vaccination among children aged 12-23 months in Mizan Aman town. The study design was community-based cross-sectional survey...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
Zegeye Abebe, Degefaye Zelalem Anlay, Belete Biadgo, Asemarie Kebede, Tsedalu Melku, Bamlaku Enawgaw, Mulugeta Melku
Objective: To assess undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in Gondar Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. Multistage sampling method was used to select study participants. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were used. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify associated factors. Results: The prevalences of wasting and stunting were 6...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
M B Kavinda Chandimal Dayasiri, Shaluka F Jayamanne, Chamilka Y Jayasinghe
Introduction: Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. Methods: This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
Kaitesi Batamuliza Mukara, Richard J Lilford, Debara Lyn Tucci, Peter Waiswa
Middle ear infections are common in children, and delay in diagnosis and treatment may result in complications such as delays in speech and language development and deafness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and care seeking behaviour for middle ear infections in children under five years in Kigali city. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 810 children aged 6-59 months in Gasabo district of Kigali city, Rwanda. The prevalence of middle ear infections was 5.8%, of whom 4% had chronic suppurative otitis media...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
Laykewold Elyas, Amha Mekasha, Amha Admasie, Etagegnehu Assefa
Background: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is globally low (35%) in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas it is 58% in Ethiopia. Exclusive breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 11.6% of under-five deaths in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the exclusive breastfeeding practice and associated factors on mothers attending private pediatric and child clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was used...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
Background: Pneumonia represents an important threat to children's health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published, in order to optimize the prescription of antibiotics and limit their cost and side effects. However, the practical implementation of these guidelines is still limited. Main Text: We analyzed the current recommendations for the therapy of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that all converge on the identification of aminopenicillins and beta-lactams as the optimal treatment for CAP...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
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