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International Journal of Pediatrics

M Margaret Weigel, Rodrigo X Armijos
Household food insecurity (HFI) is a major global public health and pediatric concern due to its reported association with adverse child nutrition, growth, and health outcomes. Psychosocial dysfunction is a major cause of childhood disability. US and Canadian studies have linked HFI to poorer overall psychosocial dysfunction and specific dysfunction types in school-aged children, i.e., internalizing, externalizing, and attention behaviors. However, it is uncertain whether prior findings are generalizable to low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Aytenew Getabelew, Mihret Aman, Endashaw Fantaye, Tomas Yeheyis
Background: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in developing countries accounting for 30-50% of total deaths each year. Childhood mortality is often used as broad indicator of the social development or a specific indicator of health conditions of a country. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of neonatal sepsis and associated factors among neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit at two hospitals in Shashemene town, Ethiopia...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Muluken Berhanu Mena, Mohammed Gebre Dedefo, Bruke Berhanu Billoro
Background: Malnutrition is a silent killer that is underreported, underaddressed, and as a result underprioritized. It is reported that severe acute malnutrition is the commonest reason for pediatrics hospital admission in many poor countries; 25 to 30% of children with severe malnutrition die during hospital admissions. Objective: To determine treatment outcome of severe acute malnutrition and identify its determinants among pediatric patients in pediatrics ward of Nekemte Referral Hospital...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Raja Kannan, Suchetha S Rao, Prasanna Mithra, B Dhanashree, Shantharam Baliga, Kamalakshi G Bhat
Introduction: To evaluate Proadrenomedullin (Pro-ADM) as the diagnostic and prognostic marker in neonatal sepsis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Pro-ADM levels were estimated in 54 neonates with clinical sepsis and positive sepsis screen (cases) and 54 controls without clinical sepsis. Repeat Pro-ADM levels were estimated after 72 hours in cases. Pro-ADM levels were compared with the clinical outcome. Results and Discussion: Median Pro-ADM levels in cases were 31...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Khadija Murtaza Bhimji, Helga Naburi, Said Aboud, Karim Manji
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is emerging as a serious public health problem globally; however due to lack of resources, vitamin D levels are not routinely measured among neonates. The study was conducted to determine vitamin D levels in neonates and factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among neonates admitted at neonatal ward of a tertiary care hospital. Means and proportions were calculated from summarized data in frequency tables. Chi square test was used to determine association between vitamin D and various associated factors such as sex, infant birth weight, gestation age, parity of the mother, maternal age, and HIV status of the mother...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Siddhartha Reddy, Maneesh Rai, Ravi Raj Singh Chouhan, Suchetha Rao, Nutan Kamath
Background: Cardiac involvement in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) may present with repolarization abnormalities which are associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac events. Methods: Twenty children with history of KD without cardiac involvement in the acute phase were recruited along with age and sex-matched controls. Twelve-lead ECG was obtained from both groups using CARDIART 610T ECG system at 25 mm/sec and 50 mm/sec paper speed...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
M Banjari, Y Kano, S Almadani, A Basakran, M Al-Hindi, T Alahmadi
Background: Asthma is a common chronic illness worldwide. Asthmatic children are forced to alter their way of living to avoid its complications or exacerbations, which negatively affects their psychological and social well-being. High prevalence of behavioral and emotional difficulties was noticed among children with asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study that was conducted over 8 months involving asthmatic children within the ages of 7-17 years presenting to two governmental hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Regina Edward Bulali, Stephen Matthew Kibusi, Bonaventura C T Mpondo
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that children should be informed of their HIV status at ages 6 to 12 years and full disclosure of HIV and AIDS be offered in a caring and supportive manner at about 8 to 10 years. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with HIV status disclosure and its effect on treatment adherence and health-related quality of life among children between 6 and 17 years of age living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands Zone, Tanzania, 2017...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Priyanga Ranasinghe, Vidarsha Rajini Senadeera, Rashmi Senarathna, Uththara Sapurnika, Vindhya Ramanayake, Ranil Jayawardena
Background: Medical nutritional therapy is an important component of type 1 diabetes (T1D) care in children and carbohydrate counting is one such method. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge of carbohydrate counting among parents of children with T1D from Sri Lanka and study its association with the child's glycaemic control. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among parents of children with T1D. HbA1c measurement was used to assess glycaemic control...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Atalay Getachew, Tadesse Guadu, Alebachew Tadie, Zemichael Gizaw, Mulat Gebrehiwot, Daniel Haile Cherkos, Martha Alemayehu Menberu, Teklay Gebrecherkos
Background: Diarrheal disease remains one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Risk factors for diarrhea vary by settings and have important implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce the burden of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess diarrhea prevalence and sociodemographic factors among under-five children in rural areas of North Gondar Zone. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2016 among 736 randomly selected households with one child under five years old...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Dalal Alkazemi, Munirah Albeajan, Stan Kubow
Objective: Early feeding and infant exposures have been suggested as potential risk factors for immunoglobulin E- (IgE-) mediated food allergy (FA). We aimed to evaluate the association between IgE-mediated FA in children and early exposures including the child's nutritional status, breastfeeding and its duration, the age at which the solid food was first introduced, antibiotic exposure during the first year of life, and the child's vitamin D status during infancy. Design: A case-control study...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Murli Manohar Gupta, Nagendra Chaudhary, Santosh Pathak, Nikhil Agrawal, Jaydev Yadav, Sandeep Shrestha, Om Prakash Kurmi, Baldev Bhatia, Kailash Nath Agarwal
Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a common cause of seizures in children from low and middle income countries (LMICs), if not diagnosed and treated early enough may lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of NCC and its clinical characteristics among those with seizure in South-Western Nepal. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of NCC in children with seizures. Material and Methods: All children admitted to Universal College of Medical Sciences, a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nepal with seizures during 2014-16, were tested for NCC...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Ramón G Carreón-Burciaga, Enrique Castañeda-Castaneira, Rogelio González-González, Nelly Molina-Frechero, Enrique Gaona, Ronell Bologna-Molina
Background: Mucositis is an adverse effect of chemotherapy (QT) and/or radiotherapy (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oral mucositis in children undergoing cancer treatment. Methods: Fifty-one children with cancer who had received QT, RT, or both (QT-RT) underwent clinical evaluations; World Health Organization criteria were used to establish the degree and severity of mucositis. The correlations between the clinical data, type of cancer, and therapy were statistically analysed...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Abdulrahman Al-Dawish, Muhammad Mujammami, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is quite prevalent in the world, with a proportion of 1 in every 300 persons and steadily rising frequency of incidence of about 3% every year. More alarmingly, the incidence of T1DM among infants is also increasing, with children as young as 6 months succumbing to it, instead of that at a rather established vulnerable age of around seven and near puberty, when the hormones antagonize the action of insulin. These reports pose a unique challenge of developing efficient T1DM management system for the young children...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Shigeki Kurasawa, Kiyomi Tateyama, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Taro Ohtoshi, Ken Nakatani, Katsushi Yokoi
Background: No large-scale study of the timing of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis has been performed in Japan to date. The aim of this study was to examine sex differences and annual trends in age at diagnosis of ASD using clinical data. Methods: Clinical data for children aged less than 18 years diagnosed with ASD between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013, and in whom follow-up was possible 1 year after diagnosis, were extracted. Results: The mean age at ASD diagnosis was 7...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Gülsüm Alkan, Sevgi Keles, İsmail Reisli
Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) that typically presents with hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired antibody production. Objectives: This study aimed to promote the awareness of CVID, whose clinical spectrum is quite broad. Methods: The demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of 12 children (seven males and five females) with CVID were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria of the European Society for Primary Immunodeficiencies...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Saad Abdullah Alsaedi
Objective: To determine whether transcutaneous bilirubin measurements (TcB) before and during phototherapy taken from covered skin during phototherapy correlate with total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Study Design: In this prospective observational study, healthy term newborns who required TSB measurements were included. TcB measurements were taken from the forehead before starting and during phototherapy using the BiliChek device. Before starting phototherapy, part of the forehead was covered...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Prince Adoba, Richard K D Ephraim, Kate Adomakowaah Kontor, Joseph-Josiah Bentsil, Patrick Adu, Maxwell Anderson, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Paul Nsiah
Background: Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods: One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Christoph Baumann, Ulla Rakowski, Reiner Buchhorn
Obese children and adolescents are at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life. We hypothesized that cardiovascular prophylaxis with omega-3 fatty acids could benefit them. In our study, 20 children and adolescents (mean body mass index percentile: 99.1; mean age: 11.0 years) underwent two ambulatory 24 h Holter electrocardiography (ECG) recordings (before and after at least 3 months of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation). Time domain heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) were examined for these patients...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Sunil J Pawar, Tejopratap Oleti, Siluvery Bharathi, Shyamsunder Tipparaju, Ershad Mustafa
Objective: Neonatal sepsis is associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes but not with poor growth at 9 to 15 months of corrected age in LBW infants. Design Setting and Participants: This is a prospective cohort study involving 128 eligible preterm low-birth-weight (LBW) infants admitted during the period of 2013-2014 to the Durgabai Deshmukh Hospital and Research Center. All patients were followed up in the outpatient Department of Pediatrics. They were divided into the sepsis and nonsepsis group...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
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