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International Journal of Pediatrics

Mette Engan, Asle Hirth, Håvard Trønnes
Objective: Triage is a tool developed to identify patients who need immediate care and those who can safely wait. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and interrater reliability of a modified version of the pediatric South African triage scale (pSATS) in a single-center tertiary pediatric emergency department in Norway. Methods: This prospective, observational study included all patients with medical conditions, referred to the pediatric emergency department of a tertiary hospital in Norway from September 1, 2015, to November 17, 2015...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Anne K Misiura, Autumn D Nanassy, Jacqueline Urbine
Trauma patients in a Level I Pediatric Trauma Center may undergo CT of the abdomen and pelvis with concurrent radiograph during initial evaluation in an attempt to diagnose injury. To determine if plain digital radiograph of the pelvis adds additional information in the initial trauma evaluation when CT of the abdomen and pelvis is also performed, trauma patients who presented to an urban Level I Pediatric Trauma Center between 1 January 2010 and 7 February 2017 in whom pelvic radiograph and CT of the abdomen and pelvis were performed within 24 hours of each other were analyzed...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Leila M Shinn, Christy C Tangney, Caitlyn Busche, Christine M Sharp, Mary C Mullen
The aims of this study are (1) to assess changes in infant WHO growth indicators (weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and head circumference z-scores) from birth to 12 months of age as a function of feeding practices (FP) and (2) to describe the proportion of infants experiencing rapid weight gain (RWG; defined as change in weight-for-age z-score of ≥0.67 between birth and six months) among different FP. The modified Infant Feeding Practices Study II questionnaire was administered to 149 diverse caretakers/mothers of infants who were less than six months of age in a pediatric outpatient clinic...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Suraj Haridas Upadya, M S Rukmini, Sowmya Sundararajan, B Shantharam Baliga, Nutan Kamath
Background: Thalassemia is the most common genetic disorder worldwide. Use of iron chelators has improved survival but endocrine complications have become more frequent. The frequency of hypothyroidism in Beta Thalassemia Major (BTM) children ranges from 6 to 30 %. Thyroid dysfunction mainly occurs by gland infiltration, chronic tissue hypoxia, free radical injury, and organ siderosis. Objectives: (a) To evaluate the thyroid function status in chronically transfused children with BTM, in the first and second decade of life and (b) to study the influence of factors like duration and amount of blood transfusions, serum ferritin level, and iron chelation therapy on thyroid function...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Naveed Hussain, Janet Schwenn, Jennifer Trzaski, Mariann Pappagallo
Background: In infants with CLD there are no objective tests to monitor an infant's progress towards weaning out of oxygen inhalation therapy (O2 IT). A test involving staged maneuvers of increasing respiratory stress while decreasing oxygen support, termed Stress Oximetry (StressOx), has been used at our center for weaning O2 IT. Objective: To report the clinical utility of "StressOx" in evaluating readiness for discontinuing O2 IT in infants with CLD...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Molly Bannatyne, Judith Smith, Malavika Panda, Mohamed E Abdel-Latif, Tejasvi Chaudhari
Background: Central Line Associated Bloodstream Infections (CLABSI) constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal populations. There has been an overwhelming increase in the use of evidence-based care practices, also known as bundles, in the reduction of these infections. In this report, rates of CLABSI and central line utilisation were examined following the introduction of a central line bundle in our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at the Canberra Hospital. Methods: The research undertaken was a retrospective cohort study in which newborn infants admitted to the Canberra Hospital NICU between January 2011 and December 2016 and had a central line inserted were included in the study...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
M Margaret Weigel, Rodrigo X Armijos
Household food insecurity (HFI) is a major global public health and pediatric concern due to its reported association with adverse child nutrition, growth, and health outcomes. Psychosocial dysfunction is a major cause of childhood disability. US and Canadian studies have linked HFI to poorer overall psychosocial dysfunction and specific dysfunction types in school-aged children, i.e., internalizing, externalizing, and attention behaviors. However, it is uncertain whether prior findings are generalizable to low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Aytenew Getabelew, Mihret Aman, Endashaw Fantaye, Tomas Yeheyis
Background: Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in developing countries accounting for 30-50% of total deaths each year. Childhood mortality is often used as broad indicator of the social development or a specific indicator of health conditions of a country. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of neonatal sepsis and associated factors among neonates admitted in neonatal intensive care unit at two hospitals in Shashemene town, Ethiopia...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Muluken Berhanu Mena, Mohammed Gebre Dedefo, Bruke Berhanu Billoro
Background: Malnutrition is a silent killer that is underreported, underaddressed, and as a result underprioritized. It is reported that severe acute malnutrition is the commonest reason for pediatrics hospital admission in many poor countries; 25 to 30% of children with severe malnutrition die during hospital admissions. Objective: To determine treatment outcome of severe acute malnutrition and identify its determinants among pediatric patients in pediatrics ward of Nekemte Referral Hospital...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Raja Kannan, Suchetha S Rao, Prasanna Mithra, B Dhanashree, Shantharam Baliga, Kamalakshi G Bhat
Introduction: To evaluate Proadrenomedullin (Pro-ADM) as the diagnostic and prognostic marker in neonatal sepsis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Pro-ADM levels were estimated in 54 neonates with clinical sepsis and positive sepsis screen (cases) and 54 controls without clinical sepsis. Repeat Pro-ADM levels were estimated after 72 hours in cases. Pro-ADM levels were compared with the clinical outcome. Results and Discussion: Median Pro-ADM levels in cases were 31...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Khadija Murtaza Bhimji, Helga Naburi, Said Aboud, Karim Manji
Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is emerging as a serious public health problem globally; however due to lack of resources, vitamin D levels are not routinely measured among neonates. The study was conducted to determine vitamin D levels in neonates and factors associated with the same. A cross-sectional study was conducted among neonates admitted at neonatal ward of a tertiary care hospital. Means and proportions were calculated from summarized data in frequency tables. Chi square test was used to determine association between vitamin D and various associated factors such as sex, infant birth weight, gestation age, parity of the mother, maternal age, and HIV status of the mother...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Siddhartha Reddy, Maneesh Rai, Ravi Raj Singh Chouhan, Suchetha Rao, Nutan Kamath
Background: Cardiac involvement in children with Kawasaki disease (KD) may present with repolarization abnormalities which are associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac events. Methods: Twenty children with history of KD without cardiac involvement in the acute phase were recruited along with age and sex-matched controls. Twelve-lead ECG was obtained from both groups using CARDIART 610T ECG system at 25 mm/sec and 50 mm/sec paper speed...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
M Banjari, Y Kano, S Almadani, A Basakran, M Al-Hindi, T Alahmadi
Background: Asthma is a common chronic illness worldwide. Asthmatic children are forced to alter their way of living to avoid its complications or exacerbations, which negatively affects their psychological and social well-being. High prevalence of behavioral and emotional difficulties was noticed among children with asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional study that was conducted over 8 months involving asthmatic children within the ages of 7-17 years presenting to two governmental hospitals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Regina Edward Bulali, Stephen Matthew Kibusi, Bonaventura C T Mpondo
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that children should be informed of their HIV status at ages 6 to 12 years and full disclosure of HIV and AIDS be offered in a caring and supportive manner at about 8 to 10 years. The objective of this study was to determine factors associated with HIV status disclosure and its effect on treatment adherence and health-related quality of life among children between 6 and 17 years of age living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern Highlands Zone, Tanzania, 2017...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Priyanga Ranasinghe, Vidarsha Rajini Senadeera, Rashmi Senarathna, Uththara Sapurnika, Vindhya Ramanayake, Ranil Jayawardena
Background: Medical nutritional therapy is an important component of type 1 diabetes (T1D) care in children and carbohydrate counting is one such method. We aimed to evaluate the knowledge of carbohydrate counting among parents of children with T1D from Sri Lanka and study its association with the child's glycaemic control. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among parents of children with T1D. HbA1c measurement was used to assess glycaemic control...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Atalay Getachew, Tadesse Guadu, Alebachew Tadie, Zemichael Gizaw, Mulat Gebrehiwot, Daniel Haile Cherkos, Martha Alemayehu Menberu, Teklay Gebrecherkos
Background: Diarrheal disease remains one of the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Risk factors for diarrhea vary by settings and have important implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce the burden of the disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess diarrhea prevalence and sociodemographic factors among under-five children in rural areas of North Gondar Zone. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2016 among 736 randomly selected households with one child under five years old...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Dalal Alkazemi, Munirah Albeajan, Stan Kubow
Objective: Early feeding and infant exposures have been suggested as potential risk factors for immunoglobulin E- (IgE-) mediated food allergy (FA). We aimed to evaluate the association between IgE-mediated FA in children and early exposures including the child's nutritional status, breastfeeding and its duration, the age at which the solid food was first introduced, antibiotic exposure during the first year of life, and the child's vitamin D status during infancy. Design: A case-control study...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Murli Manohar Gupta, Nagendra Chaudhary, Santosh Pathak, Nikhil Agrawal, Jaydev Yadav, Sandeep Shrestha, Om Prakash Kurmi, Baldev Bhatia, Kailash Nath Agarwal
Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a common cause of seizures in children from low and middle income countries (LMICs), if not diagnosed and treated early enough may lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of NCC and its clinical characteristics among those with seizure in South-Western Nepal. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence and clinical characteristics of NCC in children with seizures. Material and Methods: All children admitted to Universal College of Medical Sciences, a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nepal with seizures during 2014-16, were tested for NCC...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Ramón G Carreón-Burciaga, Enrique Castañeda-Castaneira, Rogelio González-González, Nelly Molina-Frechero, Enrique Gaona, Ronell Bologna-Molina
Background: Mucositis is an adverse effect of chemotherapy (QT) and/or radiotherapy (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of oral mucositis in children undergoing cancer treatment. Methods: Fifty-one children with cancer who had received QT, RT, or both (QT-RT) underwent clinical evaluations; World Health Organization criteria were used to establish the degree and severity of mucositis. The correlations between the clinical data, type of cancer, and therapy were statistically analysed...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Abdulrahman Al-Dawish, Muhammad Mujammami, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is quite prevalent in the world, with a proportion of 1 in every 300 persons and steadily rising frequency of incidence of about 3% every year. More alarmingly, the incidence of T1DM among infants is also increasing, with children as young as 6 months succumbing to it, instead of that at a rather established vulnerable age of around seven and near puberty, when the hormones antagonize the action of insulin. These reports pose a unique challenge of developing efficient T1DM management system for the young children...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
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