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Personality Disorders

Mieke Decuyper, Fien Gistelinck, Jasmine Vergauwe, Gina Pancorbo, Filip De Fruyt
Personality disorders (PDs) are inherently associated with deficits in relating to other people. Previous research has shown consistent negative associations between categorical PD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. The present studies extend on these findings by examining the role of maladaptive traits in a number of ways. Self- and partner-reported maladaptive traits of both partners are included. Moreover, the present studies add a couple-centered approach by investigating the effects of actual similarity, perceptual similarity, and perceptual accuracy of the maladaptive trait profile on relationship satisfaction...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
Rachel K B Hamilton, Joseph P Newman
Hamilton and colleagues (2015) recently proposed that an integrative deficit in psychopathy restricts simultaneous processing, thereby leaving fewer resources available for information encoding, narrowing the scope of attention, and undermining associative processing. The current study evaluated this parallel processing deficit proposal using the Simultaneous-Sequential paradigm. This investigation marks the first a priori test of the Hamilton et al.'s theoretical framework. We predicted that psychopathy would be associated with inferior performance (as indexed by lower accuracy and longer response time) on trials requiring simultaneous processing of visual information relative to trials necessitating sequential processing...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
Colin E Vize, Donald R Lynam, Katherine L Collison, Joshua D Miller
Since its emergence 14 years ago the dark triad (DT), composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, has become an increasingly popular research focus. Yet questions remain over whether the DT components are sufficiently distinct from another. We examined the nomological networks of each DT component through a meta-analysis of the available literature on the DT. We conducted 3 separate analyses-an examination of the average intercorrelations among the DT components (k = 156), an examination of similarities in each DT component's nomological network (k = 159), and an examination of the effect sizes between DT components and 15 outcome categories (k range = 7 to 42)...
October 13, 2016: Personality Disorders
Michael Chmielewski, Camilo J Ruggero, Roman Kotov, Keke Liu, Robert F Krueger
Two competing models of personality psychopathology are included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013); the traditional personality disorder (PD) model included in Section II and an alternative trait-based model included in Section III. Numerous studies have examined the validity of the alternative trait model and its official assessment instrument, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012)...
September 12, 2016: Personality Disorders
Jaime L Anderson, Martin Sellbom
The majority of research on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) Section III alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) has addressed the dimensional traits proposed in Criterion B, while limited research has evaluated Section III functional impairment criteria. The current study evaluated Section III impairment specific to the 6 personality disorder diagnoses included in the Section III model in a sample of 347 undergraduates. We evaluated the factor structure of disorder-specific impairment; their associations with other measures of impairment, Section III traits, and Section II PD symptoms; as well as the incremental utility of impairment above and beyond traits in predicting Section II PD symptoms...
September 12, 2016: Personality Disorders
Patrick J Cruitt, Michael J Boudreaux, Joshua J Jackson, Thomas F Oltmanns
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with negative physical health outcomes. Clinical case studies suggest that employment status may buffer against the negative effects of BPD on physical health. The goal of the current study was to examine the interaction between BPD features and employment status in predicting subjective perceptions of physical health. We hypothesized that employment status would moderate the relationship between BPD features and physical health, such that individuals who are employed would exhibit a weaker negative relationship between BPD features and self- and informant ratings of physical health...
August 15, 2016: Personality Disorders
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Joshua D Miller
The "Dark Triad" consists of 3 partially overlapping trait configurations that manifest in problematic interpersonal outcomes: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Comparing meta-perception-based reports of personality, or how people believe others see them, to self-reports in relation to informant-reports allows for a direct test of the extent to which people are accurate in understanding how they are perceived by others. The present study (n = 993 target participants) investigated how Dark Triad personality styles are viewed from multiple perspectives, including self-report, meta-perception, informant-report (n = 213), and informant perceived meta-perception (n = 178) in an undergraduate sample...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
Lisa Liebke, Melanie Bungert, Janine Thome, Sophie Hauschild, Dorothee Maria Gescher, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Persistent loneliness is often reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical studies investigating this aspect of BPD psychopathology are sparse. Studies from social psychology revealed that social isolation and low social functioning contribute to loneliness, that is, the subjective feeling of being alone. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the understanding of loneliness in BPD by investigating its relation to social isolation and functioning in different domains of life...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
Holly E Andrewes, Carol Hulbert, Susan M Cotton, Jennifer Betts, Andrew M Chanen
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive, emotional, and contextual experience of NSSI in 107 youth (aged 15-25 years) with BPD who had minimal prior exposure to treatment. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants completed a randomly prompted questionnaire about their affect, self-injurious thoughts, and behaviors six times per day for 6 days. Twenty-four youth with BPD engaged in 52 counts of NSSI, with 56 motives identified...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
Avigal Snir, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Kathy R Berenson, Geraldine Downey, Eshkol Rafaeli
The current study's main goal was to examine whether affective instability is elevated among individuals suffering from avoidant personality disorder (APD) by comparing it to the affective instability found among individuals suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well that found among healthy controls. Adults (N = 152, aged 18-65 years) with BPD, APD, or no psychopathology participated in a 3-week computerized diary study. We examined temporal instability in negative affect using experience-sampling methods...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
Kim L Gratz, Kelly E Moore, Matthew T Tull
Theory and research identify emotion dysregulation as one of the primary mechanisms underlying borderline personality disorder (BPD) and related pathology. Yet, despite the extensive research documenting an association between emotion dysregulation and BPD, many questions regarding the precise role of emotion dysregulation in the development and treatment of BPD and its associated difficulties remain unanswered. This paper reviews the extant literature on the role of emotion dysregulation in BPD and its associated difficulties, as well as the treatment of BPD-related pathology, and identifies important next steps for future research in this area...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Carla Sharp
The aim of the Special Section that this paper contributes to is to review current trends in borderline personality disorder (BPD) research. Three major trends were identified. First, there has been a marked increase in studies that attempt to locate BPD in the dimensional latent structure of psychopathology. Second, identifying the endophenotypic markers associated with BPD has become a focus of interest. Here, we focus on one endophenotype in the form of impaired self-other processing. Third, there has been an explosion of research into the developmental aspects of BPD specifically focused on uncovering complex Biology × Environment interactions in the development of BPD...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Stephanie D Stepp, Sophie A Lazarus, Amy L Byrd
There is an urgent need to identify signs that harbinger onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Advancement in this area is required to refine developmental theories, discover etiological mechanisms, improve early detection, and achieve our ultimate goal of prevention. Though many studies have supported a wide range of factors that increase subsequent risk for BPD, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that examine and integrate these findings. To address this limitation, we conducted a systematic review to summarize and synthesize the current literature...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger
One of the enjoyable benefits of being an editor of a journal is the ability to develop special sections. It is evident simply from a perusal of a typical issue of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment (PDTRT) that a common focus of research is borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD is among, if not the, most heavily researched personality disorder. It is only natural to have the first special section within my tenure as editor concern this personality disorder. Provided within this special section are review papers of current trends in BPD research by young (at least compared to me), leading, and innovative BPD researchers...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Elliott Christian, Martin Sellbom, Ross B Wilkinson
The association between individual differences in general attachment styles and psychopathy is currently unclear, despite the potential utility attachment theory could provide regarding the interpersonal characteristics of psychopathy and the etiology of this construct. The purpose of the current investigation was to clarify these associations. For this purpose, we analyzed responses from an Australian community sample (N = 249) and a U.S. community sample (N = 292) containing validated measures of psychopathy (Triarchic Psychopathy Measure and Expanded-Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scales [Australian sample only]) and general attachment styles (Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised-General Short Form and Attachment Styles Questionnaire) to replicate our findings across measures and samples...
July 11, 2016: Personality Disorders
Emily D Sherman, Donald R Lynam
Psychopathy is a personality disorder that is robustly linked to interpersonal difficulties, delinquency, aggression, and general antisocial conduct. Previous research has explored a number of potential deficits underlying these behaviors including reduced fear, impaired emotional responding, and poor response modulation. Drawing from extant personality work that has demonstrated the importance of interpersonal antagonism as a core feature of psychopathy, the present project examines low communion as a potential core feature of the disorder in a novel manner-using a social discounting lab task...
July 4, 2016: Personality Disorders
Michelle Schoenleber, Christopher R Berghoff, Matthew T Tull, David DiLillo, Terri Messman-Moore, Kim L Gratz
Extant research on emotional lability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused almost exclusively on lability of individual emotions or emotion types, with limited research considering how different types of emotions shift together over time. Thus, this study examined the temporal dynamics of emotion in BPD at the level of both individual emotions (i.e., self-conscious emotions [SCE], anger, and anxiety) and mixed emotions (i.e., synchrony between emotions). One hundred forty-four women from the community completed a diagnostic interview and laboratory study involving 5 emotion induction tasks (each of which was preceded and followed by a 5-min resting period or neutral task)...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
Ashley L Watts, Randall T Salekin, Natalie Harrison, Abby Clark, Irwin D Waldman, Michael J Vitacco, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathy is often associated with heightened intelligence in the eyes of clinicians and laypersons despite mixed research support for this possibility. We adopted a fine-grained approach to studying the relations among psychopathy and multiple indices of intelligence, including both cognitively based intelligence (CBI) and emotional intelligence (EI), in a large sample of undergraduates (N = 1,257, 70% female, 82% Caucasian). We found no clear support for marked associations between psychopathy and CB I measures, with the magnitudes of these relations being small...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
Dylan T Gatner, Kevin S Douglas, Stephen D Hart
The triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) comprises 3 phenotypic domains: Meanness, Disinhibition, and Boldness. Ongoing controversy surrounds the relevance of Boldness in the conceptualization and assessment of psychopathy. In the current study, undergraduate students (N = 439) completed the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010) to examine the association between Boldness and a host of theoretically relevant external criteria. Boldness was generally unrelated to either prosocial or harmful criteria...
July 2016: Personality Disorders
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