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Personality Disorders

Anthony Bateman, Peter Fonagy
This article reports a delayed-treatment randomized controlled trial of a mentalization-based intervention for families or significant others living with or supporting a person with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In all, 56 family members/significant others living with/supporting people with a diagnosis of BPD were randomized either to immediate mentalization-based Families and Carers Training and Support, a supportive and skills-based program consisting of five 1.5- to 2-hr evening meetings, delivered by trained family members, or to delayed intervention...
July 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
Alexander R Daros, Gregory E Williams, Stefan Jung, Mustafa Turabi, Amanda A Uliaszek, Anthony C Ruocco
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulties regulating emotions, which may be a consequence of using less effective emotion regulation (ER) strategies to lessen the intensity of their negative emotions. It is not yet known whether people with BPD utilize particular ER strategies to modulate specific mood states and if these strategies are different from those used by individuals with depressive and anxiety disorders. In the present study, 90 participants (30 BPD, 30 anxiety and/or depressive disorders, and 30 healthy controls) underwent a mood induction procedure and specified which ER strategies they used and their perceived difficulty regulating mood following induction...
July 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
Takakuni Suzuki, Susan C South, Douglas B Samuel, Aidan G C Wright, Matthew M Yalch, Christopher J Hopwood, Katherine M Thomas
The dimensional pathological personality trait model proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Section III Criterion B, has shown promising results for its validity and utility in conceptualizing personality pathology. However, as its structural equivalence across sex is yet to be tested, the validity for the model across males and females remains uncertain. In the present article, we examined sex measurement invariance of the DSM-5 trait model in a large undergraduate sample using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5...
June 28, 2018: Personality Disorders
Mark A Ruiz, Christopher J Hopwood, John F Edens, Leslie C Morey, Jennifer Cox
This study set out to create measures of the five personality disorder trait domains outlined in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) from the Personality Assessment Inventory items (Morey, 2007). Rasch rating scale model analyses and classical test theory analyses were applied to existing data sets (N = 3,877; community, clinical, offender, college) to identify relevant items. Five scales were created that had acceptable unidimensionality and generally conformed to Rasch model expectations...
June 25, 2018: Personality Disorders
Ora Nakash, Maayan Nagar, Drew Westen
Prototype matching, which involves comparing a patient clinical presentation with a prototype description of the disorder addresses some of the clinical limitations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases symptom-count approach. Here, we investigated the validity and clinical utility of three diagnostic systems in predicting patient adaptive functioning using a multimethod multi-informant approach. Specifically, we compared a prototype matching approach based on DSM criteria, an empirically derived prototype matching approach, and DSM symptom count diagnostic systems...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Robert F Bornstein
The current debate regarding how best to conceptualize, operationalize, and assess personality pathology is often framed as a choice between categorical ("type") and dimensional ("trait") models, but when viewed from the perspective of the diagnostician, these two approaches actually have much in common. It is not possible to assign symptom ratings in any categorical personality disorder framework without first evaluating the severity of each symptom on a continuum, nor to implement dimensional personality disorder assessments in clinical settings without using thresholds that demarcate the presence of personality pathology, or severity of personality dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Lindsay A Sewall, Mark E Olver
The present study examined the association of psychopathy, measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003), to sexual offender treatment completion, change, and recidivism in a Canadian sample of 302 treated sexual offenders followed up in the community 17.6 years post release. Sexual violence risk and treatment change was evaluated via the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), and general violence risk via the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 1998)...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Jacqueline Liggett, Martin Sellbom
The current study evaluated the continuity between the diagnostic operationalizations of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, both as traditionally operationalized and from the perspective of the alternative model of personality disorders. Using both self-report and informant measures, the study had the following four aims: (a) to examine the extent to which self-report and informant data correspond, (b) to investigate whether both self-report and informant measures of the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, (c) to determine if any traits additional to those proposed in the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, and (d) to investigate whether a measure of OCPD-specific impairment is better at predicting traditional OCPD than are measures of general impairment in personality functioning...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Madeline G Nagel, Ashley L Watts, Brett A Murphy, Scott O Lilienfeld
General personality traits and interests, both vocational and avocational, have long been considered intertwined constructs. Nevertheless, the linkages between personality disorder features, such as psychopathy, and interests are poorly understood. This study bridges this gap by examining how psychopathic traits relate to vocational and avocational interests, and to what extent these associations are distinctive to psychopathy as opposed to a broader pattern of general and abnormal personality traits. In a sample of 426 community participants, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Fearless Dominance features of psychopathy were associated with interest in a broad swath of vocational and avocational interests, whereas Self-Centered Impulsivity features were associated with realistic, artistic, enterprising, and conventional interests; most zero-order associations were in the small to medium range...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Cory J Gerritsen, Michael Chmielewski, Konstantine Zakzanis, R Michael Bagby
Numerous factor analytic studies of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire have supported a range of solutions, many with differing numbers of factors. Although some solutions have received more support than others, it remains unclear how clinicians and researchers may evaluate solutions with similar levels of empirical support in relation to one another, and few item-level analyses have been conducted. In the current study, we seek to explore the relationships among various factor solutions in a hierarchical manner using Goldberg's (2006) Bass-Ackward approach...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Haang Jeung, Stephan Walther, Christoph W Korn, Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
Although emotional reactivity to social rejection has been examined in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in several studies, the effects of other aspects of social feedback, such as evaluation of one's opinions that concern self-esteem, have not been addressed yet. The objective of this study was to examine emotional responses of BPD patients after exchanging personal opinions in a new, ecologically valid virtual peer interaction paradigm ("chatroom paradigm"). In this paradigm, 21 BPD patients and 21 healthy controls received peer feedback on their own statements and rated the intensity of their own emotional responses (happiness, sadness, anger, and shame) and the self or other affirmation in response to agreement, disagreement, and neutral statements...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Edelyn Verona, Brett Murphy, Konrad Bresin
Multiple studies have linked oxytocin to social behavior and affiliation-attachment. This research would suggest that oxytocin function may relate to the absence of loving kindness and empathy in psychopathy. The current study examined the associations between 3 oxytocin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), participant-reported invalidating childhood environment, and psychopathic traits in community adults, predicting that alleles associated with higher empathy in the literature would relate to lower levels of psychopathic affective traits in particular...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Michael J Roche
The alternative model for personality disorders includes a single dimension of personality dysfunction severity (Criterion A) and five dimensions of personality dysfunction styles (Criterion B). Some consider Criteria A and B distinctions redundant, and this appears mostly true in cross-sectional designs. The present research demonstrated that incremental validity can be found when examining personality dysfunction longitudinally. Participants ( n = 175) completed a 14-day electronic diary, capturing daily levels of Criteria A and B, along with daily outcomes of personality dysfunction across several domains...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Courtland S Hyatt, Brandon M Weiss, Nathan T Carter, Amos Zeichner, Joshua D Miller
Narcissism has been robustly linked to self-report and lab-based measures of aggression. However, less is known about the role that a competitive context may play in the relations found between narcissism and aggression as measured in behavioral paradigms. In circumstances of competition, narcissistic individuals may be particularly attuned to external indicators of status and use aggression as a way of asserting power and a motivation to "win," rather than to do harm. The goal of the present study was to test the role of competition in understanding the relation between narcissism and related traits (i...
June 18, 2018: Personality Disorders
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Chris J Burgin, Michael L Raulin, Paul J Silvia, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
The present study provided the first examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the first assessment of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS contains 77 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. A large multisite sample of 1,430 participants completed the MSS and measures of schizotypal personality traits and the five-factor model of personality. The MSS subscales had good-to-excellent internal consistency reliability that showed no shrinkage relative to the MSS derivation samples...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Diana M Falkenbach, Justin Balash, Maria Tsoukalas, Stephanie Stern, Scott O Lilienfeld
The majority of psychopathy research has focused on negative outcomes in criminal populations. However, psychopathy encompasses a variety of traits, and recent research suggests that certain features of psychopathy, such as a fearless temperament, may be related to psychological resiliency, "successful" functioning, and even heroic behavior (Hall & Benning, 2006; Lykken, 1995). Despite anecdotal discussion, little is known about the possible "successful" or adaptive reflections of psychopathic personality traits in ostensible heroes...
May 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Sophie A Lazarus, Lori N Scott, Joseph E Beeney, Aidan G C Wright, Stephanie D Stepp, Paul A Pilkonis
We examined event-contingent recording of daily interpersonal interactions in a diagnostically diverse sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients who were involved in a romantic relationship. We tested whether the unique effect of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms on affective responses (i.e., hostility, sadness, guilt, fear, and positive affect) to perceptions of rejection or acceptance differed with one's romantic partner compared with nonromantic partners. BPD symptoms were associated with more frequent perceptions of rejection and less frequent perceptions of acceptance across the study...
May 2018: Personality Disorders
Kasey Stanton, Mark Zimmerman
Conceptualizations of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) have been criticized for focusing too exclusively on grandiose narcissistic traits (e.g., exploitativeness and entitlement) and failing to capture vulnerable narcissistic features (e.g., feelings of inadequacy). We extended prior grandiose and vulnerable narcissism research by examining the degree to which clinician ratings of traits related to grandiosity overlapped with traits related to vulnerability in a large sample of adult outpatients (N = 2,149)...
May 2018: Personality Disorders
Annalisa Tanzilli, Vittorio Lingiardi, Mark Hilsenroth
The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapists' emotional responses and patients' personality evaluated by 3 dimensional diagnostic approaches empirically derived from the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b): Two of these rely on the 5-factor model (FFM) domains, that were assessed with different SWAP-200 FFM versions developed by Shedler and Westen (SW-FFM scales; 2004) and McCrae, Löckenhoff, and Costa (MLC-FFM scales; 2005); the third approach is based on a multifaceted model of personality syndromes (SWAP personality dimension scales; see Shedler & Westen, 2004)...
May 2018: Personality Disorders
Sonja Krstic, Craig S Neumann, Sandeep Roy, Carrie A Robertson, Raymond A Knight, Robert D Hare
The current study employed both latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine psychopathic traits in a large sample of sex offenders (N = 958). The offenders, who had committed a range of sexual crimes, had been assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four-factor model of psychopathy (Hare, 2003; Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007) provided good representation of the dimensional nature of psychopathic traits across the sample of offenders, and that the PCL-R factors significantly predicted sexual crimes...
May 2018: Personality Disorders
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