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Personality Disorders

Christopher C Conway, Michael Boudreaux, Thomas F Oltmanns
The time course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is far more variable than traditionally assumed. Shifting environmental conditions are theorized to account, at least in part, for fluctuations in symptom presentation over time. In the present study, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of stressful life events and borderline pathology in a representative community sample of 1,630 older adults assessed 3 times over 5 years. An autoregressive cross-lagged model revealed strong, but imperfect, stability in symptoms of BPD over the study time frame...
February 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
Alexandra M Dick, Michael K Suvak
The current study examined the role of conceptual knowledge and language in affective instability (AI) associated with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Forty-six females meeting criteria for BPD and 51 nonclinical female control participants without BPD completed a measure of general vocabulary and a semantic similarities task that provided estimates of the degree to which participants weighted information about valence and arousal in their understanding of emotion language. Feelings of valence and arousal were assessed using the Self-Assessment Manikin in response to 62 emotionally evocative images, which was used to derive estimates of AI...
February 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
Kathy R Berenson, Jessica C Johnson, Fanghui Zhao, Olga Nynaes, Tamir Goren
Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one's flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfying relationships. Borderline personality disorder, however, is often characterized by interpersonal perceptions that fluctuate between extremes of good and bad. We used a timed judgment task to examine information processing about significant others in individuals high in borderline personality features relative to healthy individuals and those high in avoidant personality features...
February 15, 2018: Personality Disorders
Enrique Moraleda-Barreno, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Pedro Juan Pérez-Moreno, Jesús Gómez-Bujedo, Oscar M Lozano
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition proposes an alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders based on the identification of pathological personality facets. Despite the existing evidence for the relationship between personality disorders and impulsivity in patients with substance use disorders, no study has yet been conducted within this framework. Thus, using a sample of 110 patients with substance use disorders, the present work aims to (a) analyze the relationship between the different personality facets and domains evaluated by the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PID-5) and impulsivity and (b) explore the relationships between severity of dependency and personality facets and dimensions of impulsivity...
February 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
Glenn D Walters
This article is designed to address fundamental issues in the application of causal mediation analysis to research on personality disorders. Causal mediation analysis is used to identify mechanisms of effect by testing variables as putative links between the independent and dependent variables. As such, it would appear to have relevance to personality disorder research. It is argued that proper implementation of causal mediation analysis requires that investigators take several factors into account. These factors are discussed under 5 headings: variable selection, model specification, significance evaluation, effect size estimation, and sensitivity testing...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
Alexis K Matusiewicz, Katherine L McCauley, Julie M McCarthy, Nadia Bounoua, C W Lejuez
Much of the earliest research on personality pathology was observational and descriptive in nature, drawing heavily on subjective self-reports, however, the last 20 years have seen a surge of interest in laboratory-based studies. Laboratory research offers a number of benefits for researchers interested in personality disorders and personality pathology including the opportunities to use objective performance-based and behavioral measures, reveal the neuropsychological and biobehavioral processes that may help shape the experience and behavior of individuals with personality disorders, and create experimental designs that allow researchers to systematically explore the effect of context on emotional, behavioral and cognitive responding...
January 2018: Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger
Provides an introduction to the ongoing Special Section of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. This special section is concerned with methodological issues in personality disorder research. This fourth edition of this series includes two articles which should be excellent resources for future research and manuscripts submitted to this journal. (PsycINFO Database Record
January 2018: Personality Disorders
Olivier F Colins, Kostas A Fanti, Randall T Salekin, Eva Mulder, Henrik Andershed
This study investigates whether primary and secondary variants of psychopathy can be identified in an applied, forensic setting based on self-reports of psychopathy and anxiety. Data were available for two samples of detained boys (Sample A: N = 847, Sample B: N = 749). Using three psychopathy dimensions and anxiety as clustering variables, latent profile analysis arrived at 4 latent classes (LCs) that were tentatively labeled as control (LC1), high anxiety (LC2), moderate psychopathy (LC3), and high psychopathy (LC4)...
December 14, 2017: Personality Disorders
Zeynep Sahin, Bo Vinnars, Bernard S Gorman, Alexander Wilczek, Marie Åsberg, Jacques P Barber
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of initial level of psychiatric severity on treatment outcome in psychodynamic therapy and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that DBT would lead to better outcome for patients with high psychiatric severity, whereas dynamic treatment would lead to better outcome for patients with lower psychiatric severity. Data from the 5th-year follow-up of the Stockholm City Council's and the Karolinska Institute's Psychotherapy Project were used in the present study...
December 14, 2017: Personality Disorders
Rebecca M Mahan, Stephanie B Kors, Meredith L Simmons, Jenny Macfie
Linehan (1993) theorized that the experience of invalidating parenting interacts with emotional vulnerability in the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Parental psychological control is a type of invalidating parenting, defined as manipulation by parents of their offspring's psychological and emotional expression and experience (Barber, 1996). In a normative sample of adolescent females, adolescent-reported maternal psychological control was related to maternal borderline symptoms (Zalewski et al...
December 14, 2017: Personality Disorders
Kasey Stanton, Mark Zimmerman
Conceptualizations of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) have been criticized for focusing too exclusively on grandiose narcissistic traits (e.g., exploitativeness and entitlement) and failing to capture vulnerable narcissistic features (e.g., feelings of inadequacy). We extended prior grandiose and vulnerable narcissism research by examining the degree to which clinician ratings of traits related to grandiosity overlapped with traits related to vulnerability in a large sample of adult outpatients (N = 2,149)...
December 7, 2017: Personality Disorders
Kyle S Minor, Beshaun J Davis, Matthew P Marggraf, Lauren Luther, Megan L Robbins
In schizophrenia-spectrum populations, analyzing the words people use has offered promise for unlocking information about affective states and social behaviors. The electronically activated recorder (EAR) is an application-based program that is combined with widely used smartphone technology to capture a person's real-world interactions via audio recordings. It improves on the ecological validity of current methodologies by providing objective and naturalistic samples of behavior. This study is the first to implement the EAR in people endorsing elevated traits of schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders (i...
December 7, 2017: Personality Disorders
Steven K Huprich, Sharon M Nelson, Kevin B Meehan, Caleb J Siefert, Gregory Haggerty, James Sexton, V Barry Dauphin, Matthew Macaluso, Jennifer Jackson, Rosey Zackula, Lyle Baade
With the introduction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) of a hybrid system of personality disorder assessment, the ability to assess patients' traits, as well as their level of personality functioning, has become increasingly important. To assess this criterion, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Questionnaire (DLOPFQ) was developed. The DLOPFQ assesses individuals' self-impairments and other impairments in several domains (self-direction, identity, empathy, and intimacy) and across 2 contexts (work/school and relationships)...
December 7, 2017: Personality Disorders
Christina L Patton, Sarah Francis Smith, Scott O Lilienfeld
Some scholars have posited that certain traits associated with psychopathy-namely, fearlessness, boldness, and willingness to take risks-are associated with greater engagement in heroic and altruistic acts; nevertheless, this conjecture has received little empirical attention. We examined the relations among psychopathic traits, heroism, altruism, workplace deviance, and leadership in first-responder (n = 138) and civilian (n = 104) samples recruited by means of an online platform. Across samples, fearless dominance, boldness, sensation seeking, and several other psychopathy-related variables were positively and significantly associated with everyday heroism and altruism...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Joshua D Miller, Chelsea E Sleep, Joanna Lamkin, Colin Vize, W Keith Campbell, Donald R Lynam
Historical conceptualizations have framed personality disorders (PDs) as unchanging and ego-syntonic. However, recent evidence suggests that individuals with PD traits may have some insight into their personality and consider those traits to be somewhat ego-dystonic. To replicate and extend previous findings, participants (N = 328) self-reported their PD trait levels, likability of those traits, impairment, capability for change, and desired trait levels. The results demonstrated that individuals with PD traits tolerate but still dislike those traits, believe that they cause them problems, and are interested in reducing them...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Gretchen Kurdziel, Stephanie Kors, Jenny Macfie
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and chronic mental illness. Self-reported borderline features correlate highly with a diagnosis (affective instability, negative relationships, unstable sense of self, self-harm). Etiological factors of BPD include childhood maltreatment. The current study compared the experience of maltreatment in adolescent offspring of mothers with BPD, who are themselves at risk of developing the disorder, with that of offspring of mothers with no current diagnosis. Participants were 56 adolescents aged 14 to 18 years...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Steve Balsis, Jared R Ruchensky, Alexander J Busch
This article describes how item response theory (IRT) has begun to address several of the measurement limitations inherent in the personality disorder (PD) literature. In particular, we describe how IRT can be used to improve PD measurement precision, develop PD instruments, and inform PD theory. In closing, we address a key assumption of unidimensional IRT models, and address the need to move beyond these models to include multidimensional models. In this context, we outline what we see as a future direction in PD measurement...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
Brian M Hicks, D Angus Clark, C Emily Durbin
Existing categorical models of personality disorder diagnoses capture heterogeneous populations in terms of symptom presentation and etiological influences on personality pathology. Though several well-validated alternative dimensional trait models (i.e., variable-centered approaches) of personality disorders have been developed, person-centered approaches can provide important additional information on both the phenotypic expression and etiology of personality pathology. We discuss the utility and necessary attributes of person-centered or subtype models of personality disorders and briefly review statistical approaches and other methodological considerations, drawing specific examples from the psychopathy literature...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment includes a rolling, ongoing Special Section concerned with methodological issues in personality disorder research. This third edition of this series includes two articles. The first is by Brian Hicks, Angus Clark, and Emily Durbin: "Person-Centered Approaches in the Study of Personality Disorders." The second article is by Steve Balsis: "Item Response Theory Applications in Personality Disorder Research." Both articles should be excellent resources for future research and certainly manuscripts submitted to this journal that use these analytic tools...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
Linden R Timoney, Zach Walsh, M Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B Ansell, Carlos M Grilo, Thomas H McGlashan, Robert L Stout, Donna S Bender, Andrew E Skodol, Charles A Sanislow, Leslie C Morey, John G Gunderson
Individuals with a personality disorder (PD) tend to experience more negative life events (NLEs) than positive life events (PLEs). In community samples, the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) predicts both positive and negative life events. The present research examined whether FFM normal personality traits were associated with positive and negative life events among individuals with 1 of 4 PDs: avoidant, borderline, schizotypal, and obsessive-compulsive, and tested whether associations between the FFM of personality and PLEs and NLEs were similar across the 4 PD groups and a control group...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
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