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Personality Disorders

Franco Scalzo, Carol A Hulbert, Jennifer K Betts, Sue M Cotton, Andrew M Chanen
Concomitant substance misuse in adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with a more severe course of illness and poorer outcomes. Previous research has found an association between the number of borderline personality features and substance misuse in community samples. This study examined the relationship between substance use and severity of BPD in youth presenting for the first time for treatment (first presentation) of BPD. Participants were 117 help-seeking youth aged 15-25 years (93 females; Mage = 19...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
Jill Lobbestael, Arnoud Arntz, Marisol Voncken, Michael Potegal
This study assesses the relationship between psychopathy and dominance, both as a trait level and in 2 interpersonal contexts. Following the interpersonal circumplex model, we expected that interacting with a dominant interviewer would reduce dominance displays by low psychopathy participants (interpersonal complementarity) but might increase such displays in those with higher psychopathy (anticomplementarity). Psychopathic traits and dominance were assessed in a community sample (N = 91) using multiple dominance indicators: self-reported overall dominance level, job preference, dominance displays observed during identical interviews with a subordinate and dominant interviewer, and baseline and postinterview measures of personal space and testosterone level...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
Heather M Wastler, Mark F Lenzenweger
Eye contact is an essential means of nonverbal communication, providing information about attention, emotion, mental state, facial expressions, and identity/gender (Itier & Batty, 2009). Although studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia endorse direct gaze more often than controls in ambiguous gaze circumstances, gaze perception in schizotypy remains unstudied. This study investigated whether individuals with positive schizotypic features incorrectly perceive that others are looking at them and whether this is related to referential thinking and psychosocial functioning...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
Celine De Meulemeester, Kristof Vansteelandt, Patrick Luyten, Benedicte Lowyck
Although a number of effective psychotherapeutic treatments have been developed for borderline personality disorder (BPD), little is known about the mechanisms of change explaining the effects of these treatments. There is increasing evidence that impairments in mentalizing or reflective functioning-the capacity to reflect on the internal mental states of the self and others-are a central feature of BPD. To date, no study has directly investigated the core assumption of the mentalization-based approach to BPD, that changes in this capacity are associated with treatment outcome in BPD patients...
June 1, 2017: Personality Disorders
Malek Mneimne, William Fleeson, Elizabeth Mayfield Arnold, R Michael Furr
A major barrier to the understanding of emotion dynamics in borderline personality disorder (BPD) lies in its substantial comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Whereas BPD has often been characterized in terms of dynamic emotional processes, including instability, reactivity, and inertia, its substantial comorbidity with MDD and BD makes it difficult to discern the specificity of these dynamics. To differentiate the emotion dynamics of BPD from those of MDD and BD, an experience sampling study of 38 participants with BPD, 15 participants with MDD, 14 participants with BD, and 62 healthy controls obtained reports of interpersonal challenges and emotions 5 times daily for 2 weeks...
May 29, 2017: Personality Disorders
Sarah A Griffin, Donald R Lynam, Douglas B Samuel
Impulsivity is a transdiagnostic dimension of crucial importance to understanding psychopathology, as it is highly relevant to a wide array of maladaptive life outcomes including substance use, criminality, and other risky behaviors. There exist a variety of operationalizations of impulsivity across the literature distinct nomological networks. In fact, research suggests that "impulsivity" is a multifaceted construct comprised of at least 4 distinct traits that have unique pathways to maladaptive behaviors...
May 11, 2017: Personality Disorders
Sunny J Dutra, Naomi Sadeh
Recent literature suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms can interact with personality factors to predict externalizing behaviors. Engagement in externalizing behaviors such as substance abuse and aggressive behavior may, in turn, increase risk for further trauma exposure and a more chronic course of PTSD. In order to better understand how to intervene on this cycle, the current study aimed to identify factors that could explain risk for externalizing behaviors among trauma-exposed veterans...
May 11, 2017: Personality Disorders
Joanna M Berg, Scott O Lilienfeld, Martin Sellbom
The relevance of boldness to psychopathy has recently become a major flashpoint of scientific controversy. Although some authors have contended that boldness is a necessary (although insufficient) component of psychopathy, others have asserted that it is largely or entirely irrelevant to psychopathy. We addressed this issue by examining clinical perceptions of the relevance of the 3 triarchic dimensions (boldness, disinhibition, and meanness) to psychopathy among a sample of mental health professionals and graduate students (N = 228) using a vignette-based, person-centered methodology...
April 13, 2017: Personality Disorders
Sonja Krstic, Craig S Neumann, Sandeep Roy, Carrie A Robertson, Raymond A Knight, Robert D Hare
The current study employed both latent variable- and person-centered approaches to examine psychopathic traits in a large sample of sex offenders (N = 958). The offenders, who had committed a range of sexual crimes, had been assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003). Structural equation modeling results indicated that the four-factor model of psychopathy (Hare, 2003; Neumann, Hare, & Newman, 2007) provided good representation of the dimensional nature of psychopathic traits across the sample of offenders, and that the PCL-R factors significantly predicted sexual crimes...
April 13, 2017: Personality Disorders
Konrad Bresin, Leah Kling, Edelyn Verona
Although it is clear that most people attempt to avoid pain and often find it unpleasant in the moment, research suggests that changes in affect after pain are not universally negative. To help advance our understanding of pain-affect relationships, the goal of the current study was to conduct a meta-analysis of studies examining changes in negative affect, as defined by subjective experience and psychophysiology, after the experience of acute laboratory pain. We identified 22 effect sizes from 17 different studies (N = 1,717)...
April 3, 2017: Personality Disorders
Lena C Quilty, Nicole Cosentino, R Michael Bagby
Previous research has raised concerns that scores derived from the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) may be compromised by response styles such as underreporting or overreporting. The informant-report form of the PID-5 (PID-5-IRF; Markon, Quilty, Bagby, & Krueger, 2013) has been recommended for use when response bias is an assessment concern. The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate PID-5 and PID-5-IRF scale score elevations across participants exhibiting signs of overreporting or underreporting...
April 3, 2017: Personality Disorders
Susan C South, Amber M Jarnecke
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a family of related statistical techniques that lend themselves to understanding the complex relationships among variables that differ among individuals in the population. SEM techniques have become increasingly popular in the study of personality disorders (PDs) and maladaptive personality traits. The current article takes a critical look at the ways in which SEM techniques have been used in the study of PDs, PD symptoms, and pathological personality traits. By far the most common use of SEM in the study of PDs has been to examine the latent structure of these constructs, with an overwhelming bulk of the evidence in favor of a dimensional, as opposed to categorical, conceptualization...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Douglas B Samuel, Meredith A Bucher
The use of knowledgeable informants is a particularly valuable tool for the diagnosis and assessment of personality disorder (PD). This review details the use of one particular type of informant-practicing clinicians-in PD research. We detail a wide variety of studies that have employed clinicians as an assessment source, including those focused on interrater agreement, comparative validity with other methods, cognitive factors of diagnosis, and opinion surveys. We demonstrate limitations, such as potential biases and limited convergent validity, which caution against the assumption that clinicians' ratings should be considered a gold-standard...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger
Introduces Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment ongoing Special Section concerned with methodological issues in personality disorder research. This second edition includes two papers, one which discusses the value and advantages of sampling the views, opinions, and perceptions of clinicians in personality disorder research, and the other which takes a critical look at the ways in which structural equation modeling techniques have been used in the study of personality disorders, symptoms, and traits...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Shauna C Kushner, R Michael Bagby, Kate L Harkness
Youth with depression are theorized to generate stress in their lives because of a complex interaction between their personal characteristics and their chronic environmental context. Using a moderated regression approach, we provided a novel test of this hypothesis by examining whether adolescent 5-factor model personality traits moderate the associations between early emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment and life events experienced in the past 6 months. Participants in this cross-sectional study were 110 adolescents (M = 16...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Inge Debast, Gina Rossi, Dineke Feenstra, Joost Hutsebaut
Criterion D of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) refers to a possible onset of personality disorders (PDs) in adolescence and in Section II the development/course in adolescence is described by some typical characteristics for several PDs. Yet, age-specific expressions of PDs are lacking in Section III. We urgently need a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument that differentiates developmental and contextual changes on the one hand from expressions of personality pathology on the other hand...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Melina Nicole Kyranides, Kostas A Fanti, Maria Sikki, Christopher J Patrick
This study examined associations of psychopathy facets of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition with clinically relevant variables and physiological reactivity to affective stimuli. These associations were examined after accounting for developmental associations with adolescent psychopathic traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity. Psychopathic traits were assessed during adolescence using the Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Inventory of Callous Unemotional traits and during young adulthood via the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Lize Verbeke, Elien De Caluwé, Barbara De Clercq
There is growing consensus that the dimensional structure of early personality pathology can be organized within a similar framework as in adults (De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006; Tromp & Koot, 2008). From this perspective, the Dimensional Personality Symptom Itempool (DIPSI) was recently expanded from a 4- to a 5-dimensional trait structure (Verbeke & De Clercq, 2014), including Disagreeableness, Emotional Instability, Introversion, Compulsivity, and Oddity. This developmental maladaptive trait structure is in need of further research, however, before it can be accepted as a valid framework for describing early manifestations of personality dysfunction...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Kendra J Homan, Leslie A Sim, Jamison D Fargo, Michael P Twohig
Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) is frequently characterized by nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI), suicide attempts (SA), suicidal ideation (SI), and/or suicide threats (ST), it is unclear whether these behaviors are precursors of BPD in adolescence. This study examined self-harm/suicide-related behaviors in the development of BPD from adolescence to adulthood in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants were 116 adolescents consecutively admitted for a psychiatric hospitalization for self-harm/suicide-related behaviors...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
Sune Bo, Carla Sharp, Peter Fonagy, Mickey Kongerslev
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been shown to be a valid and reliable diagnosis in adolescents and associated with a decrease in both general and social functioning. With evidence linking BPD in adolescents to poor prognosis, it is important to develop a better understanding of factors and mechanisms contributing to the development of BPD. This could potentially enhance our knowledge and facilitate the design of novel treatment programs and interventions for this group. In this paper, we outline a theoretical model of BPD in adolescents linking the original mentalization-based theory of BPD, with recent extensions of the theory that focuses on hypermentalizing and epistemic trust...
April 2017: Personality Disorders
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