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Personality Disorders

Randy A Sansone, Martin Sellbom, Douglas A Songer
The current study examined the associations for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a specific trait of the disorder, self-harm, with mental health care utilization. Our sample consisted of 145 psychiatric inpatients who completed 3 measures of BPD (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 [PDQ-4], McLean Screening Inventory for borderline personality disorder [MSI-BPD], Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire [SCID-II-PQ]) and the Self-Harm Inventory (SHI). In relationship to mental health care utilization, the correlation for the SHI was significantly larger than those for the PDQ-4, MSI-BPD, or SCID-II-PQ...
March 16, 2017: Personality Disorders
Chloe M Evans, Leonard J Simms
DSM-5 includes 2 competing models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Sections II and III. Empirical comparisons between these models are required to understand and improve intermodel continuity. We compared Section III BPD traits to Section II BPD criteria assessed via semistructured interviews in 455 current/recent psychiatric patients using correlation and regression analyses, and also evaluated the incremental predictive power of other Section III traits. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that self-harm would incrementally predict BPD Criterion 5 over the Section III traits...
March 2, 2017: Personality Disorders
Caleb J Reynolds, Ryan W Carpenter, Sarah L Tragesser
Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) features consistently show strong relations with chronic pain, the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. BPD is characterized by dysregulated emotion. Given previously observed relationships between emotion dysregulation and pain, we hypothesized that components of this dysregulation-elevated and labile negative affect and emotion sensitivity-would account for the relationship between BPD features and various pain complaints in a chronic pain patient sample...
February 16, 2017: Personality Disorders
Yiyun Shou, Martin Sellbom, Jing Xu
There is cumulative evidence for the cross-cultural validity of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM; Patrick, 2010) among non-Western populations. Recent studies using correlational and regression analyses show promising construct validity of the TriPM in Chinese samples. However, little is known about the efficiency of items in TriPM in assessing the proposed latent traits. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese TriPM at the item level using item response theory analyses...
February 6, 2017: Personality Disorders
Arjen Noordhof, Jan H Kamphuis, Martin Sellbom, Annemarie Eigenhuis, R Michael Bagby
Change in self-reported personality trait scores (especially Neuroticism and Extraversion) over the course of treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been robustly demonstrated. We believe that these observed changes on personality trait scales may reflect reduction in demoralization rather than changes in personality per se. Data were combined from 3 archival samples: a randomized clinical trial and 2 naturalistic follow-up studies. All participants (N = 300) received either psychotherapy or psychopharmacological treatment...
January 26, 2017: Personality Disorders
Chelsea E Sleep, Courtland S Hyatt, Joanna Lamkin, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Joshua D Miller
Given long-standing criticisms of the DSM's reliance on categorical models of psychopathology, including the poor reliability and validity of personality-disorder diagnoses, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) published an alternative model (AM) of personality disorders in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; APA, 2013), which, in part, comprises 5 pathological trait domains based on the 5-factor model (FFM). However, the empirical profiles and discriminant validity of the AM traits remain in question...
January 26, 2017: Personality Disorders
Sindes Dawood, Aaron L Pincus
This study extended previous theory and cross-sectional research on narcissism-depression associations by taking a prospective longitudinal approach to examining how pathological narcissism relates to the severity, within-person variability, within-person instability, and change in depressive symptoms among a sample of 235 undergraduate students assessed weekly for 8 weeks. Findings revealed that, at baseline, pathological narcissism was concurrently positively associated with multiple measures of depressive symptoms (e...
January 26, 2017: Personality Disorders
Kathleen W Reardon, Jennifer L Tackett, Don Lynam
Relational aggression (RAgg) is a form of behavior intended to damage the victim's social status or interpersonal relationships through the use of purposeful interpersonal manipulation or social exclusion (Archer & Coyne, 2005). RAgg is impairing, stable, and largely defined by dysfunctional patterns of interpersonal interactions-all of which invokes comparisons to personality and, more specifically, personality pathology. Leveraging research using the Five Factor Model (FFM) in personality disorder (PD) work, the present study aims to understand the personality context of RAgg by applying this FFM profile approach in 2 ways: (a) by compiling a personality profile of RAgg based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and (b) by compiling a personality profile of RAgg based on expert ratings (N = 19)...
January 16, 2017: Personality Disorders
Sarah J Brislin, James R Yancey, Emily R Perkins, Isabella M Palumbo, Laura E Drislane, Randall T Salekin, Kostas A Fanti, Eva R Kimonis, Paul J Frick, R James R Blair, Christopher J Patrick
The investigation of callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been central to contemporary research on child behavior problems, and served as the impetus for inclusion of a specifier for conduct disorder in the latest edition of the official psychiatric diagnostic system. Here, we report results from 2 studies that evaluated the construct validity of callousness as assessed in adults, by testing for affiliated deficits in behavioral and neural processing of fearful faces, as have been shown in youthful samples. We hypothesized that scores on an established measure of callousness would predict reduced recognition accuracy and diminished electocortical reactivity for fearful faces in adult participants...
January 16, 2017: Personality Disorders
Joshua D Miller, Michael Crowe, Brandon Weiss, Jessica L Maples-Keller, Donald R Lynam
The use of crowdsourcing platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) for data collection in the behavioral sciences has increased substantially in the past several years due in large part to (a) the ability to recruit large samples, (b) the inexpensiveness of data collection, (c) the speed of data collection, and (d) evidence that the data collected are, for the most part, of equal or better quality to that collected in undergraduate research pools. In this review, we first evaluate the strengths and potential limitations of this approach to data collection...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Aidan G C Wright
The major debates in the personality disorder (PD) field center on the structure of personality pathology. Factor analysis is designed to elucidate the underlying structure of observed phenomena. Therefore, factor analysis has already played a major role in the debates about the structure of PD, and will continue to be an often-used and indispensable tool moving forward. However, misconceptions about the utility and interpretation of factor analyses abound. The purpose of this article is to provide a conceptual primer on available factor analytic techniques and how they have been applied in PD research, and to highlight novel ways of using factor analysis moving forward...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Parsing the heterogeneity of psychopathy and aggression: Differential associations across dimensions and gender" by Lisa K. Hecht, Joanna M. Berg, Scott O. Lilienfeld and Robert D. Latzman (Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 2016[Jan], Vol 7[1], 2-14). In the article, there was an error in Table 3 and in the fifth paragraph of the Results. The correct information has been provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-29370-001.) Psychopathy is a multidimensional construct that is broadly associated with both reactive (RA) and proactive (PA) aggression...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Samantha V Abram, Colin G DeYoung
Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger
Introduces the new rolling, ongoing Special Section in Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment concerned with methodological issues in personality disorder research. (PsycINFO Database Record
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Joost Hutsebaut, Jan H Kamphuis, Dine J Feenstra, Laura C Weekers, Hilde De Saeger
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) features a Level of Personality Functioning Scale, measuring intrinsic personality processes that include identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy. This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of a semistructured interview schedule for the multi-item assessment of the level of personality functioning, the Semi-Structured Interview for Personality Functioning DSM-5 (STiP-5...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Steven K Huprich, Sharon M Nelson, Amy Paggeot, Ketrin Lengu, Jeremy Albright
Many studies have determined that the traits of emotional dysregulation, negative affect, and impulsivity are the strongest predictors of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although psychodynamic, empirically supported BPD treatments (i.e., transference-focused, mentalization based) focus upon changing the internal representations of self and other, no studies have simultaneously evaluated the contribution of object relations in relation to these traits in predicting BPD symptoms. This study sought to determine the combined effects of emotional dysregulation, negative affect, impulsivity, and object relations in the prediction of BPD through the use of mediation modeling in 4 a priori hypothesized relationships among these variables...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Kathryn T Benson, M Brent Donnellan, Leslie C Morey
A number of studies have evaluated the possibility of bias in the diagnostic criteria in borderline personality disorder as an explanation of gender differences in prevalence. Previous studies have used both regression and latent trait approaches but the results have been inconsistent. The current study extended prior investigations in testing differential function of Borderline diagnostic criteria using both regression and latent-trait methods in the same sample, examining both Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Lize Verbeke, Barbara De Clercq, Paul Van der Heijden, Joost Hutsebaut, Marcel A G van Aken
Social relationships are considered highly important throughout adolescence (Kenny et al., 2013), both for the further development and consolidation of identity, social roles, and skills. The schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) has a strong negative impact on these relationships with both parents and peers (Cramer et al., 2006; Hengartner et al., 2014), and can thus be considered as a risk factor for early maladaptive social functioning. The current study focuses on the relevance of different dimensional STPD traits for understanding social functioning, by examining their unique associations with global and more specific parental and peer relationship characteristics in a group of referred late-adolescents (N = 205, mean age = 20...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
David Kealy, Geoff Goodman, Brian Rasmussen, Rene Weideman, John S Ogrodniczuk
This study used Q methodology to explore clinicians' perspectives regarding optimal psychotherapy process in the treatment of pathological narcissism, a syndrome of impaired self-regulation. Participants were 34 psychotherapists of various disciplines and theoretical orientations who reviewed 3 clinical vignettes portraying hypothetical cases of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and panic disorder without pathological narcissism. Participants then used the Psychotherapy Process Q set, a 100-item Q-sort instrument, to indicate their views regarding optimal therapy process for each hypothetical case...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
Amber M Jarnecke, Michelle L Miller, Susan C South
Difficulties in emotional expression and emotion regulation are core features of many personality disorders (PDs); yet, we know relatively little about how individuals with PDs affectively respond to stressful situations. The present study seeks to fill this gap in the literature by examining how PD traits are associated with emotional responses to subjective daily stressors, while accounting for cognition and type of stressor experienced (interpersonal vs. noninterpersonal). PD features were measured with the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2 (SNAP-2) diagnostic scores...
January 2017: Personality Disorders
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