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Personality Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927293/oxytocin-related-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-family-environment-and-psychopathic-traits
#1
Edelyn Verona, Brett Murphy, Konrad Bresin
Multiple studies have linked oxytocin to social behavior and affiliation-attachment. This research would suggest that oxytocin function may relate to the absence of loving kindness and empathy in psychopathy. The current study examined the associations between 3 oxytocin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), participant-reported invalidating childhood environment, and psychopathic traits in community adults, predicting that alleles associated with higher empathy in the literature would relate to lower levels of psychopathic affective traits in particular...
November 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461847/dynamic-associations-between-borderline-personality-disorder-and-stressful-life-events-over-five-years-in-older-adults
#2
Christopher C Conway, Michael Boudreaux, Thomas F Oltmanns
The time course of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is far more variable than traditionally assumed. Shifting environmental conditions are theorized to account, at least in part, for fluctuations in symptom presentation over time. In the present study, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of stressful life events and borderline pathology in a representative community sample of 1,630 older adults assessed 3 times over 5 years. An autoregressive cross-lagged model revealed strong, but imperfect, stability in symptoms of BPD over the study time frame...
November 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927297/examining-the-dsm-5-alternative-model-of-personality-disorders-operationalization-of-obsessive-compulsive-personality-disorder-in-a-mental-health-sample
#3
Jacqueline Liggett, Martin Sellbom
The current study evaluated the continuity between the diagnostic operationalizations of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, both as traditionally operationalized and from the perspective of the alternative model of personality disorders. Using both self-report and informant measures, the study had the following four aims: (a) to examine the extent to which self-report and informant data correspond, (b) to investigate whether both self-report and informant measures of the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, (c) to determine if any traits additional to those proposed in the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, and (d) to investigate whether a measure of OCPD-specific impairment is better at predicting traditional OCPD than are measures of general impairment in personality functioning...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927296/psychopathy-and-interests-implications-of-psychopathic-personality-traits-for-vocational-and-avocational-preferences
#4
Madeline G Nagel, Ashley L Watts, Brett A Murphy, Scott O Lilienfeld
General personality traits and interests, both vocational and avocational, have long been considered intertwined constructs. Nevertheless, the linkages between personality disorder features, such as psychopathy, and interests are poorly understood. This study bridges this gap by examining how psychopathic traits relate to vocational and avocational interests, and to what extent these associations are distinctive to psychopathy as opposed to a broader pattern of general and abnormal personality traits. In a sample of 426 community participants, Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Fearless Dominance features of psychopathy were associated with interest in a broad swath of vocational and avocational interests, whereas Self-Centered Impulsivity features were associated with realistic, artistic, enterprising, and conventional interests; most zero-order associations were in the small to medium range...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927295/examining-the-dimensions-of-schizotypy-from-the-top-down-a-hierarchical-comparison-of-item-level-factor-solutions
#5
Cory J Gerritsen, Michael Chmielewski, Konstantine Zakzanis, R Michael Bagby
Numerous factor analytic studies of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire have supported a range of solutions, many with differing numbers of factors. Although some solutions have received more support than others, it remains unclear how clinicians and researchers may evaluate solutions with similar levels of empirical support in relation to one another, and few item-level analyses have been conducted. In the current study, we seek to explore the relationships among various factor solutions in a hierarchical manner using Goldberg's (2006) Bass-Ackward approach...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722996/validity-of-the-multidimensional-schizotypy-scale-associations-with-schizotypal-traits-and-normal-personality
#6
Thomas R Kwapil, Georgina M Gross, Chris J Burgin, Michael L Raulin, Paul J Silvia, Neus Barrantes-Vidal
The present study provided the first examination of the construct validity of the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) and the first assessment of its psychometric properties outside of its derivation samples. The MSS contains 77 items that assess positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy. A large multisite sample of 1,430 participants completed the MSS and measures of schizotypal personality traits and the five-factor model of personality. The MSS subscales had good-to-excellent internal consistency reliability that showed no shrinkage relative to the MSS derivation samples...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722995/from-theoretical-to-empirical-considering-reflections-of-psychopathy-across-the-thin-blue-line
#7
Diana M Falkenbach, Justin Balash, Maria Tsoukalas, Stephanie Stern, Scott O Lilienfeld
The majority of psychopathy research has focused on negative outcomes in criminal populations. However, psychopathy encompasses a variety of traits, and recent research suggests that certain features of psychopathy, such as a fearless temperament, may be related to psychological resiliency, "successful" functioning, and even heroic behavior (Hall & Benning, 2006; Lykken, 1995). Despite anecdotal discussion, little is known about the possible "successful" or adaptive reflections of psychopathic personality traits in ostensible heroes...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446962/borderline-personality-features-and-integration-of-positive-and-negative-thoughts-about-significant-others
#8
Kathy R Berenson, Jessica C Johnson, Fanghui Zhao, Olga Nynaes, Tamir Goren
Taking the bad with the good is a necessity of life, and people who readily integrate thoughts of their loved one's flaws with thoughts of their more positive attributes maintain more stable, satisfying relationships. Borderline personality disorder, however, is often characterized by interpersonal perceptions that fluctuate between extremes of good and bad. We used a timed judgment task to examine information processing about significant others in individuals high in borderline personality features relative to healthy individuals and those high in avoidant personality features...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431453/relations-between-facets-and-personality-domains-with-impulsivity-new-evidence-using-the-dsm-5-section-iii-framework-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#9
Enrique Moraleda-Barreno, Carmen Díaz-Batanero, Pedro Juan Pérez-Moreno, Jesús Gómez-Bujedo, Oscar M Lozano
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition proposes an alternative diagnostic model for personality disorders based on the identification of pathological personality facets. Despite the existing evidence for the relationship between personality disorders and impulsivity in patients with substance use disorders, no study has yet been conducted within this framework. Thus, using a sample of 110 patients with substance use disorders, the present work aims to (a) analyze the relationship between the different personality facets and domains evaluated by the Personality Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (PID-5) and impulsivity and (b) explore the relationships between severity of dependency and personality facets and dimensions of impulsivity...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239628/psychopathy-in-detained-boys-the-search-for-primary-and-secondary-variants-in-a-clinical-setting
#10
Olivier F Colins, Kostas A Fanti, Randall T Salekin, Eva Mulder, Henrik Andershed
This study investigates whether primary and secondary variants of psychopathy can be identified in an applied, forensic setting based on self-reports of psychopathy and anxiety. Data were available for two samples of detained boys (Sample A: N = 847, Sample B: N = 749). Using three psychopathy dimensions and anxiety as clustering variables, latent profile analysis arrived at 4 latent classes (LCs) that were tentatively labeled as control (LC1), high anxiety (LC2), moderate psychopathy (LC3), and high psychopathy (LC4)...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239627/clinical-severity-as-a-moderator-of-outcome-in-psychodynamic-and-dialectical-behavior-therapies-for-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
Zeynep Sahin, Bo Vinnars, Bernard S Gorman, Alexander Wilczek, Marie Åsberg, Jacques P Barber
The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of initial level of psychiatric severity on treatment outcome in psychodynamic therapy and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that DBT would lead to better outcome for patients with high psychiatric severity, whereas dynamic treatment would lead to better outcome for patients with lower psychiatric severity. Data from the 5th-year follow-up of the Stockholm City Council's and the Karolinska Institute's Psychotherapy Project were used in the present study...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120195/personality-disorder-traits-perceptions-of-likability-impairment-and-ability-to-change-as-correlates-and-moderators-of-desired-level
#12
Joshua D Miller, Chelsea E Sleep, Joanna Lamkin, Colin Vize, W Keith Campbell, Donald R Lynam
Historical conceptualizations have framed personality disorders (PDs) as unchanging and ego-syntonic. However, recent evidence suggests that individuals with PD traits may have some insight into their personality and consider those traits to be somewhat ego-dystonic. To replicate and extend previous findings, participants (N = 328) self-reported their PD trait levels, likability of those traits, impairment, capability for change, and desired trait levels. The results demonstrated that individuals with PD traits tolerate but still dislike those traits, believe that they cause them problems, and are interested in reducing them...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857585/self-and-informant-report-across-the-borderline-personality-disorder-spectrum
#13
Steve Balsis, Evan Loehle-Conger, Alexander J Busch, Tatiana Ungredda, Thomas F Oltmanns
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features may be unaware of or unwilling to report their own personality or maladaptive behaviors, which complicates the assessment of BPD. Informants who know the individuals with BPD features may be uniquely suited to aid in the personality assessment of these individuals. The present study analyzed the comparative ability of individuals (targets) and informants to report BPD features across the continuum of BPD severity. The sample consisted of 1387 targets, ages 55 to 65 (56% women), who were recruited for an epidemiological longitudinal study examining the effects of PDs on health and social functioning...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113185/pierced-identities-body-modification-borderline-personality-features-identity-and-self-concept-disturbances
#14
Alexandra L Vizgaitis, Mark F Lenzenweger
Little is known about the connection between body modification and borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study investigated the relation between a wide range of body modification practices (piercing, tattooing, scarification, pubic hair removal, and cosmetic surgery) and BPD features, with a special focus on identity and identity dysfunction, in an adult community sample ( N = 330). Results indicated BPD features were positively correlated with total number of body modifications and breadth of body modification practices endorsed, as well as, specifically, increased piercings, tattoos, and scarifications...
August 16, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091618/the-role-of-emotion-regulation-difficulties-in-the-connection-between-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-borderline-personality-features
#15
Lia K Rosenstein, William D Ellison, Emily Walsh, Iwona Chelminski, Kristy Dalrymple, Mark Zimmerman
In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we examined the role of emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder (BPD) feature severity among a sample of 964 adults presenting for treatment at an outpatient clinic. A structural equation model suggested that emotional abuse relates to BPD features both directly and through difficulties with emotion regulation, whereas physical abuse showed only a weak indirect relation with BPD features...
August 9, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080062/hervey-cleckley-1903-1984-contributions-to-the-study-of-psychopathy
#16
Scott O Lilienfeld, Ashley L Watts, Sarah Francis Smith, Christopher J Patrick, Robert D Hare
Hervey Cleckley (1903-1984) was probably among the most influential psychiatrists of the 20th century, but the history of his intellectual contributions to psychopathy is not especially well known. Not all of Cleckley's writings have stood the test of time, but others seem prescient, arguably anticipating current debates regarding such contentious issues as successful psychopathy and the treatability of psychopathy. Although Cleckley's seminal writings on psychopathy are familiar to many contemporary scholars, Cleckley's role as an expert witness and his writings on other topics, such as dissociative identity disorder, may be less familiar to many readers...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080061/trajectories-of-alcohol-and-marijuana-use-among-primary-versus-secondary-psychopathy-variants-within-an-adjudicated-adolescent-male-sample
#17
Rebecca Waller, Brian M Hicks
The distinction between low-anxious primary versus high-anxious secondary psychopathy is well-established among incarcerated adults and adolescents. However, no studies have used a prospective longitudinal approach to explore whether primary versus secondary psychopathy variants have different rates of alcohol and marijuana use across adolescence, and what mechanisms account for these differences. The sample was 1,170 male adolescents who had interacted with the justice system, with data collected as part of the Pathways to Desistance project...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080060/a-systematic-review-examining-the-link-between-psychopathic-personality-traits-antisocial-behavior-and-neural-reactivity-during-reward-and-loss-processing
#18
Laura Murray, Rebecca Waller, Luke W Hyde
Antisocial Behavior (AB) has a tremendous societal cost, motivating investigation of the mechanisms that cause individuals to engage and persist in AB. Recent theories of AB emphasize the role of reward-related neural processes in the etiology of severe and chronic forms of AB, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, no systematic reviews have evaluated the hypothesis that reward-related neural dysfunction is an etiologic factor in AB in adult samples. Moreover, it is unclear whether AB is linked to a hyper- or hyposensitive reward system and whether AB is related to neural sensitivity to losses...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024195/momentary-assessment-of-everyday-physical-pain-in-outpatients-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#19
Ryan W Carpenter, Sarah L Tragesser, Sean P Lane, Timothy J Trull
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with dysregulation in multiple domains of functioning. Physical health, and specifically pain, is one such domain that has gone understudied. Although evidence suggests that BPD is associated with chronic pain, few studies have examined nonchronic pain in the disorder. The current study used ambulatory assessment to examine momentary physical pain in everyday life in BPD outpatients ( N = 26) and community comparisons (COM; N = 26) not in treatment for chronic pain ( N observations = 5,458)...
July 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024194/personality-disorder-traits-testing-insight-regarding-presence-of-traits-impairment-and-desire-for-change
#20
Chelsea E Sleep, Joanna Lamkin, Donald R Lynam, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
Mixed findings exist as to whether personality pathology involves a critical lack of awareness and insight. Research questions about insight and awareness in personality pathology are typically assessed via comparing self- and informant reports of traits. However, recent studies have measured insight by asking individuals to evaluate additional questions about impairment and desire to change. The present study uses a variety of approaches to examine these issues, including investigations of convergence between self- and informant reports ( N = 197 dyads; correlations and comparisons of means) of personality psychopathology, desired trait levels, and perceptions of impairment...
July 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
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