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Personality Disorders

Alexandra L Vizgaitis, Mark F Lenzenweger
Little is known about the connection between body modification and borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study investigated the relation between a wide range of body modification practices (piercing, tattooing, scarification, pubic hair removal, and cosmetic surgery) and BPD features, with a special focus on identity and identity dysfunction, in an adult community sample ( N = 330). Results indicated BPD features were positively correlated with total number of body modifications and breadth of body modification practices endorsed, as well as, specifically, increased piercings, tattoos, and scarifications...
August 16, 2018: Personality Disorders
Lia K Rosenstein, William D Ellison, Emily Walsh, Iwona Chelminski, Kristy Dalrymple, Mark Zimmerman
In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we examined the role of emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder (BPD) feature severity among a sample of 964 adults presenting for treatment at an outpatient clinic. A structural equation model suggested that emotional abuse relates to BPD features both directly and through difficulties with emotion regulation, whereas physical abuse showed only a weak indirect relation with BPD features...
August 9, 2018: Personality Disorders
Scott O Lilienfeld, Ashley L Watts, Sarah Francis Smith, Christopher J Patrick, Robert D Hare
Hervey Cleckley (1903-1984) was probably among the most influential psychiatrists of the 20th century, but the history of his intellectual contributions to psychopathy is not especially well known. Not all of Cleckley's writings have stood the test of time, but others seem prescient, arguably anticipating current debates regarding such contentious issues as successful psychopathy and the treatability of psychopathy. Although Cleckley's seminal writings on psychopathy are familiar to many contemporary scholars, Cleckley's role as an expert witness and his writings on other topics, such as dissociative identity disorder, may be less familiar to many readers...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Rebecca Waller, Brian M Hicks
The distinction between low-anxious primary versus high-anxious secondary psychopathy is well-established among incarcerated adults and adolescents. However, no studies have used a prospective longitudinal approach to explore whether primary versus secondary psychopathy variants have different rates of alcohol and marijuana use across adolescence, and what mechanisms account for these differences. The sample was 1,170 male adolescents who had interacted with the justice system, with data collected as part of the Pathways to Desistance project...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Laura Murray, Rebecca Waller, Luke W Hyde
Antisocial Behavior (AB) has a tremendous societal cost, motivating investigation of the mechanisms that cause individuals to engage and persist in AB. Recent theories of AB emphasize the role of reward-related neural processes in the etiology of severe and chronic forms of AB, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, no systematic reviews have evaluated the hypothesis that reward-related neural dysfunction is an etiologic factor in AB in adult samples. Moreover, it is unclear whether AB is linked to a hyper- or hyposensitive reward system and whether AB is related to neural sensitivity to losses...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Ryan W Carpenter, Sarah L Tragesser, Sean P Lane, Timothy J Trull
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with dysregulation in multiple domains of functioning. Physical health, and specifically pain, is one such domain that has gone understudied. Although evidence suggests that BPD is associated with chronic pain, few studies have examined nonchronic pain in the disorder. The current study used ambulatory assessment to examine momentary physical pain in everyday life in BPD outpatients ( N = 26) and community comparisons (COM; N = 26) not in treatment for chronic pain ( N observations = 5,458)...
July 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
Chelsea E Sleep, Joanna Lamkin, Donald R Lynam, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
Mixed findings exist as to whether personality pathology involves a critical lack of awareness and insight. Research questions about insight and awareness in personality pathology are typically assessed via comparing self- and informant reports of traits. However, recent studies have measured insight by asking individuals to evaluate additional questions about impairment and desire to change. The present study uses a variety of approaches to examine these issues, including investigations of convergence between self- and informant reports ( N = 197 dyads; correlations and comparisons of means) of personality psychopathology, desired trait levels, and perceptions of impairment...
July 19, 2018: Personality Disorders
William C Woods, Elizabeth A Edershile, Aidan G C Wright, Mark F Lenzenweger
Research suggests that both personality disorder (PD) and normal personality change as systems of variables (e.g., the general factor of PD), rather than as individual variables (e.g., neuroticism). Consequently, understanding PD and normal personality as multidimensional systems may yield additional insights over traditional single-variable approaches. Normal personality change has been attributed to increase across adaptive traits (i.e., the maturity principle), suggesting that shifts in the overall magnitude of construct expression plays a role in systemic change...
July 16, 2018: Personality Disorders
Amy Dawel, Luke Wright, Rachael Dumbleton, Elinor McKone
In everyday life, other peoples' distress is sometimes genuine (e.g., real sadness) and sometimes pretended (e.g., feigned sadness aimed at manipulating others). Here, we present the first study of how psychopathic traits affect responses to genuine versus posed distress. Using facial expression stimuli and testing individual differences across the general population ( N = 140), we focus on the affective features of psychopathy (e.g., callousness, poor empathy, shallow affect). Results show that although individuals low on affective psychopathy report greater arousal and intent to help toward faces displaying genuine relative to posed distress, these differences weakened or disappeared with higher levels of affective psychopathy...
July 16, 2018: Personality Disorders
Anthony Bateman, Peter Fonagy
This article reports a delayed-treatment randomized controlled trial of a mentalization-based intervention for families or significant others living with or supporting a person with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In all, 56 family members/significant others living with/supporting people with a diagnosis of BPD were randomized either to immediate mentalization-based Families and Carers Training and Support, a supportive and skills-based program consisting of five 1.5- to 2-hr evening meetings, delivered by trained family members, or to delayed intervention...
July 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
Alexander R Daros, Gregory E Williams, Stefan Jung, Mustafa Turabi, Amanda A Uliaszek, Anthony C Ruocco
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) have difficulties regulating emotions, which may be a consequence of using less effective emotion regulation (ER) strategies to lessen the intensity of their negative emotions. It is not yet known whether people with BPD utilize particular ER strategies to modulate specific mood states and if these strategies are different from those used by individuals with depressive and anxiety disorders. In the present study, 90 participants (30 BPD, 30 anxiety and/or depressive disorders, and 30 healthy controls) underwent a mood induction procedure and specified which ER strategies they used and their perceived difficulty regulating mood following induction...
July 12, 2018: Personality Disorders
Takakuni Suzuki, Susan C South, Douglas B Samuel, Aidan G C Wright, Matthew M Yalch, Christopher J Hopwood, Katherine M Thomas
The dimensional pathological personality trait model proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Section III Criterion B, has shown promising results for its validity and utility in conceptualizing personality pathology. However, as its structural equivalence across sex is yet to be tested, the validity for the model across males and females remains uncertain. In the present article, we examined sex measurement invariance of the DSM-5 trait model in a large undergraduate sample using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5...
June 28, 2018: Personality Disorders
Mark A Ruiz, Christopher J Hopwood, John F Edens, Leslie C Morey, Jennifer Cox
This study set out to create measures of the five personality disorder trait domains outlined in Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) from the Personality Assessment Inventory items (Morey, 2007). Rasch rating scale model analyses and classical test theory analyses were applied to existing data sets (N = 3,877; community, clinical, offender, college) to identify relevant items. Five scales were created that had acceptable unidimensionality and generally conformed to Rasch model expectations...
June 25, 2018: Personality Disorders
Ora Nakash, Maayan Nagar, Drew Westen
Prototype matching, which involves comparing a patient clinical presentation with a prototype description of the disorder addresses some of the clinical limitations of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases symptom-count approach. Here, we investigated the validity and clinical utility of three diagnostic systems in predicting patient adaptive functioning using a multimethod multi-informant approach. Specifically, we compared a prototype matching approach based on DSM criteria, an empirically derived prototype matching approach, and DSM symptom count diagnostic systems...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Robert F Bornstein
The current debate regarding how best to conceptualize, operationalize, and assess personality pathology is often framed as a choice between categorical ("type") and dimensional ("trait") models, but when viewed from the perspective of the diagnostician, these two approaches actually have much in common. It is not possible to assign symptom ratings in any categorical personality disorder framework without first evaluating the severity of each symptom on a continuum, nor to implement dimensional personality disorder assessments in clinical settings without using thresholds that demarcate the presence of personality pathology, or severity of personality dysfunction...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Lindsay A Sewall, Mark E Olver
The present study examined the association of psychopathy, measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003), to sexual offender treatment completion, change, and recidivism in a Canadian sample of 302 treated sexual offenders followed up in the community 17.6 years post release. Sexual violence risk and treatment change was evaluated via the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), and general violence risk via the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (Quinsey, Harris, Rice, & Cormier, 1998)...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Haang Jeung, Stephan Walther, Christoph W Korn, Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
Although emotional reactivity to social rejection has been examined in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in several studies, the effects of other aspects of social feedback, such as evaluation of one's opinions that concern self-esteem, have not been addressed yet. The objective of this study was to examine emotional responses of BPD patients after exchanging personal opinions in a new, ecologically valid virtual peer interaction paradigm ("chatroom paradigm"). In this paradigm, 21 BPD patients and 21 healthy controls received peer feedback on their own statements and rated the intensity of their own emotional responses (happiness, sadness, anger, and shame) and the self or other affirmation in response to agreement, disagreement, and neutral statements...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Edelyn Verona, Brett Murphy, Konrad Bresin
Multiple studies have linked oxytocin to social behavior and affiliation-attachment. This research would suggest that oxytocin function may relate to the absence of loving kindness and empathy in psychopathy. The current study examined the associations between 3 oxytocin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), participant-reported invalidating childhood environment, and psychopathic traits in community adults, predicting that alleles associated with higher empathy in the literature would relate to lower levels of psychopathic affective traits in particular...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Michael J Roche
The alternative model for personality disorders includes a single dimension of personality dysfunction severity (Criterion A) and five dimensions of personality dysfunction styles (Criterion B). Some consider Criteria A and B distinctions redundant, and this appears mostly true in cross-sectional designs. The present research demonstrated that incremental validity can be found when examining personality dysfunction longitudinally. Participants ( n = 175) completed a 14-day electronic diary, capturing daily levels of Criteria A and B, along with daily outcomes of personality dysfunction across several domains...
June 21, 2018: Personality Disorders
Jacqueline Liggett, Martin Sellbom
The current study evaluated the continuity between the diagnostic operationalizations of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, both as traditionally operationalized and from the perspective of the alternative model of personality disorders. Using both self-report and informant measures, the study had the following four aims: (a) to examine the extent to which self-report and informant data correspond, (b) to investigate whether both self-report and informant measures of the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, (c) to determine if any traits additional to those proposed in the alternative model of OCPD can predict traditional OCPD, and (d) to investigate whether a measure of OCPD-specific impairment is better at predicting traditional OCPD than are measures of general impairment in personality functioning...
September 2018: Personality Disorders
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