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Personality Disorders

Christina L Patton, Sarah Francis Smith, Scott O Lilienfeld
Some scholars have posited that certain traits associated with psychopathy-namely, fearlessness, boldness, and willingness to take risks-are associated with greater engagement in heroic and altruistic acts; nevertheless, this conjecture has received little empirical attention. We examined the relations among psychopathic traits, heroism, altruism, workplace deviance, and leadership in first-responder (n = 138) and civilian (n = 104) samples recruited by means of an online platform. Across samples, fearless dominance, boldness, sensation seeking, and several other psychopathy-related variables were positively and significantly associated with everyday heroism and altruism...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Joshua D Miller, Chelsea E Sleep, Joanna Lamkin, Colin Vize, W Keith Campbell, Donald R Lynam
Historical conceptualizations have framed personality disorders (PDs) as unchanging and ego-syntonic. However, recent evidence suggests that individuals with PD traits may have some insight into their personality and consider those traits to be somewhat ego-dystonic. To replicate and extend previous findings, participants (N = 328) self-reported their PD trait levels, likability of those traits, impairment, capability for change, and desired trait levels. The results demonstrated that individuals with PD traits tolerate but still dislike those traits, believe that they cause them problems, and are interested in reducing them...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Gretchen Kurdziel, Stephanie Kors, Jenny Macfie
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and chronic mental illness. Self-reported borderline features correlate highly with a diagnosis (affective instability, negative relationships, unstable sense of self, self-harm). Etiological factors of BPD include childhood maltreatment. The current study compared the experience of maltreatment in adolescent offspring of mothers with BPD, who are themselves at risk of developing the disorder, with that of offspring of mothers with no current diagnosis. Participants were 56 adolescents aged 14 to 18 years...
November 9, 2017: Personality Disorders
Steve Balsis, Evan Loehle-Conger, Alexander J Busch, Tatiana Ungredda, Thomas F Oltmanns
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) features may be unaware of or unwilling to report their own personality or maladaptive behaviors, which complicates the assessment of BPD. Informants who know the individuals with BPD features may be uniquely suited to aid in the personality assessment of these individuals. The present study analyzed the comparative ability of individuals (targets) and informants to report BPD features across the continuum of BPD severity. The sample consisted of 1387 targets, ages 55 to 65 (56% women), who were recruited for an epidemiological longitudinal study examining the effects of PDs on health and social functioning...
August 31, 2017: Personality Disorders
Steve Balsis, Jared R Ruchensky, Alexander J Busch
This article describes how item response theory (IRT) has begun to address several of the measurement limitations inherent in the personality disorder (PD) literature. In particular, we describe how IRT can be used to improve PD measurement precision, develop PD instruments, and inform PD theory. In closing, we address a key assumption of unidimensional IRT models, and address the need to move beyond these models to include multidimensional models. In this context, we outline what we see as a future direction in PD measurement...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
Brian M Hicks, D Angus Clark, C Emily Durbin
Existing categorical models of personality disorder diagnoses capture heterogeneous populations in terms of symptom presentation and etiological influences on personality pathology. Though several well-validated alternative dimensional trait models (i.e., variable-centered approaches) of personality disorders have been developed, person-centered approaches can provide important additional information on both the phenotypic expression and etiology of personality pathology. We discuss the utility and necessary attributes of person-centered or subtype models of personality disorders and briefly review statistical approaches and other methodological considerations, drawing specific examples from the psychopathy literature...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment includes a rolling, ongoing Special Section concerned with methodological issues in personality disorder research. This third edition of this series includes two articles. The first is by Brian Hicks, Angus Clark, and Emily Durbin: "Person-Centered Approaches in the Study of Personality Disorders." The second article is by Steve Balsis: "Item Response Theory Applications in Personality Disorder Research." Both articles should be excellent resources for future research and certainly manuscripts submitted to this journal that use these analytic tools...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
Linden R Timoney, Zach Walsh, M Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B Ansell, Carlos M Grilo, Thomas H McGlashan, Robert L Stout, Donna S Bender, Andrew E Skodol, Charles A Sanislow, Leslie C Morey, John G Gunderson
Individuals with a personality disorder (PD) tend to experience more negative life events (NLEs) than positive life events (PLEs). In community samples, the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) predicts both positive and negative life events. The present research examined whether FFM normal personality traits were associated with positive and negative life events among individuals with 1 of 4 PDs: avoidant, borderline, schizotypal, and obsessive-compulsive, and tested whether associations between the FFM of personality and PLEs and NLEs were similar across the 4 PD groups and a control group...
October 2017: Personality Disorders
Annalisa Tanzilli, Vittorio Lingiardi, Mark Hilsenroth
The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapists' emotional responses and patients' personality evaluated by 3 dimensional diagnostic approaches empirically derived from the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b): Two of these rely on the 5-factor model (FFM) domains, that were assessed with different SWAP-200 FFM versions developed by Shedler and Westen (SW-FFM scales; 2004) and McCrae, Löckenhoff, and Costa (MLC-FFM scales; 2005); the third approach is based on a multifaceted model of personality syndromes (SWAP personality dimension scales; see Shedler & Westen, 2004)...
August 24, 2017: Personality Disorders
Brent W Roberts, Patrick L Hill, Jordan P Davis
Conscientiousness, the propensity to be organized, responsible, self-controlled, industrious, and rule-following, is related to numerous important outcomes including many forms of psychopathology. Given the increasing awareness of the importance of conscientiousness, it is becoming common to want to understand how to foster it. In this paper we first describe and update a recent model that was put forward as a theoretically informed intervention to change conscientiousness. We then consider recent life span theories focused on conscientiousness that might inform how best to use existing interventions as well as identify potential moderators of the effectiveness of intervention...
July 2017: Personality Disorders
Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Julianne G Wilner, David H Barlow
Neuroticism has long been associated with psychopathology and there is increasing evidence that this trait represents a shared vulnerability responsible for the development and maintenance of a range of common mental disorders. Given that neuroticism may be more malleable than previously thought, targeting this trait in treatment, rather than its specific manifestations (e.g., anxiety, mood, and personality disorders), may represent a more efficient and cost-effective approach to psychological treatment. The goals of the current manuscript are to (a) review the role of neuroticism in the development of common mental disorders, (b) describe the evidence of its malleability, and (c) review interventions that have been explicitly developed to target this trait in treatment...
July 2017: Personality Disorders
Thomas A Widiger
The purpose of this Special Section of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment is to highlight two efforts to development treatment programs for two of the five domains of the five-factor model of personality disorder: neuroticism and conscientiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record
July 2017: Personality Disorders
David Eddie, Marsha E Bates
This investigation sought to validate a stimulus set previously adapted by expert consensus from the International Affective Picture System to be unpleasant and evocative to individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This set was rated as significantly more arousing by 22 individuals diagnosed with BPD compared to 22 healthy controls, though this mean difference appeared to be driven by differences in ratings for a small subset of pictures. The present BPD sample did not rate the BPD-specific picture set as more arousing than a previous BPD sample (Herpertz, Kunert, Schwenger, & Sass, 1999) had rated a different set of unpleasant, but non-BPD-specific International Affective Picture System images...
July 2017: Personality Disorders
Joseph E Beeney, Aidan G C Wright, Stephanie D Stepp, Michael N Hallquist, Sophie A Lazarus, Julie R S Beeney, Lori N Scott, Paul A Pilkonis
Though researchers have attended to disorganized attachment in infants and children, they have infrequently focused on the character of disorganized attachment in adults. In this study, we aimed to identify clusters of participants based on attachment levels and styles, seeking to better delineate severity and stylistic differences in disorganized attachment than has been previously articulated. We used a new assessment approach focused on a hierarchy of attachment organization, including secure, insecure (dismissive and preoccupied), rigid-controlling (hostile control and compulsive caregiving), and disorganized (contradictory, impoverished, and unresolved) levels of attachment...
July 2017: Personality Disorders
Franco Scalzo, Carol A Hulbert, Jennifer K Betts, Sue M Cotton, Andrew M Chanen
Concomitant substance misuse in adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with a more severe course of illness and poorer outcomes. Previous research has found an association between the number of borderline personality features and substance misuse in community samples. This study examined the relationship between substance use and severity of BPD in youth presenting for the first time for treatment (first presentation) of BPD. Participants were 117 help-seeking youth aged 15-25 years (93 females; Mage = 19...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
Jill Lobbestael, Arnoud Arntz, Marisol Voncken, Michael Potegal
This study assesses the relationship between psychopathy and dominance, both as a trait level and in 2 interpersonal contexts. Following the interpersonal circumplex model, we expected that interacting with a dominant interviewer would reduce dominance displays by low psychopathy participants (interpersonal complementarity) but might increase such displays in those with higher psychopathy (anticomplementarity). Psychopathic traits and dominance were assessed in a community sample (N = 91) using multiple dominance indicators: self-reported overall dominance level, job preference, dominance displays observed during identical interviews with a subordinate and dominant interviewer, and baseline and postinterview measures of personal space and testosterone level...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
Heather M Wastler, Mark F Lenzenweger
Eye contact is an essential means of nonverbal communication, providing information about attention, emotion, mental state, facial expressions, and identity/gender (Itier & Batty, 2009). Although studies suggest that patients with schizophrenia endorse direct gaze more often than controls in ambiguous gaze circumstances, gaze perception in schizotypy remains unstudied. This study investigated whether individuals with positive schizotypic features incorrectly perceive that others are looking at them and whether this is related to referential thinking and psychosocial functioning...
June 19, 2017: Personality Disorders
Celine De Meulemeester, Kristof Vansteelandt, Patrick Luyten, Benedicte Lowyck
Although a number of effective psychotherapeutic treatments have been developed for borderline personality disorder (BPD), little is known about the mechanisms of change explaining the effects of these treatments. There is increasing evidence that impairments in mentalizing or reflective functioning-the capacity to reflect on the internal mental states of the self and others-are a central feature of BPD. To date, no study has directly investigated the core assumption of the mentalization-based approach to BPD, that changes in this capacity are associated with treatment outcome in BPD patients...
June 1, 2017: Personality Disorders
Malek Mneimne, William Fleeson, Elizabeth Mayfield Arnold, R Michael Furr
A major barrier to the understanding of emotion dynamics in borderline personality disorder (BPD) lies in its substantial comorbidity with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Whereas BPD has often been characterized in terms of dynamic emotional processes, including instability, reactivity, and inertia, its substantial comorbidity with MDD and BD makes it difficult to discern the specificity of these dynamics. To differentiate the emotion dynamics of BPD from those of MDD and BD, an experience sampling study of 38 participants with BPD, 15 participants with MDD, 14 participants with BD, and 62 healthy controls obtained reports of interpersonal challenges and emotions 5 times daily for 2 weeks...
May 29, 2017: Personality Disorders
Sarah A Griffin, Donald R Lynam, Douglas B Samuel
Impulsivity is a transdiagnostic dimension of crucial importance to understanding psychopathology, as it is highly relevant to a wide array of maladaptive life outcomes including substance use, criminality, and other risky behaviors. There exist a variety of operationalizations of impulsivity across the literature distinct nomological networks. In fact, research suggests that "impulsivity" is a multifaceted construct comprised of at least 4 distinct traits that have unique pathways to maladaptive behaviors...
May 11, 2017: Personality Disorders
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