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Personality Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831693/identification-of-mental-states-and-interpersonal-functioning-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#1
Kathy R Berenson, Cara Dochat, Christiana G Martin, Xiao Yang, Eshkol Rafaeli, Geraldine Downey
Atypical identification of mental states in the self and others has been proposed to underlie interpersonal difficulties in borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet no previous empirical research has directly examined associations between these constructs. We examine 3 mental state identification measures and their associations with experience-sampling measures of interpersonal functioning in participants with BPD relative to a healthy comparison (HC) group. We also included a clinical comparison group diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder (APD) to test the specificity of this constellation of difficulties to BPD...
November 10, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831692/a-quantitative-and-qualitative-evaluation-of-trainee-opinions-of-four-methods-of-personality-disorder-diagnosis
#2
Sharon M Nelson, Steven K Huprich, Sneha Shankar, Aimee Sohnleitner, Amy V Paggeot
Four methods of how to assess and diagnose personality disorders have received much attention within the literature: the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (Shedler & Westen, 1998), the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorders section (APA, 2011), the DSM-5 Section III trait model (APA, 2013), and the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) descriptions of 15 personality disorders. Given that much of the debate has been driven by clinician concerns, it is important to consider clinical utility when evaluating the usefulness of each method...
November 10, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797545/a-population-based-twin-study-of-dsm-5-maladaptive-personality-domains
#3
Susan C South, Robert F Krueger, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Eivind Ystrom, Nikolai Czajkowski, Steven H Aggen, Michael C Neale, Nathan A Gillespie, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Personality disorders (PDs) can be partly captured by dimensional traits, a viewpoint reflected in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative (Section III) Model for PD classification. The current study adds to the literature on the Alternative Model by examining the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on 6 domains of maladaptive personality: negative emotionality, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, compulsivity, and psychoticism...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797544/do-psychopathic-individuals-possess-a-misaligned-moral-compass-a-meta-analytic-examination-of-psychopathy-s-relations-with-moral-judgment
#4
Julia Marshall, Ashley L Watts, Scott O Lilienfeld
Psychopathic individuals are often characterized as lacking a moral sense. Although this hypothesis has received ample experimental attention over the past decade, findings have been inconsistent. To elucidate the relationship between psychopathy and abnormal moral judgment, we conducted a meta-analysis of the research on psychopathy and morality-related variables (k = 23, N = 4376). A random effects model indicated a small but statistically significant relation between psychopathy and moral decision-making (rw = ...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797543/personality-and-life-events-in-a-personality-disorder-sample
#5
Linden R Timoney, Zach Walsh, M Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Emily B Ansell, Carlos M Grilo, Thomas H McGlashan, Robert L Stout, Donna S Bender, Andrew E Skodol, Charles A Sanislow, Leslie C Morey, John G Gunderson
Individuals with a personality disorder (PD) tend to experience more negative life events (NLEs) than positive life events (PLEs). In community samples, the Five Factor Model of personality (FFM) predicts both positive and negative life events. The present research examined whether FFM normal personality traits were associated with positive and negative life events among individuals with 1 of 4 PDs: avoidant, borderline, schizotypal, and obsessive-compulsive, and tested whether associations between the FFM of personality and PLEs and NLEs were similar across the 4 PD groups and a control group...
October 31, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775412/personality-pathology-and-relationship-satisfaction-in-dating-and-married-couples
#6
Mieke Decuyper, Fien Gistelinck, Jasmine Vergauwe, Gina Pancorbo, Filip De Fruyt
Personality disorders (PDs) are inherently associated with deficits in relating to other people. Previous research has shown consistent negative associations between categorical PD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. The present studies extend on these findings by examining the role of maladaptive traits in a number of ways. Self- and partner-reported maladaptive traits of both partners are included. Moreover, the present studies add a couple-centered approach by investigating the effects of actual similarity, perceptual similarity, and perceptual accuracy of the maladaptive trait profile on relationship satisfaction...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775411/information-processing-capacity-in-psychopathy-effects-of-anomalous-attention
#7
Rachel K B Hamilton, Joseph P Newman
Hamilton and colleagues (2015) recently proposed that an integrative deficit in psychopathy restricts simultaneous processing, thereby leaving fewer resources available for information encoding, narrowing the scope of attention, and undermining associative processing. The current study evaluated this parallel processing deficit proposal using the Simultaneous-Sequential paradigm. This investigation marks the first a priori test of the Hamilton et al.'s theoretical framework. We predicted that psychopathy would be associated with inferior performance (as indexed by lower accuracy and longer response time) on trials requiring simultaneous processing of visual information relative to trials necessitating sequential processing...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736106/differences-among-dark-triad-components-a-meta-analytic-investigation
#8
Colin E Vize, Donald R Lynam, Katherine L Collison, Joshua D Miller
Since its emergence 14 years ago the dark triad (DT), composed of narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism, has become an increasingly popular research focus. Yet questions remain over whether the DT components are sufficiently distinct from another. We examined the nomological networks of each DT component through a meta-analysis of the available literature on the DT. We conducted 3 separate analyses-an examination of the average intercorrelations among the DT components (k = 156), an examination of similarities in each DT component's nomological network (k = 159), and an examination of the effect sizes between DT components and 15 outcome categories (k range = 7 to 42)...
October 13, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618342/comparing-the-dependability-and-associations-with-functioning-of-the-dsm-5-section-iii-trait-model-of-personality-pathology-and-the-dsm-5-section-ii-personality-disorder-model
#9
Michael Chmielewski, Camilo J Ruggero, Roman Kotov, Keke Liu, Robert F Krueger
Two competing models of personality psychopathology are included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013); the traditional personality disorder (PD) model included in Section II and an alternative trait-based model included in Section III. Numerous studies have examined the validity of the alternative trait model and its official assessment instrument, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012)...
September 12, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618341/evaluating-the-dsm-5-section-iii-personality-disorder-impairment-criteria
#10
Jaime L Anderson, Martin Sellbom
The majority of research on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) Section III alternative model for personality disorders (PDs) has addressed the dimensional traits proposed in Criterion B, while limited research has evaluated Section III functional impairment criteria. The current study evaluated Section III impairment specific to the 6 personality disorder diagnoses included in the Section III model in a sample of 347 undergraduates. We evaluated the factor structure of disorder-specific impairment; their associations with other measures of impairment, Section III traits, and Section II PD symptoms; as well as the incremental utility of impairment above and beyond traits in predicting Section II PD symptoms...
September 12, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709991/the-role-of-emotion-dysregulation-in-the-presence-associated-difficulties-and-treatment-of-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
Kim L Gratz, Kelly E Moore, Matthew T Tull
Theory and research identify emotion dysregulation as one of the primary mechanisms underlying borderline personality disorder (BPD) and related pathology. Yet, despite the extensive research documenting an association between emotion dysregulation and BPD, many questions regarding the precise role of emotion dysregulation in the development and treatment of BPD and its associated difficulties remain unanswered. This paper reviews the extant literature on the role of emotion dysregulation in BPD and its associated difficulties, as well as the treatment of BPD-related pathology, and identifies important next steps for future research in this area...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709990/current-trends-in-bpd-research-as-indicative-of-a-broader-sea-change-in-psychiatric-nosology
#12
Carla Sharp
The aim of the Special Section that this paper contributes to is to review current trends in borderline personality disorder (BPD) research. Three major trends were identified. First, there has been a marked increase in studies that attempt to locate BPD in the dimensional latent structure of psychopathology. Second, identifying the endophenotypic markers associated with BPD has become a focus of interest. Here, we focus on one endophenotype in the form of impaired self-other processing. Third, there has been an explosion of research into the developmental aspects of BPD specifically focused on uncovering complex Biology × Environment interactions in the development of BPD...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709989/borderline-personality-disorder-and-the-emerging-field-of-developmental-neuroscience
#13
Sheila E Crowell, Erin A Kaufman
Over the past 2 decades there has been a dramatic shift in understanding of personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). What was historically viewed as an entrenched pattern of antagonistic, interpersonally dependent, and uncorrectable conduct is now seen as the outcome of complex-yet modifiable-developmental processes. The borderline label, which once inspired such harsh opprobrium in clinical communities that early diagnosis was considered taboo, is now increasingly applied to adolescents who are receiving effective treatment and desisting from a borderline trajectory...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709988/a-systematic-review-of-risk-factors-prospectively-associated-with-borderline-personality-disorder-taking-stock-and-moving-forward
#14
Stephanie D Stepp, Sophie A Lazarus, Amy L Byrd
There is an urgent need to identify signs that harbinger onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Advancement in this area is required to refine developmental theories, discover etiological mechanisms, improve early detection, and achieve our ultimate goal of prevention. Though many studies have supported a wide range of factors that increase subsequent risk for BPD, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that examine and integrate these findings. To address this limitation, we conducted a systematic review to summarize and synthesize the current literature...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709987/pdtrt-special-section-current-trends-in-borderline-personality-disorder-research
#15
Thomas A Widiger
One of the enjoyable benefits of being an editor of a journal is the ability to develop special sections. It is evident simply from a perusal of a typical issue of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment (PDTRT) that a common focus of research is borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD is among, if not the, most heavily researched personality disorder. It is only natural to have the first special section within my tenure as editor concern this personality disorder. Provided within this special section are review papers of current trends in BPD research by young (at least compared to me), leading, and innovative BPD researchers...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845526/first-empirical-evaluation-of-outcomes-for-mentalization-based-group-therapy-for-adolescents-with-bpd
#16
Sune Bo, Carla Sharp, Emma Beck, Jesper Pedersen, Matthias Gondan, Erik Simonsen
Adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a devastating disorder, and it is essential to identify and treat the disorder in its early course. A total of 34 female Danish adolescents between 15 and 18 years old participated in 1 year of structured mentalization-based group therapy. Twenty-five adolescents completed the study, of which the majority (23) displayed improvement regarding borderline symptoms, depression, self-harm, peer-attachment, parent-attachment, mentalizing, and general psychopathology...
August 15, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27657166/borderline-personality-pathology-and-physical-health-the-role-of-employment
#17
Patrick J Cruitt, Michael J Boudreaux, Joshua J Jackson, Thomas F Oltmanns
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with negative physical health outcomes. Clinical case studies suggest that employment status may buffer against the negative effects of BPD on physical health. The goal of the current study was to examine the interaction between BPD features and employment status in predicting subjective perceptions of physical health. We hypothesized that employment status would moderate the relationship between BPD features and physical health, such that individuals who are employed would exhibit a weaker negative relationship between BPD features and self- and informant ratings of physical health...
August 15, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505190/insight-and-the-dark-triad-comparing-self-and-meta-perceptions-in-relation-to-psychopathy-narcissism-and-machiavellianism
#18
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Joshua D Miller
The "Dark Triad" consists of 3 partially overlapping trait configurations that manifest in problematic interpersonal outcomes: narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Comparing meta-perception-based reports of personality, or how people believe others see them, to self-reports in relation to informant-reports allows for a direct test of the extent to which people are accurate in understanding how they are perceived by others. The present study (n = 993 target participants) investigated how Dark Triad personality styles are viewed from multiple perspectives, including self-report, meta-perception, informant-report (n = 213), and informant perceived meta-perception (n = 178) in an undergraduate sample...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505189/loneliness-social-networks-and-social-functioning-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#19
Lisa Liebke, Melanie Bungert, Janine Thome, Sophie Hauschild, Dorothee Maria Gescher, Christian Schmahl, Martin Bohus, Stefanie Lis
Persistent loneliness is often reported by patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, empirical studies investigating this aspect of BPD psychopathology are sparse. Studies from social psychology revealed that social isolation and low social functioning contribute to loneliness, that is, the subjective feeling of being alone. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the understanding of loneliness in BPD by investigating its relation to social isolation and functioning in different domains of life...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505188/ecological-momentary-assessment-of-nonsuicidal-self-injury-in-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#20
Holly E Andrewes, Carol Hulbert, Susan M Cotton, Jennifer Betts, Andrew M Chanen
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive, emotional, and contextual experience of NSSI in 107 youth (aged 15-25 years) with BPD who had minimal prior exposure to treatment. Using ecological momentary assessment, participants completed a randomly prompted questionnaire about their affect, self-injurious thoughts, and behaviors six times per day for 6 days. Twenty-four youth with BPD engaged in 52 counts of NSSI, with 56 motives identified...
August 8, 2016: Personality Disorders
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