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Cancer Nanotechnology

Yu Mi, Zhiying Shao, Johnny Vang, Orit Kaidar-Person, Andrew Z Wang
Radiotherapy has been an integral treatment modality for cancer. The field arose from and progressed through innovations in physics, engineering, and biology. The evolution of radiation oncology will rely on the continued adoption of advances from other fields. A new area of science that possesses the ability to impact radiation oncology is nanomedicine. Materials on the nanoscale provide many unique properties such as enhanced permeability and retention effect and superparamagnetism that are well suited for applications in radiation oncology...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Harry W Clifford, Amy P Cassidy, Courtney Vaughn, Evaline S Tsai, Bianka Seres, Nirmesh Patel, Hannah L O'Neill, Emil Hewage, John W Cassidy
BACKGROUND: Cancer is first and foremost a disease of the genome. Specific genetic signatures within a tumour are prognostic of disease outcome, reflect subclonal architecture and intratumour heterogeneity, inform treatment choices and predict the emergence of resistance to targeted therapies. Minimally invasive liquid biopsies can give temporal resolution to a tumour's genetic profile and allow the monitoring of treatment response through levels of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, the detection of ctDNA in repeated liquid biopsies is currently limited by economic and time constraints associated with targeted sequencing...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Jun Zhao, Min Zhou, Chun Li
Radiotherapy has been, and will continue to be, a critical modality to treat cancer. Since the discovery of radiation-induced cytotoxicity in the late 19th century, both external and internal radiation sources have provided tremendous benefits to extend the life of cancer patients. Despite the dramatic improvement of radiation techniques, however, one challenge persists to limit the anti-tumor efficacy of radiotherapy, which is to maximize the deposited dose in tumor while sparing the rest of the healthy vital organs...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Kaspar Haume, Soraia Rosa, Sophie Grellet, Małgorzata A Śmiałek, Karl T Butterworth, Andrey V Solov'yov, Kevin M Prise, Jon Golding, Nigel J Mason
Radiotherapy is currently used in around 50% of cancer treatments and relies on the deposition of energy directly into tumour tissue. Although it is generally effective, some of the deposited energy can adversely affect healthy tissue outside the tumour volume, especially in the case of photon radiation (gamma and X-rays). Improved radiotherapy outcomes can be achieved by employing ion beams due to the characteristic energy deposition curve which culminates in a localised, high radiation dose (in form of a Bragg peak)...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
P Woulfe, F J Sullivan, S O'Keeffe
Review is made of dosimetric studies of current optical fibre technology in radiotherapy for therapeutic applications, focusing particularly on in vivo dosimetry for prostate radiotherapy. We present the various sensor designs along with the main advantages and disadvantages associated with this technology. Optical fibres are ideally placed for applications in radiotherapy dosimetry; due to their small size they are lightweight and immune to electromagnetic interferences. The small dimensions of optical fibres allows it to be easily guided within existing brachytherapy equipment; for example, within the seed implantation needle for direct tumour dose analysis, in the urinary catheter to monitor urethral dose, or within the biopsy needle holder of the transrectal ultrasound probe to monitor rectal wall dose...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Alexandru Mihai Nicolae, Niranjan Venugopal, Ananth Ravi
The treatment of localized prostate cancer is expected to become a significant problem in the next decade as an increasingly aging population becomes prone to developing the disease. Recent research into the biological nature of prostate cancer has shown that large localized doses of radiation to the cancer offer excellent long-term disease control. Brachytherapy, a form of localized radiation therapy, has been shown to be one of the most effective methods for delivering high radiation doses to the cancer; however, recent evidence suggests that increasing the localized radiation dose without bound may cause unacceptable increases in long-term side effects...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Norman A Lapin, Martyna Krzykawska-Serda, Matthew J Ware, Steven A Curley, Stuart J Corr
Poor biodistribution and accumulation of chemotherapeutics in tumors due to limitations on diffusive transport and high intra-tumoral pressures (Jain RK, Nat Med. 7(9):987-989, 2001) have prompted the investigation of adjunctive therapies to improve treatment outcomes. Hyperthermia has been widely applied in attempts to meet this need, but it is limited in its ability to reach tumors in deeply located body regions. High-intensity radiofrequency (RF) electric fields have the potential to overcome such barriers enhancing delivery and extravasation of chemotherapeutics...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Rosemarie Truman, Cody J Locke
On March 4th, 2016, Springer's Cancer Nanotechnology office promoted the launch of the Nanotechnology Startup Challenge in Cancer (NSC (2) ). This innovation-development model is a partnership among our company, the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI), MedImmune, the global biologics arm of AstraZeneca, and multiple institutes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NSC (2) "crowdsources" talent from around the world to launch startups with near-term, commercially viable cancer nanotechnology inventions, which were developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Sean K Sweeney, Yi Luo, Michael A O'Donnell, Jose Assouline
BACKGROUND: Despite being one of the most common cancers, bladder cancer is largely inefficiently and inaccurately staged and monitored. Current imaging methods detect cancer only when it has reached "visible" size and has significantly disrupted the structure of the organ. By that time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized. Repeated biopsies and scans are necessary to determine the effect of therapy on cancer growth. In this report, we describe a novel approach based on multimodal nanoparticle contrast agent technology and its application to a preclinical animal model of bladder cancer...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Fred Currell, Mark Bellringer
A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology. A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology.
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Sushma Kalmodia, Suryanarayanan Vandhana, B R Tejaswini Rama, Balasubramanyam Jayashree, T Sreenivasan Seethalakshmi, Vetrivel Umashankar, Wenrong Yang, Colin J Barrow, Subramanian Krishnakumar, Sailaja V Elchuri
BACKGROUND: Functionalized gold nanoparticles are emerging as a promising nanocarrier for target specific delivery of the therapeutic molecules in a cancer cell, as a result it targeted selectively to the cancer cell and minimized the off-target effect. The functionalized nanomaterial (bio conjugate) brings novel functional properties, for example, the high payload of anticancer, antioxidant molecules and selective targeting of the cancer molecular markers. The current study reported the synthesis of multifunctional bioconjugate (GNPs-Pep-A) to target the cancer cell...
2016: Cancer Nanotechnology
Alexandre Detappe, Sijumon Kunjachan, Joerg Rottmann, James Robar, Panagiotis Tsiamas, Houari Korideck, Olivier Tillement, Ross Berbeco
AGuIX are gadolinium-based nanoparticles developed mainly for imaging due to their MR contrast properties. They also have a potential role in radiation therapy as a radiosensitizer. We used MRI to quantify the uptake of AGuIX in pancreatic cancer cells, and TEM for intracellular localization. We measured the radiosensitization of a pancreatic cancer cell line in a low-energy (220 kVp) beam, a standard 6 MV beam (STD) and a flattening filter free 6 MV beam (FFF). We demonstrated that the presence of nanoparticles significantly decreases cell survival when combined with an X-ray beam with a large proportion of low-energy photons (close to the k-edge of the nanoparticles)...
2015: Cancer Nanotechnology
Grace Cole, Joanne McCaffrey, Ahlam A Ali, Helen O McCarthy
While locally confined prostate cancer is associated with a low five year mortality rate, advanced or metastatic disease remains a major challenge for healthcare professionals to treat and is usually terminal. As such, there is a need for the development of new, efficacious therapies for prostate cancer. Immunotherapy represents a promising approach where the host's immune system is harnessed to mount an anti-tumour effect, and the licensing of the first prostate cancer specific immunotherapy in 2010 has opened the door for other immunotherapies to gain regulatory approval...
2015: Cancer Nanotechnology
Sameer Kaiser, Maximilian B MacPherson, Ted A James, Albert Emery, Page Spiess, Albert van der Vliet, Christopher C Landry, Arti Shukla
INTRODUCTION: Five year survival for metastatic melanoma (MM) is very low at <10%. Therapeutic options have been limited secondary to systemic toxicity. As a result there has been a growing movement towards developing targeted drug delivery models. Prior research of this group has demonstrated the effectiveness of acid-prepared mesoporous spheres (APMS-TEG) in delivering chemotherapeutic agents at a lower effective dose than systemic administration. This study aims to assess the ability of the previously developed APMS-TEG particles to deliver therapeutic doses of docetaxel for the treatment of melanoma...
2015: Cancer Nanotechnology
Géraldine Le Duc, Stéphane Roux, Amandine Paruta-Tuarez, Sandrine Dufort, Elke Brauer, Arthur Marais, Charles Truillet, Lucie Sancey, Pascal Perriat, François Lux, Olivier Tillement
AGuIX nanoparticles are formed of a polysiloxane network surrounded by gadolinium chelates. They present several characteristics. They are easy to produce, they present very small hydrodynamic diameters (<5 nm) and they are biodegradable through hydrolysis of siloxane bonds. Such degradation was evaluated in diluted conditions at physiological pH by dynamic light scattering and relaxometry. AGuIX nanoparticles are also known as positive contrast agents and efficient radiosensitizers. The aim of this paper is to compare their efficiency for magnetic resonance imaging and radiosensitization to those of the commercial gadolinium based molecular agent: DOTAREM®...
2014: Cancer Nanotechnology
Dipti Kakkar Thukral, Shweta Dumoga, Shelly Arora, Krishna Chuttani, Anil K Mishra
In this work matrix based nanoparticulate polymer systems have been designed using the diacrylate derivative of the well-known biocompatible polymer, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). This has been crosslinked using bifunctional (ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) and tetrafunctional (pentaerythritol tetraacrylate) crosslinkers in varied concentrations (10-90%) to result in a polymeric network. The crosslinked polymers thus obtained were characterized by spectroscopic techniques (NMR and FTIR) and then prepared nanoparticles by the nanoprecipitation technique...
2014: Cancer Nanotechnology
Jyoti Shaw, Sufi O Raja, Anjan Kr Dasgupta
Magnetic nanoparticles are well known for anticancer activity by deregulating cellular functions. In the present study, cellular effects of low strength static magnetic field (SMF) were explored. How nanoparticles affect the cellular response in presence and absence of static magnetic field was also studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and human lymphoma monocytic cell line U937 were chosen as representative normal and cancer cells models. The two effects we would like to report in this paper are, DNA damage induced by SMF of the order of 70 mT, and alteration in membrane potential...
2014: Cancer Nanotechnology
Muthunayagam Vibin, Ramachandran Vinayakan, Annie John, Francis Boniface Fernandez, Annie Abraham
The possibility of developing novel contrast imaging agents for cancer cellular labelling and fluorescence imaging applications were explored using silica-coated cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs). The time dependent cellular internalization efficiency study was carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (cLSM) after exposing QDs to stem cells and cancer cells. The strong fluorescence from the cytoplasm confirmed that the QDs were efficiently internalized by the cells...
2014: Cancer Nanotechnology
Sofie Snipstad, Sara Westrøm, Yrr Mørch, Mercy Afadzi, Andreas Ko Åslund, Catharina de Lange Davies
Encapsulation of drugs in nanoparticles can enhance the accumulation of drugs in tumours, reduce toxicity toward healthy tissue, and improve pharmacokinetics compared to administration of free drug. To achieve efficient delivery and release of drugs at the target site, mechanisms of interaction between the nanoparticles and cells and the mechanism of delivery of the encapsulated drug are crucial to understand. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms for cellular uptake of a fluorescent hydrophobic model drug from poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles...
2014: Cancer Nanotechnology
Lenka Stefančíková, Erika Porcel, Pierre Eustache, Sha Li, Daniela Salado, Sergio Marco, Jean-Luc Guerquin-Kern, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Olivier Tillement, François Lux, Sandrine Lacombe
Recently, the addition of nanoparticles (NPs) has been proposed as a new strategy to enhance the effect of radiotherapy particularly in the treatment of aggressive tumors such as glioblastoma. The physical processes involved in radiosensitisation by nanoparticles have been well studied although further understanding of its biological impact is still lacking, and this includes the localisation of these NPs in the target cells. Most studies were performed with NPs tagged with fluorescent markers. However, the presence of these markers can influence the NPs uptake and localisation...
2014: Cancer Nanotechnology
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