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Clinical Epigenetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344314/aberrant-expression-and-dna-methylation-of-lipid-metabolism-genes-in-pcos-a-new-insight-into-its-pathogenesis
#1
Jie-Xue Pan, Ya-Jing Tan, Fang-Fang Wang, Ning-Ning Hou, Yu-Qian Xiang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Ye Liu, Fan Qu, Qing Meng, Jian Xu, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whose etiology remains uncertain, is a highly heterogenous and genetically complex endocrine disorder. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in granulosa cells (GCs) from PCOS patients and make epigenetic insights into the pathogenesis of PCOS. Results: Included in this study were 110 women with PCOS and 119 women with normal ovulatory cycles undergoing in vitro fertilization acting as the control group...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344313/dna-methylation-as-a-predictor-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#2
Alexandre A Lussier, Alexander M Morin, Julia L MacIsaac, Jenny Salmon, Joanne Weinberg, James N Reynolds, Paul Pavlidis, Albert E Chudley, Michael S Kobor
Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disorder that manifests through a range of cognitive, adaptive, physiological, and neurobiological deficits resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. Although the North American prevalence is currently estimated at 2-5%, FASD has proven difficult to identify in the absence of the overt physical features characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome. As interventions may have the greatest impact at an early age, accurate biomarkers are needed to identify children at risk for FASD...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321814/the-epigenetic-clock-and-objectively-measured-sedentary-and-walking-behavior-in-older-adults-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#3
Catharine R Gale, Riccardo E Marioni, Iva Čukić, Sebastien F Chastin, Philippa M Dall, Manon L Dontje, Dawn A Skelton, Ian J Deary
Background: Estimates of biological age derived from DNA-methylation patterns-known as the epigenetic clock-are associated with mortality, physical and cognitive function, and frailty, but little is known about their relationship with sedentary behavior or physical activity. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between two such estimates of biological age and objectively measured sedentary and walking behavior in older people. Methods: Participants were 248 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317916/exposure-to-no2-co-and-pm2-5-is-linked-to-regional-dna-methylation-differences-in-asthma
#4
Mary Prunicki, Laurel Stell, Deendayal Dinakarpandian, Mariangels de Planell-Saguer, Richard W Lucas, S Katharine Hammond, John R Balmes, Xiaoying Zhou, Tara Paglino, Chiara Sabatti, Rachel L Miller, Kari C Nadeau
Background: DNA methylation of CpG sites on genetic loci has been linked to increased risk of asthma in children exposed to elevated ambient air pollutants (AAPs). Further identification of specific CpG sites and the pollutants that are associated with methylation of these CpG sites in immune cells could impact our understanding of asthma pathophysiology. In this study, we sought to identify some CpG sites in specific genes that could be associated with asthma regulation (Foxp3 and IL10) and to identify the different AAPs for which exposure prior to the blood draw is linked to methylation levels at these sites...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312471/an-epigenome-wide-study-of-obesity-in-african-american-youth-and-young-adults-novel-findings-replication-in-neutrophils-and-relationship-with-gene-expression
#5
Xiaoling Wang, Yue Pan, Haidong Zhu, Guang Hao, Yisong Huang, Vernon Barnes, Huidong Shi, Harold Snieder, James Pankow, Kari North, Megan Grove, Weihua Guan, Ellen Demerath, Yanbin Dong, Shaoyong Su
Background: We conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on obesity in healthy youth and young adults and further examined to what extent identified signals influenced gene expression and were independent of cell type composition and obesity-related cardio-metabolic risk factors. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from leukocytes were obtained from 700 African Americans aged 14-36. We also measured genome-wide DNA methylation data from neutrophils as well as genome-wide gene expression data from leukocytes in a subset of samples (n = 188)...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312470/combined-inhibition-of-bet-proteins-and-class-i-hdacs-synergistically-induces-apoptosis-in-urothelial-carcinoma-cell-lines
#6
Alexander S Hölscher, Wolfgang A Schulz, Maria Pinkerneil, Günter Niegisch, Michèle J Hoffmann
Background: New efficient therapies for urothelial carcinoma (UC) are urgently required. Small-molecule drugs targeting chromatin regulators are reasonable candidates because these regulators are frequently mutated or deregulated in UC. Indeed, in previous work, Romidepsin, which targets class I histone deacetylases (HDAC), efficiently killed UC cells, but did not elicit canonical apoptosis and affected benign urothelial cells indiscriminately. Combinations of HDAC inhibitors with JQ1, an inhibitor of bromodomain-containing acetylation reader proteins like BRD4, which promote especially the transcription of pro-tumorigenic genes, have shown efficacy in several tumor types...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299071/lung-function-discordance-in-monozygotic-twins-and-associated-differences-in-blood-dna-methylation
#7
Anneli C S Bolund, Anna Starnawska, Martin R Miller, Vivi Schlünssen, Vibeke Backer, Anders D Børglum, Kaare Christensen, Qihua Tan, Lene Christiansen, Torben Sigsgaard
Background: Lung function is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality, with accelerated lung function decline reported to have immense consequences for the world's healthcare systems. The lung function decline across individual's lifetime is a consequence of age-related changes in lung anatomical structure and combination of various environmental factors; however, the exact molecular mechanisms contributing to this decline are not fully understood. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that changes across individual's lifetime, as well as allows for interplay between environmental and genetic factors...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296124/tff1-hypermethylation-and-decreased-expression-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-histologically-normal-tumor-surrounding-esophageal-cells
#8
Isabela Martins Gonzaga, Sheila Coelho Soares Lima, Marina Chianello Nicolau, Pedro Nicolau-Neto, Nathalia Meireles da Costa, Tatiana de Almeida Simão, Hector Hernandez-Vargas, Zdenko Herceg, Luis Felipe Ribeiro Pinto
Background: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the 10 most incident cancer types in the world, and it is mainly associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption. ESCC mortality rates stand very close to its incidence, which is a direct consequence of a late diagnosis and an inefficient treatment. Although this scenery is quite alarming, the major molecular alterations that drive this carcinogenesis process remain unclear. We have previously shown through the first ESCC methylome analysis that TFF1 promoter is frequently hypermethylated in ESCC...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270240/bronchial-biopsy-specimen-as-a-surrogate-for-dna-methylation-analysis-in-inoperable-lung-cancer
#9
Sang-Won Um, Hong Kwan Kim, Yujin Kim, Bo Bin Lee, Dongho Kim, Joungho Han, Hojoong Kim, Young Mog Shim, Duk-Hwan Kim
Background: This study was aimed at understanding whether bronchial biopsy specimen can be used as a surrogate for DNA methylation analysis in surgically resected lung cancer. Methods: A genome-wide methylation was analyzed in 42 surgically resected tumor tissues, 136 bronchial washing, 12 sputum, and 8 bronchial biopsy specimens using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and models for prediction of lung cancer were evaluated using TCGA lung cancer data. Results: Four thousand seven hundred and twenty-six CpGs (P < 1...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270239/targeted-bisulfite-sequencing-identified-a-panel-of-dna-methylation-based-biomarkers-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-escc
#10
Weilin Pu, Chenji Wang, Sidi Chen, Dunmei Zhao, Yinghui Zhou, Yanyun Ma, Ying Wang, Caihua Li, Zebin Huang, Li Jin, Shicheng Guo, Jiucun Wang, Minghua Wang
Background: DNA methylation has been implicated as a promising biomarker for precise cancer diagnosis. However, limited DNA methylation-based biomarkers have been described in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: A high-throughput DNA methylation dataset (100 samples) of ESCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project was analyzed and validated along with another independent dataset (12 samples) from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The methylation status of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy controls was also utilized for biomarker selection...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255497/association-between-long-interspersed-nuclear-element-1-methylation-levels-and-relapse-in-wilms-tumors
#11
Bruna M de Sá Pereira, Rafaela Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Paulo Antônio Faria, Neimar de Paula Silva, Pedro Nicolau-Neto, Mariana Maschietto, Beatriz de Camargo, Sheila Coelho Soares Lima
Background: Wilms tumor (WT) is a curable pediatric renal malignancy, but there is a need for new molecular biomarkers to improve relapse risk-directed therapy. Somatic alterations occur at relatively low frequencies whereas epigenetic changes at 11p15 are the most common aberration. We analyzed long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) methylation levels in the blastemal component of WT and normal kidney samples to explore their prognostic significance. Results: WT samples presented a hypomethylated pattern at all five CpG sites compared to matched normal kidney samples; therefore, the averaged methylation levels of the five CpG sites were used for further analyses...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255496/serum-microrna-array-analysis-identifies-mir-140-3p-mir-33b-3p-and-mir-671-3p-as-potential-osteoarthritis-biomarkers-involved-in-metabolic-processes
#12
E Ntoumou, M Tzetis, M Braoudaki, G Lambrou, M Poulou, K Malizos, N Stefanou, L Anastasopoulou, A Tsezou
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in circulation have emerged as promising biomarkers. In this study, we aimed to identify a circulating miRNA signature for osteoarthritis (OA) patients and in combination with bioinformatics analysis to evaluate the utility of selected differentially expressed miRNAs in the serum as potential OA biomarkers. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 12 primary OA patients, and 12 healthy individuals were screened using the Agilent Human miRNA Microarray platform interrogating 2549 miRNAs...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225717/feasibility-of-quantifying-sdc2-methylation-in-stool-dna-for-early-detection-of-colorectal-cancer
#13
Tae Jeong Oh, Hyun Il Oh, Yang Yei Seo, Dongjun Jeong, Changjin Kim, Hyoun Woo Kang, Yoon Dae Han, Hyun Cheol Chung, Nam Kyu Kim, Sungwhan An
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is the most efficient strategy to reduce disease-related mortality. Frequent aberrant DNA methylation is known to occur in selected genes and early during CRC development, which has emerged as a new epigenetic biomarker for early detection of CRC. Previously, we reported that we identified that CpG sites of SDC2 were aberrantly methylated in tumor tissues of most CRC patients through comprehensive methylation analysis and demonstrated a high potential of quantification of SDC2 methylation in blood for early detection of colorectal cancer...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213339/comparison-of-quantification-algorithms-for-circulating-cell-free-dna-methylation-biomarkers-in-blood-plasma-from-cancer-patients
#14
Luka de Vos, Heidrun Gevensleben, Andreas Schröck, Alina Franzen, Glen Kristiansen, Friedrich Bootz, Dimo Dietrich
Background: SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in blood are established powerful and clinically valuable biomarkers for diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and monitoring of cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different quantification algorithms (relative quantification, absolute quantification, quasi-digital PCR) with regard to their clinical performance. Methods: Methylation analyses were performed in a training cohort (141 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [HNSCC], 170 control cases) and a testing cohort (137 HNSCC cases, 102 controls)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209433/novel-insights-into-epigenetic-drivers-of-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-role-of-hpv-and-lifestyle-factors
#15
REVIEW
Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo, Carlo Furlan, Valentina Lupato, Jerry Polesel, Elisabetta Fratta
In the last years, the explosion of high throughput sequencing technologies has enabled epigenome-wide analyses, allowing a more comprehensive overview of the oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) epigenetic landscape. In this setting, the cellular pathways contributing to the neoplastic phenotype, including cell cycle regulation, cell signaling, DNA repair, and apoptosis have been demonstrated to be potential targets of epigenetic alterations in OPSCC. Of note, it has becoming increasingly clear that HPV infection and OPSCC lifestyle risk factors differently drive the epigenetic machinery in cancer cells...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209432/epigenetic-modifications-of-the-vgf-gene-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-tissues-pave-the-way-towards-enhanced-expression
#16
Sebastian Marwitz, Lena Heinbockel, Swetlana Scheufele, Dörte Nitschkowski, Christian Kugler, Sven Perner, Martin Reck, Ole Ammerpohl, Torsten Goldmann
Hwang et al. recently showed that VGF substantially contributes to the resistance of human lung cancer cells towards epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors. This was further linked to enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, we demonstrate that VGF is epigenetically modified in non-small cell lung cancer tissues compared to corresponding tumor-free lung tissues from the same donors by using methylome bead chip analyses. These epigenetic modifications trigger an increased transcription of the VGF gene within the tumors, which then leads to an increased expression of the protein, facilitating epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and the resistance to kinase inhibitors...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209431/combining-cytogenetic-and-epigenetic-approaches-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-improves-prognosis-prediction-for-patients-with-isolated-13q-deletion
#17
Cristina Bagacean, Christelle Le Dantec, Christian Berthou, Adrian Tempescul, Hussam Saad, Anne Bordron, Mihnea Zdrenghea, Victor Cristea, Nathalie Douet-Guilbert, Yves Renaudineau
Background: Both defective DNA methylation and active DNA demethylation processes are emerging as important risk factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, associations between 5-cytosine epigenetic markers and the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities detected in CLL remain to be established. Methods: CLL patients were retrospectively classified into a cytogenetic low-risk group (isolated 13q deletion), an intermediate-risk group (normal karyotype or trisomy 12), and a high-risk group (11q deletion, 17p deletion, or complex karyotype [≥ 3 breakpoints])...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177020/epigenetic-regulation-of-axl-and-risk-of-childhood-asthma-symptoms
#18
Lu Gao, Joshua Millstein, Kimberly D Siegmund, Louis Dubeau, Rachel Maguire, Frank D Gilliland, Susan K Murphy, Cathrine Hoyo, Carrie V Breton
Background: AXL is one of the TAM (TYRO3, AXL and MERTK) receptor tyrosine kinases and may affect numerous immune-related health conditions. However, the role for AXL in asthma, including its epigenetic regulation, has not been extensively studied. Methods: We investigated the association between AXL DNA methylation at birth and risk of childhood asthma symptoms at age 6 years. DNA methylation of multiple CpG loci across the regulatory regions of AXL was measured in newborn bloodspots using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array on a subset of 246 children from the Children's Health Study (CHS)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093763/maternal-eating-disorders-affect-offspring-cord-blood-dna-methylation-a-prospective-study
#19
Nabila Kazmi, Tom R Gaunt, Caroline Relton, Nadia Micali
Background: Eating disorders (ED) are chronic psychiatric disorders, common amongst women of reproductive age. ED in pregnancy are associated with poor nutrition and abnormal intrauterine growth. Increasing evidence also shows offspring of women with ED have adverse developmental and birth outcomes. We sought to carry out the first study investigating DNA methylation in offspring of women with ED. We compared cord blood DNA methylation in offspring of women with active ED (n = 21), past ED (n = 43) and age- and social class-matched controls (n = 126) as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090038/methods-and-novel-technology-for-microrna-quantification-in-colorectal-cancer-screening
#20
REVIEW
Laura Moody, Hongshan He, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen
The screening and diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) currently relies heavily on invasive endoscopic techniques as well as imaging and antigen detection tools. More accessible and reliable biomarkers are necessary for early detection in order to expedite treatment and improve patient outcomes. Recent studies have indicated that levels of specific microRNA (miRNA) are altered in CRC; however, measuring miRNA in biological samples has proven difficult, given the complicated and lengthy PCR-based procedures used by most laboratories...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
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