Read by QxMD icon Read

Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology

Duncan Lee, Sujit Sahu, Gavin Shaddick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Ravi Maheswaran
Air pollution is being increasingly recognized as a significant risk factor for stroke. There are numerous sources of air pollution including industry, road transport and domestic use of biomass and solid fuels. Early reports of the association between air pollution and stroke come from studies investigating health effects of severe pollution episodes. Several daily time series and case-crossover studies have reported associations with stroke. There is also evidence linking chronic air pollution exposure with stroke and with reduced survival after stroke...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Silvia Liverani, Aurore Lavigne, Marta Blangiardo
In this work we present a statistical approach to distinguish and interpret the complex relationship between several predictors and a response variable at the small area level, in the presence of (i) high correlation between the predictors and (ii) spatial correlation for the response. Covariates which are highly correlated create collinearity problems when used in a standard multiple regression model. Many methods have been proposed in the literature to address this issue. A very common approach is to create an index which aggregates all the highly correlated variables of interest...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Francesca Pannullo, Duncan Lee, Eugene Waclawski, Alastair H Leyland
The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivation index, or use the individual characteristics, which can result in a variety of pollution-health effects...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Gavin Shaddick, James V Zidek, Yi Liu
The potential effects of air pollution are a major concern both in terms of the environment and in relation to human health. In order to support both environmental and health policy there is a need for accurate estimates of the exposures that populations might experience. The information for this typically comes from environmental monitoring networks but often the locations of monitoring sites are preferentially located in order to detect high levels of pollution. Using the information from such networks has the potential to seriously affect the estimates of pollution that are obtained and that might be used in health risk analyses...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Tim Pearson, Michael J Campbell, Ravi Maheswaran
Acute noise exposure may acutely increase blood pressure but the hypothesis that acute exposure to aircraft noise may trigger cardiovascular events has not been investigated. This study took advantage of a six-day closure of a major airport in April 2010 caused by volcanic ash to examine if there was a decrease in emergency cardiovascular hospital admissions during or immediately after the closure period, using an interrupted daily time-series study design. The population living within the 55dB(A) noise contour was substantial at 0...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Owais Gilani, Veronica J Berrocal, Stuart A Batterman
A problem often encountered in environmental epidemiological studies assessing the health effects associated with ambient exposure to air pollution is the spatial misalignment between monitors' locations and subjects' actual residential locations. Several strategies have been adopted to circumvent this problem and estimate pollutants concentrations at unsampled sites, including spatial statistical or geostatistical models that rely on the assumption of stationarity to model the spatial dependence in pollution levels...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
John L Pearce, Lance A Waller, Stefanie E Sarnat, Howard H Chang, Mitch Klein, James A Mulholland, Paige E Tolbert
BACKGROUND: Exposure metrics that identify spatial contrasts in multipollutant air quality are needed to better understand multipollutant geographies and health effects from air pollution. Our aim is to improve understanding of: (1) long-term spatial distributions of multiple pollutants; and (2) demographic characteristics of populations residing within areas of differing air quality. METHODS: We obtained average concentrations for ten air pollutants (p=10) across a 12 km grid (n=253) covering Atlanta, Georgia for 2002-2008...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Marta Blangiardo, Francesco Finazzi, Michela Cameletti
Exposure to high levels of air pollutant concentration is known to be associated with respiratory problems which can translate into higher morbidity and mortality rates. The link between air pollution and population health has mainly been assessed considering air quality and hospitalisation or mortality data. However, this approach limits the analysis to individuals characterised by severe conditions. In this paper we evaluate the link between air pollution and respiratory diseases using general practice drug prescriptions for chronic respiratory diseases, which allow to draw conclusions based on the general population...
August 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Jean Paul Tanner, Jason L Salemi, Amy L Stuart, Haofei Yu, Melissa M Jordan, Chris DuClos, Philip Cavicchia, Jane A Correia, Sharon M Watkins, Russell S Kirby
We investigate uncertainty in estimates of pregnant women's exposure to ambient PM2.5 and benzene derived from central-site monitoring data. Through a study of live births in Florida during 2000-2009, we discuss the selection of spatial and temporal scales of analysis, limiting distances, and aggregation method. We estimate exposure concentrations and classify exposure for a range of alternatives, and compare impacts. Estimated exposure concentrations were most sensitive to the temporal scale of analysis for PM2...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Samson B Adebayo, Ezra Gayawan, Christian Heumann, Christian Seiler
Malaria and anaemia which jointly account for high proportion of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries have been individually studied using binary regression model. We adopt geoadditive latent variable model for binary/ordinal indicators to analyze the influence of variables of different types on the morbidity among young children in Nigeria. Latent variable models allow for the analysis of multidimensional response variables that reveal the indicator's underlying relationship that are caused by the latent variables...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Lorna E Deeth, Rob Deardon
A class of complex statistical models, known as individual-level models, have been effectively used to model the spread of infectious diseases. These models are often fitted within a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo framework, which can have a sig nificant computational expense due to the complex nature of the likelihood function associated with this class of models. Increases in population size or duration of the modeled epidemic can contribute to this computational burden. Here, we explore the effect of reducing this computational expense by aggregating the data into spatial clusters, and therefore reducing the overall population size...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
André T J Alves, Flavio F Nobre, Lance A Waller
Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Dennis E Nicholas, Paul L Delamater, Nigel M Waters, Kathryn H Jacobsen
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arboviral infection that has occurred across Africa and parts of the Middle East. Geographically weighted discriminant analysis (GWDA) is a spatially-adaptive extension of traditional discriminant analysis (DA) which has rarely been applied to infectious disease epidemiology research. This study compares the classification performance of GWDA and traditional DA when used to distinguish between locations where livestock are at risk or are not at risk for acquiring RVF virus (RVFV) using 699 case reports of RVF (affecting 18,894 animals) from two outbreaks in South Africa in 2008-2009 and 2010-2011...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Jiale Xu, Ronald E Gangnon
Spatial cluster detection is an important tool in many areas such as sociology, botany and public health. Previous work has mostly taken either a hypothesis testing framework or a Bayesian framework. In this paper, we propose a few approaches under a frequentist variable selection framework for spatial cluster detection. The forward stepwise methods search for multiple clusters by iteratively adding currently most likely cluster while adjusting for the effects of previously identified clusters. The stagewise methods also consist of a series of steps, but with a tiny step size in each iteration...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Emily Morris, Christopher Bone
The objective of this paper on Chagas disease is to determine the availability and spatial resolution of existing data that can be used to address Chagas disease transmission risk in South America. A literature review was conducted to determine prominent variables that models utilize to assist with efforts to mitigate Chagas disease. Next, a Web search was performed to collect publicly available spatial data pertaining to these variables for the countries in South America. The data were classified based on type and spatial extent, which were then used to create maps of data availability of variables related to Chagas disease transmission...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Tahir Taj, Kristina Jakobsson, Emilie Stroh, Anna Oudin
BACKGROUND: Air pollution can increase the symptoms of asthma and has an acute effect on the number of emergency room visits and hospital admissions because of asthma, but little is known about the effect of air pollution on the number of primary health care (PHC) visits for asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between air pollution and the number of PHC visits for asthma in Scania, southern Sweden. METHODS: Data on daily PHC visits for asthma were obtained from a regional healthcare database in Scania, which covers approximately half a million people...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Kim Blasdell, Serge Morand, Heikki Henttonen, Annelise Tran, Philippe Buchy
To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Sebastian Meyer, Ingeborg Warnke, Wulf Rössler, Leonhard Held
Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Manuel Castro Ribeiro, António Jorge Sousa, Maria João Pereira
The geographical distribution of health outcomes is influenced by socio-economic and environmental factors operating on different spatial scales. Geographical variations in relationships can be revealed with semi-parametric Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (sGWPR), a model that can combine both geographically varying and geographically constant parameters. To decide whether a parameter should vary geographically, two models are compared: one in which all parameters are allowed to vary geographically and one in which all except the parameter being evaluated are allowed to vary geographically...
May 2016: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"