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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine

Evan Tsiklidis, Carrie Sims, Talid Sinno, Scott L Diamond
Trauma with hypovolemic shock is an extreme pathological state that challenges the body to maintain blood pressure and oxygenation in the face of hemorrhagic blood loss. In conjunction with surgical actions and transfusion therapy, survival requires the patient's blood to maintain hemostasis to stop bleeding. The physics of the problem are multiscale: (a) the systemic circulation sets the global blood pressure in response to blood loss and resuscitation therapy, (b) local tissue perfusion is altered by localized vasoregulatory mechanisms and bleeding, and (c) altered blood and vessel biology resulting from the trauma as well as local hemodynamics control the assembly of clotting components at the site of injury...
February 27, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Magdalena Harakalova, Folkert W Asselbergs
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a form of severe failure of cardiac muscle caused by a long list of etiologies ranging from myocardial infarction, DNA mutations in cardiac genes, to toxics. Systems analysis integrating next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based omics approaches, such as the sequencing of DNA, RNA, and chromatin, provide valuable insights into DCM mechanisms. The outcome and interpretation of NGS methods can be affected by the localization of cardiac biopsy, level of tissue degradation, and variable ratios of different cell populations, especially in the presence of fibrosis...
February 27, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Julia M Barbarino, Michelle Whirl-Carrillo, Russ B Altman, Teri E Klein
As precision medicine becomes increasingly relevant in healthcare, the field of pharmacogenomics (PGx) also continues to gain prominence in the clinical setting. Leading institutions have begun to implement PGx testing and the amount of published PGx literature increases yearly. The Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB; is one of the foremost worldwide resources for PGx knowledge, and the organization has been adapting and refocusing its mission along with the current revolution in genomic medicine...
February 23, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Kathryn R Tringale, John Pang, Quyen T Nguyen
Primary treatment for many solid cancers includes surgical excision or radiation therapy, with or without the use of adjuvant therapy. This can include the addition of radiation and chemotherapy after primary surgical therapy, or the addition of chemotherapy and salvage surgery to primary radiation therapy. Both primary therapies, surgery and radiation, require precise anatomic localization of tumor. If tumor is not targeted adequately with initial treatment, disease recurrence may ensue, and if targeting is too broad, unnecessary morbidity may occur to nearby structures or remaining normal tissue...
February 23, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Kevin R Costello, Dustin E Schones
Metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are complex diseases resulting from multiple genetic and environmental factors, such as diet and activity levels. These factors are well known contributors to the development of metabolic diseases. One manner by which environmental factors can influence metabolic disease progression is through modifications to chromatin. These modifications can lead to altered gene regulatory programs, which alters disease risk. Furthermore, there is evidence that parents exposed to environmental factors can influence the metabolic health of offspring, especially if exposures are during intrauterine growth periods...
January 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Matthew D Wiens, Robert E Campbell
Mapping the protein-protein interaction (PPi) landscape is of critical importance to furthering our understanding how cells and organisms function. Optogenetic methods, that is, approaches that utilize genetically encoded fluorophores or fluorogenic enzyme reactions, uniquely enable the visualization of biochemical phenomena in live cells with high spatial and temporal accuracy. Applying optogenetic methods to the detection of PPis requires the engineering of protein-based systems in which an optical signal undergoes a substantial change when the two proteins of interest interact...
January 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
D Rose Ewald, Susan C J Sumner
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function. That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia...
January 9, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Vijay Rajagopal, William R Holmes, Peter Vee Sin Lee
Cellular cytoskeletal mechanics plays a major role in many aspects of human health from organ development to wound healing, tissue homeostasis and cancer metastasis. We summarize the state-of-the-art techniques for mathematically modeling cellular stiffness and mechanics and the cytoskeletal components and factors that regulate them. We highlight key experiments that have assisted model parameterization and compare the advantages of different models that have been used to recapitulate these experiments. An overview of feed-forward mechanisms from signaling to cytoskeleton remodeling is provided, followed by a discussion of the rapidly growing niche of encapsulating feedback mechanisms from cytoskeletal and cell mechanics to signaling...
March 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Wei Leong Chew
Genome-editing therapeutics are poised to treat human diseases. As we enter clinical trials with the most promising CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cas12a (Cpf1) modalities, the risks associated with administering these foreign biomolecules into human patients become increasingly salient. Preclinical discovery with CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cas12a systems and foundational gene therapy studies indicate that the host immune system can mount undesired responses against the administered proteins and nucleic acids, the gene-edited cells, and the host itself...
January 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Shao-Shan C Huang, Joseph R Ecker
5-Methylcytosine, a chemical modification of DNA, is a covalent modification found in the genomes of both plants and animals. Epigenetic inheritance of phenotypes mediated by DNA methylation is well established in plants. Most of the known mechanisms of establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation have been worked out in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Major functions of DNA methylation in plants include regulation of gene expression and silencing of transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences, both of which have parallels in mammalian biology, involve interaction with the transcriptional machinery, and may have profound effects on the regulatory networks in the cell...
November 30, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Chris Fields, Michael Levin
A fundamental aspect of life is the modification of anatomy, physiology, and behavior in the face of changing conditions. This is especially illustrated by the adaptive regulation of growth and form that underlies the ability of most organisms-from single cells to complex large metazoa-to develop, remodel, and regenerate to specific anatomical patterns. What is the relationship of the genome and other cellular components to the robust computations that underlie this remarkable pattern homeostasis? Here we examine the role of constraints defined at the cellular level, especially endogenous bioelectricity, in generating and propagating biological information...
November 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Daniel J Cook, Jens Nielsen
Advances in genome sequencing, high throughput measurement of gene and protein expression levels, data accessibility, and computational power have allowed genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) to become a useful tool for understanding metabolic alterations associated with many different diseases. Despite the proven utility of GEMs, researchers confront multiple challenges in the use of GEMs, their application to human health and disease, and their construction and simulation in an organ-specific and disease-specific manner...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Kelly S Burrowes, Jan De Backer, Haribalan Kumar
The development and implementation of personalized medicine is paramount to improving the efficiency and efficacy of patient care. In the respiratory system, function is largely dictated by the choreographed movement of air and blood to the gas exchange surface. The passage of air begins in the upper airways, either via the mouth or nose, and terminates at the alveolar interface, while blood flows from the heart to the alveoli and back again. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a well-established tool for predicting fluid flows and pressure distributions within complex systems...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Eberhard O Voit
Biochemical systems are among of the oldest application areas of mathematical modeling. Spanning a time period of over one hundred years, the repertoire of options for structuring a model and for formulating reactions has been constantly growing, and yet, it is still unclear whether or to what degree some models are better than others and how the modeler is to choose among them. In fact, the variety of options has become overwhelming and difficult to maneuver for novices and experts alike. This review outlines the metabolic model design process and discusses the numerous choices for modeling frameworks and mathematical representations...
November 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Shao Thing Teoh, Sophia Y Lunt
Metabolic changes accompany tumor progression and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Yet, until recently, metabolism has received little attention in the study of cancer metastasis. Cancer cells undergo significant metabolic rewiring as they acquire metastatic traits and adapt to survive in multiple environments with varying nutrient availability, oxygen concentrations, and extracellular signals. Therefore, to effectively treat metastatic cancer, it is important to understand the metabolic strategies adopted by cancer cells during the metastatic process...
October 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Monica P McNerney, Mark P Styczynski
Small molecules have many important roles across the tree of life: they regulate processes from metabolism to transcription, they enable signaling within and between species, and they serve as the biochemical building blocks for cells. They also represent valuable phenotypic endpoints that are promising for use as biomarkers of disease states. In the context of engineering cell-based therapeutics, they hold particularly great promise for enabling finer control over the therapeutic cells and allowing them to be responsive to extracellular cues...
September 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Feng Liu, Paul S Mischel
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is critical for normal development and function. EGFR is also amplified or mutated in a variety of cancers including in nearly 60% of cases of the highly lethal brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). EGFR amplification and mutation reprogram cellular metabolism and broadly alter gene transcription to drive tumor formation and progression, rendering EGFR as a compelling drug target. To date, brain tumor patients have yet to benefit from anti-EGFR therapy due in part to an inability to achieve sufficient intratumoral drug levels in the brain, cultivating adaptive mechanisms of resistance...
September 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Rosela Golloshi, Jacob T Sanders, Rachel Patton McCord
During the cell cycle, the genome must undergo dramatic changes in structure, from a decondensed, yet highly organized interphase structure to a condensed, generic mitotic chromosome and then back again. For faithful cell division, the genome must be replicated and chromosomes and sister chromatids physically segregated from one another. Throughout these processes, there is feedback and tension between the information-storing role and the physical properties of chromosomes. With a combination of recent techniques in fluorescence microscopy, chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), biophysical experiments, and computational modeling, we can now attribute mechanisms to many long-observed features of chromosome structure changes during cell division...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Kristin M Myers, David Elad
The appropriate biomechanical function of the uterus is required for the execution of human reproduction. These functions range from aiding the transport of the embryo to the implantation site, to remodeling its tissue walls to host the placenta, to protecting the fetus during gestation, to contracting forcefully for a safe parturition and postpartum, to remodeling back to its nonpregnant condition to renew the cycle of menstruation. To serve these remarkably diverse functions, the uterus is optimally geared with evolving and contractile muscle and tissue layers that are cued by chemical, hormonal, electrical, and mechanical signals...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
Ying-Ning Ho, Lin-Jie Shu, Yu-Liang Yang
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows the study of the spatial distribution of small molecules in biological samples. IMS is able to identify and quantify chemicals in situ from whole tissue sections to single cells. Both vacuum mass spectrometry (MS) and ambient MS systems have advanced considerably over the last decade; however, some limitations are still hard to surmount. Sample pretreatment, matrix or solvent choices, and instrument improvement are the key factors that determine the successful application of IMS to different samples and analytes...
September 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
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