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Genes & Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108684/mismatch-repair-gene-mutations-lead-to-lynch-syndrome-colorectal-cancer-in-rhesus-macaques
#1
Beth K Dray, Muthuswamy Raveendran, R Alan Harris, Fernando Benavides, Stanton B Gray, Carlos J Perez, Mark J McArthur, Lawrence E Williams, Wallace B Baze, Harsha Doddapaneni, Donna M Muzny, Christian R Abee, Jeffrey Rogers
Colorectal cancer accounts for a substantial number of deaths each year worldwide. Lynch Syndrome is a genetic form of colorectal cancer (CRC) caused by inherited mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Although researchers have developed mouse models of Lynch Syndrome through targeted mutagenesis of MMR genes, the tumors that result differ in important ways from those in Lynch Syndrome patients. We identified 60 cases of CRC in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) at our facility since 2001. The tumors occur at the ileocecal junction, cecum and proximal colon and display clinicopathologic features similar to human Lynch Syndrome...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108683/viral-tumor-antigen-expression-is-no-longer-required-in-radiation-resistant-subpopulation-of-jcv-induced-mouse-medulloblastoma-cells
#2
Martina Donadoni, Rahsan Sariyer, Hassen Wollebo, Anna Bellizzi, Ilker Kudret Sariyer
The human neurotropic polyomavirus JC, JC virus (JCV), infects the majority of human population during early childhood and establishes a latent/persistent infection for the rest of the life. JCV is the etiologic agent of the fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) that is seen primarily in immunocompromised individuals. In addition to the PML, JCV has also been shown to transform cells in culture systems and cause a variety of tumors in experimental animals...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108682/the-expression-of-genes-contributing-to-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-progression-is-influenced-by-the-respective-environment
#3
Micah N Sagini, Michael Zepp, Frank Bergmann, Matthias Bozza, Richard Harbottle, Martin R Berger
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is a highly aggressive malignancy with dismal prognosis and limited curative options. We investigated the influence of organ environments on gene expression in RNU rats by orthotopic and intraportal infusion of Suit2-007luc cells into the pancreas, liver and lung respectively. Tumor tissues from these sites were analyzed by chip array and histopathology. Generated data was analyzed by Chipster and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (±1.5 expression fold change and p<0.05). Further analysis of functional annotations derived from IPA, was based on selected genes with significant modulation of expression...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108681/identification-of-a-panel-of-myc-and-tip60-co-regulated-genes-functioning-primarily-in-cell-cycle-and-dna-replication
#4
Ling-Jun Zhao, Paul M Loewenstein, Maurice Green
We recently reported that adenovirus E1A enhances MYC association with the NuA4/Tip60 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex to activate a panel of genes enriched for DNA replication and cell cycle. Genes from this panel are highly expressed in examined cancer cell lines when compared to normal fibroblasts. To further understand gene regulation in cancer by MYC and the NuA4 complex, we performed RNA-seq analysis of MD-MB231 breast cancer cells following knockdown of MYC or Tip60 - the HAT enzyme of the NuA4 complex...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108680/exosomes-derived-from-cancerous-and-non-cancerous-cells-regulate-the-anti-tumor-response-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Susan Bae, Jeffrey Brumbaugh, Benjamin Bonavida
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a unique platform of cancer biology that considers the local cellular environment in which a tumor exists. Increasing evidence points to the TME as crucial for either promoting immune tumor rejection or protecting the tumor. The TME includes surrounding blood vessels, the extracellular matrix (ECM), a variety of immune and regulatory cells, and signaling factors. Exosomes have emerged to be molecular contributors in cancer biology, and to modulate and affect the constituents of the TME...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108679/desmoplasia-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-insight-into-pathological-function-and-therapeutic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Andrew Cannon, Christopher Thompson, Bradley R Hall, Maneesh Jain, Sushil Kumar, Surinder K Batra
Extensive desmoplasia is a prominent feature of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) microenvironment. Initially, studies demonstrated that desmoplasia promotes proliferation, invasion and chemoresistance in PDAC cells. While these findings suggested the therapeutic potential of targeting desmoplasia in PDAC, more recent studies utilizing genetically-engineered mouse models of PDAC, which lack key components of desmoplasia, demonstrated accelerated progression of PDAC. This contrast calls into question the paradigm that desmoplasia unilaterally promotes PDAC progression and the premise of desmoplasia-targeted therapy...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725504/robust-genomic-copy-number-predictor-of-pan-cancer-metastasis
#7
Alexander Pearlman, Kinnari Upadhyay, Kim Cole, John Loke, Katherine Sun, Susan Fineberg, Stephen J Freedland, Yongzhao Shao, Harry Ostrer
Copy number alterations(CNAs) are the most common genetic changes observed in many cancers, reflecting the innate chromosomal instability of this disorder. Yet, how these alterations affect gene function to promote metastases across different tumor types has not been established. In this study, we developed a pan-cancer metastasis potential score (panMPS) based on observed CNAs. panMPS predicts metastasis and metastasis-free survival in cohorts of patients with prostate cancer, triple negative breast cancer and lung adenocarcinoma, and overall survival in the Metabric breast cancer cohort and three cohorts from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including prostate, breast and lung adenocarcinoma...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725503/mirna-involvement-in-cell-cycle-regulation-in-colorectal-cancer-cases
#8
Lila E Mullany, Jennifer S Herrick, Lori C Sakoda, Wade Samowitz, John R Stevens, Roger K Wolff, Martha L Slattery
Uncontrolled cell replication is a key component of carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate genes involved in checkpoints, DNA repair, and genes encoding for key proteins regulating the cell cycle. We investigated how miRNAs and mRNAs in colorectal cancer subjects interact to regulate the cell cycle. Using RNA-Seq data from 217 individuals, we analyzed differential expression (carcinoma minus normal mucosa) of 123 genes within the cell cycle pathway with differential miRNA expression, adjusting for age and sex...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725502/ciclopirox-activates-atr-chk1-signaling-pathway-leading-to-cdc25a-protein-degradation
#9
Tao Shen, Hongyu Zhou, Chaowei Shang, Yan Luo, Yang Wu, Shile Huang
Ciclopirox olamine (CPX), an off-patent anti-fungal drug, has been found to inhibit the G1 -cyclin dependent kinases partly by increasing the phosphorylation and degradation of Cdc25A. However, little is known about the molecular target(s) of CPX responsible for Cdc25A degradation. Here, we show that CPX induced the degradation of Cdc25A neither by increasing CK1α or decreasing DUB3 expression, nor via activating GSK3β, but through activating Chk1 in rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30) and breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725501/the-untold-stories-of-the-speech-gene-the-foxp2-cancer-gene
#10
REVIEW
Maria Jesus Herrero, Yorick Gitton
FOXP2 encodes a transcription factor involved in speech and language acquisition. Growing evidence now suggests that dysregulated FOXP2 activity may also be instrumental in human oncogenesis, along the lines of other cardinal developmental transcription factors such as DLX5 and DLX6 [1-4]. Several FOXP familymembers are directly involved during cancer initiation, maintenance and progression in the adult [5-8]. This may comprise either a pro-oncogenic activity or a deficient tumor-suppressor role, depending upon cell types and associated signaling pathways...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725500/gastric-cancer-and-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-emerging-new-paradigms
#11
REVIEW
Adamu Ishaku Akyala, Maikel P Peppelenbosch
Ever since its initial discovery in Drosophila, hedgehog signaling has been linked to foregut development, The mammalian genome expresses three Hedgehog paralogues, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Indian Hedgehog, and desert hedgehog. In the mucosa of the embryonic and adult foregut, Shh expression is the highest. It has now become clear that hedgehog signaling is of pivotal importance in gastric homeostasis. Aberrant activation of hedgehog signaling is associated with a range of pathological consequences including various cancers...
January 2018: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321821/the-influence-of-glyoxalase-1-gene-polymorphism-on-its-expression-at-different-stages-of-breast-cancer-in-egyptian-women
#12
Rehab S Abdul-Maksoud, Walid Sh Elsayed, Rasha S Elsayed
Aim: To assess the association of GLO1 C332C gene polymorphism with breast cancer risk at different stages of the disease and to investigate the effect of this gene polymorphism on its mRNA expression and enzyme activity. Methods: GLO1 C332C gene polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-RFLP in 100 healthy controls and 200 patients with breast cancer (100 patients with stage I & II and 100 patients with stage III & IV). GLO1 mRNA expression was measured by real time PCR...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321820/dysregulation-of-akt3-along-with-a-small-panel-of-mrnas-stratifies-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer-from-both-normal-epithelia-and-benign-tumor-tissues
#13
Pourya Naderi Yeganeh, Christine Richardson, Zahra Bahrani-Mostafavi, David L Tait, M Taghi Mostafavi
Screening methods of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer (HGSOC) lack specificity and sensitivity, partly due to benign tumors producing false-positive findings. We utilized a differential expression analysis pipeline on malignant tumor (MT) and normal epithelial (NE) samples, and also filtered the results to discriminate between MT and benign tumor (BT). We report that a panel of 26 dysregulated genes stratifies MT from both BT and NE. We further validated our findings by utilizing unsupervised clustering methods on two independent datasets...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321819/the-induction-of-endoreduplication-and-polyploidy-by-elevated-expression-of-14-3-3%C3%AE
#14
Cecil J Gomes, Sara M Centuori, Michael W Harman, Charles W Putnam, Charles W Wolgemuth, Jesse D Martinez
Several studies have demonstrated that specific 14-3-3 isoforms are frequently elevated in cancer and that these proteins play a role in human tumorigenesis. 14-3-3γ, an isoform recently demonstrated to function as an oncoprotein, is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers; however, its role in promoting tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously reported that overexpression of 14-3-3γ caused the appearance of polyploid cells, a phenotype demonstrated to have profound tumor promoting properties. Here we examined the mechanism driving 14-3-3γ-induced polyploidization and the effect this has on genomic stability...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321818/ews-fli-1-creates-a-cell-surface-microenvironment-conducive-to-igf-signaling-by-inducing-pappalysin-1
#15
Panneerselvam Jayabal, Peter J Houghton, Yuzuru Shiio
Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive cancer of bone and soft tissue in children with poor prognosis. It is characterized by the chromosomal translocation between EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly FLI-1. EWS-FLI-1 fusion accounts for 85% of Ewing sarcoma cases. EWS-FLI-1 regulates the expression of a number of genes important for sarcomagenesis, can transform NIH3T3 and C3H10T1/2 cells, and is necessary for proliferation and tumorigenicity of Ewing sarcoma cells, suggesting that EWS-FLI-1 is the causative oncoprotein...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321817/enhanced-myc-association-with-the-nua4-histone-acetyltransferase-complex-mediated-by-the-adenovirus-e1a-n-terminal-domain-activates-a-subset-of-myc-target-genes-highly-expressed-in-cancer-cells
#16
Ling-Jun Zhao, Paul M Loewenstein, Maurice Green
The proto-oncogene MYC is a transcription factor over-expressed in many cancers and required for cell survival. Its function is regulated by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, such as the GCN5 complex and the NuA4/Tip60 complex. However, the roles of the HAT complexes during MYC function in cancer have not been well characterized. We recently showed that adenovirus E1A and its N-terminal 80 aa region, E1A 1-80, interact with the NuA4 complex, through the E1A TRRAP-targeting (ET) domain, and enhance MYC association with the NuA4 complex...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321816/erbb-signaling-in-ctcs-of-ovarian-cancer-and-glioblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Anjali Geethadevi, Deepak Parashar, Erin Bishop, Sunila Pradeep, Pradeep Chaluvally-Raghavan
Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) are floating cell populations, which are resistant to anoikis after detachment from the primary sites and travel through the circulatory and lymphatic systems to disseminate throughout the body. CTCs are considered as seed cells for metastasis, and thus isolation of CTCs does not require any invasive procedure. Based on the nature and location of ovarian cancer and glioblastoma, the role of CTCs and hematogenous (carried by blood) spreading of tumor cells in these cancers were not understood well...
November 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234491/erratum-praja-is-overexpressed-in-glioblastoma-and-contributes-to-neural-precursor-development
#18
Joshua Shin, Viveka Mishra, Eric Glasgow, Sobia Zaidi, Kazufumi Ohshiro, Bhargava Chitti, Jian Chen, Amee A Kapadia, Neha Rana, Lopa Mishra, Chu-Xia Deng, Shuyun Rao, Bibhuti Mishra
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/genesandcancer.151.].
September 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234490/geminin-deficiency-enhances-survival-in-a-murine-medulloblastoma-model-by-inducing-apoptosis-of-preneoplastic-granule-neuron-precursors
#19
Savita Sankar, Ethan Patterson, Emily M Lewis, Laura E Waller, Caili Tong, Joshua Dearborn, David Wozniak, Joshua B Rubin, Kristen L Kroll
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer of childhood. Further understanding of tumorigenic mechanisms may define new therapeutic targets. Geminin maintains genome fidelity by controlling re-initiation of DNA replication within a cell cycle. In some contexts, Geminin inhibition induces cancer-selective cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and/or sensitizes cancer cells to Topoisomerase IIα inhibitors such as etoposide, which is used in combination chemotherapies for medulloblastoma. However, Geminin's potential role in medulloblastoma tumorigenesis remained undefined...
September 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234489/molecular-insights-suppression-of-egfr-and-akt-activation-by-a-small-molecule-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#20
Balaji Chandrasekaran, Ashish Tyagi, Arun K Sharma, Lu Cai, Murali Ankem, Chendil Damodaran
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation events and the mammalian target of rampamycin (mTOR) are considered important therapeutic targets in alleviating cancer conditions. The current treatment paradigm has shifted to personalized treatment strategies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors, due to low survival rates in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in terms of the prevailing platinum-based therapy. In the present study, we examined the anticancer potential of Verrucarin J (VJ), a small molecule, in NSCLC cell lines (H460 and A549)...
September 2017: Genes & Cancer
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