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Genes & Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740578/clinical-performance-of-e2fs-1-3-in-kidney-clear-cell-renal-cancer-evidence-from-bioinformatics-analysis
#1
Bin Liang, Jianying Zhao, Xuan Wang
Extensive research on the E2F transcription factor family has led to numerous insights that E2Fs were involved not only in proliferation and tumorigenesis but also in apoptosis and differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the differential expression of E2Fs1-3 genes, and also evaluated the impact of E2Fs 1-3 genes expression on clinical outcome from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The results showed that E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3 expression was increased in KIRC tissues than matched normal tissues (E2F1, P < 0...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740577/egfr-as-a-prognostic-biomarker-and-therapeutic-target-in-ovarian-cancer-evaluation-of-patient-cohort-and-literature-review
#2
Christine Mehner, Ann L Oberg, Krista M Goergen, Kimberly R Kalli, Matthew J Maurer, Aziza Nassar, Ellen L Goode, Gary L Keeney, Aminah Jatoi, Derek C Radisky, Evette S Radisky
BACKGROUND: Limited effectiveness of therapeutic agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in clinical trials using unselected ovarian cancer patients has prompted efforts to more effectively stratify patients who might best benefit from these therapies. A series of studies that have evaluated immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of EGFR in ovarian cancer biopsies has produced unclear results as to the utility of this measure as a prognostic biomarker. Here, we used one of the largest, single institution cohorts to date to determine possible associations of EGFR expression with patient outcome...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740576/the-chemokine-scavenging-receptor-d6-ackr2-is-a-target-of-mir-146a-in-thyroid-cancer
#3
Francesco Pacifico, Alessio Lepore, Stefano Mellone, Luca Sanguigno, Giorgia Federico, Adelaide Greco, Arturo Brunetti, Antonio Leonardi
We have previously shown that miR-146a, a NF-κB-regulated microRNA, is strongly expressed in human specimens and cell lines derived from anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC) where it mediates some of the NF-κB pro-tumorigenic functions. By using a bioinformatic analysis, we identified the chemokine scavenger receptor D6/ ACKR2 as a target of miR146a in human ATC. We found that the expression of D6/ ACKR2 was up-regulated in miR-146a-null ATC cell lines and that the 3' UTR of D6/ ACKR2 mRNA was able to inhibit its expression in parental, but not in miR-146a-null ATC cells...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740575/identification-of-novel-diagnostic-and-prognostic-mirna-signatures-in-endometrial-cancer
#4
Muralidharan Jayaraman, Rangasudhagar Radhakrishnan, Cara A Mathews, Mingda Yan, Sanam Husain, Katherine M Moxley, Yong Sang Song, Danny N Dhanasekaran
With the goal of identifying diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in endometrial cancer, miRNA-profiling was carried out with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 49 endometrial cancer patients. Results using an 84-cancer specific miRNA panel identified the upregulation of miR-141-3p and miR-96-5p along with a downregulation of miR-26, miR-126-3p, miR-23b, miR-195-5p, miR-374a and let-7 family of miRNAs in endometrial cancer. We validated the dysregulated expression of the identified miRNAs in a panel of endometrial cancer cell-lines...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740574/phase-i-ii-study-of-erlotinib-carboplatin-pemetrexed-and-bevacizumab-in-chemotherapy-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-advanced-non-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-harboring-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation
#5
Takayasu Kurata, Aya Nakaya, Takashi Yokoi, Maiko Niki, Kayoko Kibata, Yuki Takeyasu, Yoshitaro Torii, Yuichi Katashiba, Makoto Ogata, Takayuki Miyara, Shosaku Nomura
BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors significantly prolong the progression-free survival of patients with non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, most patients develop tumor regrowth and their prognosis remains poor. A new treatment strategy for NSCLC harboring EGFR mutation is therefore necessary. METHODS: In phase I, eligible patients were administered oral erlotinib daily and intravenous pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab every 3 weeks for four cycles with maintenance of pemetrexed and bevacizumab until progressive disease was observed...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740573/telomere-length-regulation-through-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Titto Augustine, Radhashree Maitra, Sanjay Goel
Length of the telomere (TL), a structure at the tip of chromosome that protects and ensures stability, is determined by multi-protein complexes such as telosome/shelterin and telomerase. Earlier studies from our laboratory show that longer TL has potential to be positive predictive biomarker of clinical outcome to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody therapy in patients with KRAS WT metastatic colorectal cancer. Although there is extensive literature suggesting the role of shelterin and telomerase, not much literature exists that describes the role of EGFR and KRAS pathway in regulating TL...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680538/a-tumor-specific-antibody-to-aid-breast-cancer-screening-in-women-with-dense-breast-tissue
#7
Lopamudra Das Roy, Lloye M Dillon, Ru Zhou, Laura J Moore, Chad Livasy, Joe M El-Khoury, Rahul Puri, Pinku Mukherjee
Screening for breast cancer has predominantly been done using mammography. Unfortunately, mammograms miss 50% cancers in women with dense breast tissue. Multi-modal screenings offer the best chance of enhancing breast cancer screening effectiveness. We evaluated the use of TAB004, an antibody that recognizes the tumor form of the glycoprotein MUC1 (tMUC1), to aid early detection of breast cancer. Our experimental approach was to follow tMUC1 from the tissue into circulation. We found that 95% of human breast cancer tissues across all subtypes stained positive for TAB004...
March 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680537/znf545-suppresses-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-by-inhibiting-nf-kb-signaling
#8
Weili Yang, Shuai Yang, Meiying Zhang, Dan Gao, Tao He, Mingzhou Guo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and the second leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. ZNF545 is located in the chromosome 19q13.13, which is frequent loss of heterozygosity in human astrocytoma. Methylation of ZNF545 was found frequently in a few kinds of cancers. While the function of ZNF545 in human HCC remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the function and mechanism of ZNF545 in human HCC. Restoration of ZNF545 expression suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced G1/S arrest and apoptosis in SNU449 and Huh7 cells...
March 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680536/tet1-mediated-dna-hypomethylation-regulates-the-expression-of-muc4-in-lung-cancer
#9
Seiya Yokoyama, Michiyo Higashi, Hideaki Tsutsumida, Jouji Wakimoto, Tomofumi Hamada, Edwin Wiest, Kei Matsuo, Ikumi Kitazono, Yuko Goto, Xin Guo, Taiji Hamada, Sohsuke Yamada, Tsubasa Hiraki, Suguru Yonezawa, Surinder K Batra, Michael A Hollingsworth, Akihide Tanimoto
Lung cancer remains a disease of high mortality, despite advanced diagnostic techniques. Mucins (MUC) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion in lung neoplasms. Our immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies have shown that high MUC4 expression correlates with a poor outcome. We have also shown that the expression of several mucin genes in cancer cell lines is regulated by DNA methylation. We evaluated the expression level of MUC4, mRNA and several DNA hypomethylation factors in lung tissue samples from 33 patients with various lung lesions...
March 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680535/ciclopirox-inhibits-cancer-cell-proliferation-by-suppression-of-cdc25a
#10
Tao Shen, Chaowei Shang, Hongyu Zhou, Yan Luo, Mansoureh Barzegar, Yoshinobu Odaka, Yang Wu, Shile Huang
Ciclopirox olamine (CPX), an off-patent fungicide, has recently been identified as a novel anticancer agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its anticancer action remains to be elucidated. Here we show that CPX inhibits cell proliferation in part by downregulating the protein level of Cdc25A in tumor cells. Our studies revealed that CPX did not significantly reduce Cdc25A mRNA level or Cdc25A protein synthesis, but remarkably promoted Cdc25A protein degradation. This resulted in inhibition of G1-cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), as evidenced by increased inhibitory phosphorylation of G1-CDKs...
March 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680534/nsclc-depend-upon-yap-expression-and-nuclear-localization-after-acquiring-resistance-to-egfr-inhibitors
#11
Marc McGowan, Lilach Kleinberg, Ann Rita Halvorsen, Åslaug Helland, Odd Terje Brustugun
Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a downstream target of the Hippo pathway and has been found to be oncogenic driving many cancers into developing metastatic phenotypes leading to poor survival outcomes. This study investigated if YAP expression is associated with drug resistance in two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines (HCC827 and H1975) generated to become resistant to the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKI) erlotinib, gefitinib or the T790M-specific osimertinib. We found that acquired EGFR TKI resistance was associated with YAP over-expression (osimertinib-resistant cells) or YAP amplification (erlotinib- and gefitinib-resistant cells) along with EMT phenotypic changes...
March 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680533/cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-and-6-inhibitors-as-novel-therapeutic-agents-for-targeted-treatment-of-malignant-mesothelioma
#12
Navid Sobhani, Silvia P Corona, Fabrizio Zanconati, Daniele Generali
Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a rare and aggressive form of tumour that affects the lining of the internal organs for which current treatments have not been proven to be very effective. P16(INK4A) tumour suppressor encoding CDKN2A gene is often downregulated in MM. This protein is a cyclin dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor, that normally phosphorylates RB1, which has to be un-phosphorylated in order to block cell-cycle at G1 in normal cells. Adding CDK inhibitor molecules to MM in pre-clinical studies has been proven to restore the normal function of p16(INK4A), blocking thereby MM cell cycle at G1...
March 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435520/genetically-transforming-human-osteoblasts-to-sarcoma-development-of-an-osteosarcoma-model
#13
Yi Yang, Rui Yang, Michael Roth, Sajida Piperdi, Wendong Zhang, Howard Dorfman, Pulivarthi Rao, Amy Park, Sandeep Tripathi, Carrie Freeman, Yunjia Zhang, Rebecca Sowers, Jeremy Rosenblum, David Geller, Bang Hoang, Jonathan Gill, Richard Gorlick
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Although histologically defined by the presence of malignant osteoid, the tumor possesses lineage multipotency suggesting it could be derived from a cell anywhere on the differentiation pathway between a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and a mature osteoblast. To determine if preosteoblasts (pOB) could be the cell of origin differentiated MSCs were transformed with defined genetic elements. MSCs and pOB differentiated from the same MSCs were serially transformed with the oncogenes hTERT, SV40 large T antigen and H-Ras...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435519/gt198-psmc3ip-germline-variants-in-early-onset-breast-cancer-patients-from-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-families
#14
Stephanie Schubert, Tim Ripperger, Melanie Rood, Anthony Petkidis, Winfried Hofmann, Hildegard Frye-Boukhriss, Marcel Tauscher, Bernd Auber, Ursula Hille-Betz, Thomas Illig, Brigitte Schlegelberger, Doris Steinemann
GT198, located 470 kb downstream of BRCA1, encodes for the nuclear PSMC3-interacting protein, which functions as co-activator of steroid hormone-mediated gene expression, and is involved in RAD51 and DMC1-mediated homologous recombination during DNA repair of double-strand breaks. Recently, germline variants in GT198 have been identified in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients, mainly in cases with early-onset. We screened a cohort of 166 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative HBOC patients, of which 56 developed early-onset breast cancer before the age of 36 years, for GT198 variants...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435518/sparc-overexpression-alters-microrna-expression-profiles-involved-in-tumor-progression
#15
Bhavesh K Ahir, Nasya M Elias, Sajani S Lakka
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine), a multicellular non-structural glycoprotein is known to be involved in multiple processes in various cancers. Previously, we reported that SPARC expression significantly impairs medulloblastoma tumor growth in vitro and in vivo and also alters chemo sensitivity. MicroRNAs are a class of post-transcriptional gene regulators with critical functions in tumor progression. In addition, microRNA (miRNA) expression changes are also involved in chemo-resistance...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435517/inhibition-of-the-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-beta-pdgfrb-using-gene-silencing-crenolanib-besylate-or-imatinib-mesylate-hampers-the-malignant-phenotype-of-mesothelioma-cell-lines
#16
Ombretta Melaiu, Calogerina Catalano, Chiara De Santi, Monica Cipollini, Gisella Figlioli, Lucia Pellè, Elisa Barone, Monica Evangelista, Alice Guazzelli, Laura Boldrini, Elisa Sensi, Alessandra Bonotti, Rudy Foddis, Alfonso Cristaudo, Luciano Mutti, Gabriella Fontanini, Federica Gemignani, Stefano Landi
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a cancer of the pleural cavity resistant to chemotherapy. The identification of novel therapeutic targets is needed to improve its poor prognosis. Following a review of literature and a screening of specimens we found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) is over-expressed, but not somatically mutated, in MPM tissues. We aimed to ascertain whether PDGFRB is a MPM-cancer driver gene. The approaches employed included the use of gene silencing and the administration of small molecules, such as crenolanib and imatinib (PDGFR inhibitors) on MPM cell lines (IstMes2, Mero-14, Mero-25)...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435516/docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-promotes-immunogenic-apoptosis-in-human-multiple-myeloma-cells-induces-autophagy-and-inhibits-stat3-in-both-tumor-and-dendritic-cells
#17
Donatella D'Eliseo, Livia Di Renzo, Angela Santoni, Francesca Velotti
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oil, is a multi-target agent and exerts anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities alone or in combination with chemotherapies. Combinatorial anticancer therapies, which induce immunogenic apoptosis, autophagy and STAT3 inhibition have been proposed for long-term therapeutic success. Here, we found that DHA promoted immunogenic apoptosis in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, with no toxicity on PBMCs and DCs. Immunogenic apoptosis was shown by the emission of specific DAMPs (CRT, HSP90, HMGB1) by apoptotic MM cells and the activation of their pro-apoptotic autophagy...
January 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191286/the-regulation-of-tumor-suppressor-protein-p53-and-estrogen-receptor-er%C3%AE-by-resveratrol-in-breast-cancer-cells
#18
Julieta Saluzzo, Kelly M Hallman, Katie Aleck, Brigitte Dwyer, Meghan Quigley, Viktoria Mladenovik, Amy E Siebert, Sumi Dinda
Resveratrol (RES) is a natural antioxidant found abundantly in grapes, peanuts, and berries, and is known to possess anti-tumorigenic properties. However, there is a noticeable lack of studies on the mechanistic effects of Resveratrol on tumor suppressors. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown the tumor suppressor protein p53 and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) to be possible molecular targets for RES. In this study, the anti-estrogenic effects of RES were analyzed on the expression of ERα and p53...
November 2016: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191285/autoantibodies-against-oncogenic-erg-protein-in-prostate-cancer-potential-use-in-diagnosis-and-prognosis-in-a-panel-with-c-myc-amacr-and-herv-k-gag
#19
Anshu Rastogi, Amina Ali, Shyh-Han Tan, Sreedatta Banerjee, Yongmei Chen, Jennifer Cullen, Charles P Xavier, Ahmed A Mohamed, Lakshmi Ravindranath, Jigisha Srivastav, Denise Young, Isabell A Sesterhenn, Jacob Kagan, Sudhir Srivastava, David G McLeod, Inger L Rosner, Gyorgy Petrovics, Albert Dobi, Shiv Srivastava, Alagarsamy Srinivasan
Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer (CaP) is attributable to widespread reliance on PSA screening in the US. This has prompted us and others to search for improved biomarkers for CaP, to facilitate early detection and disease stratification. In this regard, autoantibodies (AAbs) against tumor antigens could serve as potential candidates for diagnosis and prognosis of CaP. Towards this, our goals were: i) To investigate whether AAbs against ERG oncoprotein (overexpressed in 25-50% of Caucasian American and African American CaP) are present in the sera of CaP patients; ii) To evaluate an AAb panel to enhance CaP detection...
November 2016: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191284/e3-ubiquitin-ligase-pirh2-enhances-tumorigenic-properties-of-human-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-cells
#20
Alexandra Daks, Alexey Petukhov, Olga Fedorova, Oleg Shuvalov, Valeriy Merkulov, Elena Vasileva, Alexey Antonov, Nikolai A Barlev
The product of RCHY1 human gene, Pirh2, is a RING-finger containing E3 ligase that modifies p53 with ubiquitin residues resulting in its subsequent degradation in proteasomes. Transcription of RCHY1 is regulated by p53 itself thus forming a negative regulatory feedback loop. Functionally, by eliminating p53, Pirh2 facilitates tumorigenesis. However, the role of Pirh2 in cancer cells lacking p53 is yet not well understood. Therefore, we decided to elucidate the role of Pirh2 in p53-negative human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells, H1299...
November 2016: Genes & Cancer
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