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International Journal of Microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484494/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-typhi-and-paratyphi-isolates-from-a-general-hospital-in-karawaci-tangerang-indonesia-a-five-year-review
#1
Nata Pratama Hardjo Lugito, Cucunawangsih
Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. This study aim was to provide data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi bloodstream isolates in a general hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, during the period of January 2011 to December 2015. Susceptibility against antimicrobials was detected according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458692/control-of-passion-fruit-fungal-diseases-using-essential-oils-extracted-from-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-and-eucalyptus-eucalyptus-agglomerata-in-egerton-university-main-campus-njoro-kenya
#2
Paul Njenga Waithaka, Eliud Mugu Gathuru, Benson Muriuki Githaiga, Salome Nduta Kimani
Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386280/bacterial-isolates-and-their-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-wound-infections-among-inpatients-and-outpatients-attending-the-university-of-gondar-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#3
Aynalem Mohammed, Mengistu Endris Seid, Teklay Gebrecherkos, Moges Tiruneh, Feleke Moges
Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367217/bacteriological-profile-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-bacteria-isolated-from-pus-wound-swab-samples-from-children-attending-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-kathmandu-nepal
#4
Salu Rai, Uday Narayan Yadav, Narayan Dutt Pant, Jaya Krishna Yakha, Prem Prasad Tripathi, Asia Poudel, Binod Lekhak
In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of oxacillin...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348597/prevalence-of-bacteriuria-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-among-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-patients-attending-at-debre-tabor-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#5
Seble Worku, Awoke Derbie, Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw, Yesuf Adem, Fantahun Biadglegne
Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED) medium...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270849/prevalence-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases-producing-microorganisms-in-patients-admitted-at-krrh-southwestern-uganda
#6
Baguma Andrew, Atek Kagirita, Joel Bazira
The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing pathogenic bacteria at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital (KRRH), located in southwestern Uganda, is of great concern: a phenomenon that worries clinicians and other healthcare workers due to the serious threat they pose to patients. This current study aimed at determining the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing strains of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. isolated from clinical specimens and their prevalence in patients admitted at KRRH...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255302/urinary-tract-infections-among-hiv-positive-pregnant-women-in-mwanza-city-tanzania-are-high-and-predicted-by-low-cd4-count
#7
Tito Chaula, Jeremiah Seni, Nhandi Ng'walida, Alphaxaid Kajura, Mariam M Mirambo, Rebekah DeVinney, Stephen E Mshana
Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250772/molecular-characteristics-and-antibiotic-resistance-profiles-of-klebsiella-isolates-in-mthatha-eastern-cape-province-south-africa
#8
Sandeep Vasaikar, Larry Obi, Isaac Morobe, Mary Bisi-Johnson
The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE) isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197207/maize-fungal-growth-control-with-scopoletin-of-cassava-roots-produced-in-benin
#9
Rafiatou Ba, Teou Alfa, Fernand Gbaguidi, Kosi Mawuéna Novidzro, Kokouvi Dotse, Koffi Koudouvo, Ursula Houngue, Marcel T Donou Hounsode, Kossi Honoré Koumaglo, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Lamine Baba-Moussa
The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154578/growth-on-alpha-ketoglutarate-increases-oxidative-stress-resistance-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Maria Bayliak, Nadia Burdyliuk, Volodymyr Lushchak
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe(2+) and Cu(2+)) but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133483/assessment-of-resistance-and-bioremediation-ability-of-lactobacillus-strains-to-lead-and-cadmium
#11
Anna V Kirillova, Anna A Danilushkina, Denis S Irisov, Nataliya L Bruslik, Rawil F Fakhrullin, Yuri A Zakharov, Vladimir S Bukhmin, Dina R Yarullina
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are heavy metals, important environmental pollutants, and potent toxicants to organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove Cd and Pb from solutions and therefore represent a useful tool for decontamination of food and beverages from heavy metals. Heavy metal ion binding by LAB was reported as metabolism-independent surface process. In this work ten Lactobacillus strains were investigated with respect to hydrophobicity, Lewis acid-base, and electrostatic properties of their outer cell surface in order to characterize their Cd and Pb removal capacity...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127308/antifungal-activity-of-essential-oil-of-eucalyptus-camaldulensis-dehnh-against-selected-fusarium-spp
#12
Martin Muthee Gakuubi, Angeline W Maina, John M Wagacha
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test pathogens...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115936/the-bacteriomes-of-ileal-mucosa-and-cecal-content-of-broiler-chickens-and-turkeys-as-revealed-by-metagenomic-analysis
#13
Shan Wei, Michael Lilburn, Zhongtang Yu
The gastrointestinal (GI) bacteriome of poultry is important in host nutrition and health, but its diversity and composition remain poorly characterized. In this study we phylogenetically characterized the bacteriome in the cecal contents and ileal mucosa of chickens and turkeys using metagenomics empowered by pyrosequencing technique. >95% coverage of bacterial diversity was achieved except for the turkey ileal mucosa. Collectively, 3,401 and 125 operational taxonomy units (OTU, defined at a 0.03 phylogenetic distance) in chicken, and 1,687 and 16 OTUs in turkey were identified from the cecal content and the ileal mucosa, respectively...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101105/oral-administration-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-299v-reduces-cortisol-levels-in-human-saliva-during-examination-induced-stress-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#14
Hannah Andersson, Cecilia Tullberg, Siv Ahrné, Kristina Hamberg, Irini Lazou Ahrén, Göran Molin, Mikael Sonesson, Åsa Håkansson
Objective. To clarify the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the salivary cortisol and salivary IgA levels in young adults under examination stress. Design. Forty-one students with an upcoming academic exam were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The probiotic bacteria or the placebo product was administered in capsules once a day during 14 days. Saliva was collected and a perceived stress test was filled out at each sampling occasion. Saliva was collected for cortisol analysis by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLI) and salivary IgA was analysed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096816/optimization-of-the-medium-for-the-production-of-extracellular-amylase-by-the-pseudomonas-stutzeri-isl-b5-isolated-from-municipal-solid-waste
#15
Prajesh Dutta, Akash Deb, Sukanta Majumdar
The management of municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of the present world. The use of microbial enzymes for sustainable management of the solid waste is the need of the time. In the present study, we have isolated a potent amylase producing strain (ISL B5) from municipal solid waste. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri) both biochemically and by 16S rDNA sequencing. The optimization studies revealed that the strain ISL B5 exhibited maximum activity in the liquid media containing 2% starch (2...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070190/susceptibility-profiles-of-mycobacterium-ulcerans-isolates-to-streptomycin-and-rifampicin-in-two-districts-of-the-eastern-region-of-ghana
#16
Enid Owusu, Mercy Jemima Newman, Nana Konama Kotey, Amos Akumwena, Elizabeth Bannerman
Background. Drug resistance is a major challenge in antibiotic chemotherapy. Assessing resistance profiles of pathogens constitutes an essential surveillance tool in the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases, including Buruli ulcer (BU) disease. With the successful definitive management of BU using rifampicin and streptomycin, little attention had been paid to monitoring emergence of resistant Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) isolates in endemic communities. This study investigated the susceptibility profiles of M...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058048/performance-of-the-who-2011-tb-symptom-screening-algorithm-for-pulmonary-tb-diagnosis-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-gondar-university-referral-hospital-ethiopia
#17
Martha Alemayehu Menberu
The new WHO 2011 guidelines on TB screening among HIV-infected individuals recommend screening using four TB symptoms (current cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats). This study aimed to assess the performance of WHO 2011 TB symptom screening algorithm for diagnosing pulmonary TB in HIV patients and identify possible risk factors for TB. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2012 to November 2012. A total of 250 HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years visiting the University of Gondar Hospital, ART clinic, were enrolled...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058047/effect-of-trehalose-and-trehalose-transport-on-the-tolerance-of-clostridium-perfringens-to-environmental-stress-in-a-wild-type-strain-and-its-fluoroquinolone-resistant-mutant
#18
Miseon Park, Wilfrid J Mitchell, Fatemeh Rafii
Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin-) resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose supported the growth of the wild type but not that of the mutant. Microarray data and qRT-PCR showed that putative genes for the phosphorylation and transport of sucrose and trehalose (via phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems, PTS) and some regulatory genes were downregulated in the mutant...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044080/detection-of-anti-leptospira-igm-antibody-in-serum-samples-of-suspected-patients-visiting-national-public-health-laboratory-teku-kathmandu
#19
Krishna Prasad Dahal, Supriya Sharma, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Bishnu Prasad Upadhyay, Dwij Raj Bhatta
Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis with varied clinical outcomes and multiorgan involvement in humans. In this study conducted from July 2011 to December 2011, 178 serum samples from patients suspected of leptospirosis were tested by Panbio IgM ELISA at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, out of which 51 (28.65%) were positive for anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis was more common in people in their 2nd and 3rd decades of their life which together comprised 56.86% of the total positive cases...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872643/antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-of-bacterial-isolates-from-pus-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-punjab-india
#20
Rugira Trojan, Lovely Razdan, Nasib Singh
We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%), Citrobacter spp. (3.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.3%), and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
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