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International Journal of Microbiology

Stephen T Odonkor, Kennedy K Addo
The control of infectious diseases is badly endangered by the rise in the number of microorganisms that are resistant to antimicrobial agents. This is because infections caused by resistant microorganisms often fail to respond to conventional treatment, resulting in prolonged illness and greater risk of death. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria are also present in various water sources. This study therefore sought to document the microbiological quality and antibiograms of bacterial isolates ( E. coli strains) from six different water sources in order to determine their safety for human consumption and to provide updated antibiotic data for pragmatic treatment of patients...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Irene N Ogali, Lucy W Wamuyu, Jacqueline K Lichoti, Erick O Mungube, Bernard Agwanda, Sheila C Ommeh
Newcastle disease (ND) is a serious disease of poultry that causes significant economic losses. Despite rampant ND outbreaks that occur annually in Kenya, the information about the NDV circulating in Kenya is still scarce. We report the first countrywide study of NDV in Kenya. Our study is aimed at evaluating the genetic characteristics of Newcastle disease viruses obtained from backyard poultry in farms and live bird markets in different regions of Kenya. We sequenced and analyzed fusion (F) protein gene, including the cleavage site, of the obtained viruses...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Hailu Getachew, Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2018/6413179.].
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Rachel V Purcell, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Hazel M Mitchell, John F Pearson, Jacqueline I Keenan
Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with a rising incidence worldwide, particularly in children. CD is thought to arise due to an immune response to environmental factors. The role of bacteria in CD has recently been highlighted, and here, we examine the prevalence of two bacterial species, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) and Fusobacterium nucleatum , implicated in gastrointestinal pathologies, in a pediatric CD cohort. Stool samples from 30 children with treatment-naïve CD and 30 age- and sex-matched controls were collected, and DNA was extracted...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Gabriela C V Bard, Gabriel B Taveira, Thaynã A M Souza, Érica O Mello, Sávio B Souza, Alessandro C Ramos, André O Carvalho, Lídia S Pereira, Umberto Zottich, Rosana Rodrigues, Valdirene M Gomes
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the Cc -LTP2 and Cc -GRP peptides isolated from Coffea canephora seeds and their possible synergistic activity with the azole drug fluconazole and characterize their mechanisms of action on cells of pathogenic fungi. Cc -LTP2 and Cc -GRP alone or in combination with 20  µ g/mL of fluconazole were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity on the fungus Fusarium solani , and the effects of these peptides on the permeability of membranes and the induction of oxidative stress were determined...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Seid Ali, Martha Alemayehu, Mulat Dagnew, Teklay Gebrecherkos
Background: Enterococci are becoming the most important public health concern and emerging as multidrug-resistant organisms around the world including Africa particularly in Ethiopia where there is a lack of availability of effective antimicrobial drugs. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence and associated risk factors of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Ethiopia. Objective: This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and its associated risk factors among HIV-positive and -negative clients...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Brice E N Wamba, Armelle T Mbaveng, Paul Nayim, Joachim K Dzotam, Ornella J T Ngalani, Victor Kuete
Background: In this study, 18 methanol extracts from Cameroonian edible plants were tested for their antibacterial activities against 26 strains of S. aureus ; the role of efflux pumps in the resistance of tested bacteria and the antibiotic resistance-modulating activities against selected multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes were also investigated. Methods: Broth microdilution assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity, the role of efflux pumps, and the antibiotic resistance-modulating effects of plant extracts...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Teshale Worku, Dejene Derseh, Abera Kumalo
Background: Nosocomial infections occur among patients during their stay in hospitals. The severity of infection depends on the characteristics of microorganisms with a high risk of being acquired when the environment is contaminated. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are emerging rapidly around the globe creating a serious threat. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2016-February 2017 at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Edson K Kemoi, Andrew Nyerere, Christine C Bii
The mainstay in prevention and treatment of aspergillosis is the use triazole drugs. In Kenya, the use of agricultural azole is one of the predisposing factors in development of resistance. One hundred fifty-six (156) experienced soils were collected from agricultural farms and cultured on Sabouraud DextroseAagar. The study isolated 48 yielded Aspergillus fumigatus and 2 A. flavus . All the isolates were subjected to antifungal susceptibility testing against three triazoles: posaconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Chirayu Sa-Uth, Paweena Rattanasena, Angsumarn Chandrapatya, Prapassorn Bussaman
Xenorhabdus stockiae PB09 bacterium has been shown to exhibit antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. To improve its efficacy, the optimization of the nutritional components in culture media was performed. The medium components that have significant effects on antifungal activity of X. stockiae PB09 were initially identified using a fractional factorial design. Response surface methodology and central composite design were then used to create a model for optimizing the levels of carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources that maximize antifungal activity of X...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
International Journal Of Microbiology
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2017/5809494.].
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Adam Oest, Ali Alsaffar, Mitchell Fenner, Dominic Azzopardi, Sonia M Tiquia-Arashiro
Information on the biodegradation potential of lake and river microbial communities is essential for watershed management. The water draining into the lake ecosystems often carries a significant amount of suspended sediments, which are transported by rivers and streams from the local drainage basin. The organic carbon processing in the sediments is executed by heterotrophic microbial communities, whose activities may vary spatially and temporally. Thus, to capture and apprehend some of these variabilities in the sediments, we sampled six sites: three from the Saint Clair River (SC1, SC2, and SC3) and three from Lake Saint Clair in the spring, summer, fall, and winter of 2016...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
B Laxmi Narayana, Pooja Rao, Sevitha Bhat, K Vidyalakshmi
Soft contact lenses provide perfect conditions for the breeding of pathogens. The study is a prospective, experimental study, conducted to know the antimicrobial ability of multipurpose contact lens solution against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the stand-alone test. The test method is based on the procedures in the ISO 14729 standard primary stand-alone test. Three multipurpose contact lens care solutions commercially available in Mangalore markets, namely, Biotrue (Bausch & Lomb), Opti-Free Replenish (Alcon), and Aquasoft (Stericon Pharma), were tested for its antimicrobial effect in the microbiology lab at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Alejandro Llanes, Carlos Mario Restrepo, Pablo Riesgo-Ferreiro, Sreekumari Rajeev
Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo colonizes cattle kidneys and may occasionally infect humans and other mammals. Strains belonging to two clonal subtypes (types A and B) with marked differences in their pathogenicity in the hamster experimental model have been described for this serovar. Such differences have been attributed to point mutations in individual genes, although those genes have not yet been characterized. In order to better understand genetic variability among L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo isolates, we sequenced and compared the genomes of two laboratory-adapted strains and three abattoir-derived field isolates of L...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Alireza Ekrami
Objectives: Incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing every year, especially in burn patients with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Molecular and epidemiologic studies are useful practices for understanding the relatedness of isolates in a single patient or a hospital. This study aimed at determining molecular characterizations of isolates collected in 2006 and 2014 using S. aureus -specific staphylococcal protein A (Spa) typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) methods...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Hailu Getachew, Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen
Background: The hospital environment is a source of medically important pathogens that are mostly multidrug resistant (MDR) and posing a major therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the surface and air bacteriology of selected wards at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from 15th February to 30th April 2017. A total of 356 surface and air samples were collected from selected wards using 5% sheep blood agar (Oxoid, UK) and processed at FHRH microbiology laboratory following the standard bacteriological procedures...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Hellen Holanda Sena, Michele Alves Sanches, Diego Fernando Silva Rocha, Walter Oliva Pinto Filho Segundo, Érica Simplício de Souza, João Vicente Braga de Souza
Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds that have sparked interest in recent years because of their environmental advantages over conventional surfactants. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of biosurfactants by soil fungi isolated from the Amazon forest. Fungi colonies were isolated from soil samples and screened for biosurfactant production in submerged fermentation. In addition, the influences of bioprocess factors (carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, and fermentation time) were investigated...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Jijoho Mischaël Michel Agbla, Annick Capo-Chichi, Alidéhou Jerrold Agbankpé, Tamègnon Victorien Dougnon, Anges William M Yadouleton, Olivia Houngbégnon, Clément Glele-Kakai, George Enyimah Armah, Honoré Bankolé
Rotavirus remains the main causative agent of gastroenteritis in young children, in countries that have not yet introduced the vaccine. Benin, in order to implement the WHO recommendations, projects to introduce the rotavirus vaccine in 2018 as part of its Expanded Program on Immunization. But before the introduction of this vaccine, epidemiological data on rotavirus infections and rotavirus genotypes circulating in Benin should be available. The aim of this study is to generate epidemiological data on infantile rotavirus diarrhea in Benin...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Gerald N Presley, Bongani K Ndimba, Jonathan S Schilling
Sweet sorghum is a promising crop for a warming, drying African climate, and basic information is lacking on conversion pathways for its lignocellulosic residues (bagasse). Brown rot wood-decomposer fungi use carbohydrate-selective pathways that, when assessed on sorghum, a grass substrate, can yield information relevant to both plant biomass conversion and fungal biology. In testing sorghum decomposition by brown rot fungi ( Gloeophyllum trabeum , Serpula lacrymans ), we found that G. trabeum readily degraded sorghum, removing xylan prior to removing glucan...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Ashwak M F Abu-Taleb, Randa S Abdelattef, Amina A Abdel-Hady, Farida H Omran, Lobna A El-Korashi, Hoda Abdel-Aziz El-Hady, Ahmed M El-Gebaly
H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. It has several virulence factors such as cytotoxin-associated gene A( cagA ) and the induced by contact with epithelium antigen ( iceA ). We aimed to explore the relationship between cagA and iceA of H. pylori and gastrointestinal diseases. One hundred and eighteen patients who attended Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, were included in this study...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
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