Read by QxMD icon Read

HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care

José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Carlos Henrique Valente Moreira, Mirella Alves Cunha, Igor Thiago Queiroz
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum . The burden of VL is concentrated in tropical and subtropical areas; however, HIV infection has spread VL over a hyperendemic area. Several outcomes are observed as a result of VL-HIV coinfection. Impacts are observed in immunopathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, and therapeutic response. Concerning clinical manifestation, typical and unusual manifestation has been observed during active VL in HIV-infected patient, as well as alteration in immunoresponse, inducing greater immunosuppression by low CD4 T-lymphocyte count or even by induction of immunoactivation, with cell senescence...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Zerihun Ataro, Wondimye Ashenafi, Jiregna Fayera, Tekabe Abdosh
Background: People with HIV infection are at increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension are recognized as the major NCDs. Except few findings in general population, there is no well-documented evidence on the magnitude of NCDs and associated factors among HIV-positive patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of DM and hypertension among adult HIV-positive subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Kenneth Soyemi, Teddy Muisyo, Yaa KariKari, Kun-Uk David Lee, Peter Nguyen, Karen E Simpson, Kevin Regis, Lisa Henry Reid
HIV testing in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) is a novel concept as adolescents, and young adults, use the PED as point of care or first point of contact with the health care system. Our objective was to study the HIV nontesting data and factors that influenced testing decision among patients receiving care in our PED. We designed a survey that inquired about testing acceptance, reasons for rejection, satisfaction with testing conditions, and understanding of the consequence of HIV test results. We approached 500 patients across all shifts in the PED; for analysis, categorical variables were created using demographic data (race, age, ethnicity, marital status, level of education)...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Mengliang Ye, Mohan Giri
Objective: This study aims to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV Infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two major provinces in southwest of China. Method: We adopted the method of anonymous survey and HIV blood test on 1,245 MSM >18 years of age from Chongqing and Sichuan Province, China. Results: The prevalence of HIV infection among MSM was 21.20%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed significant independent predictors of HIV infection among MSM as follows: lower level of education, preference to be receptive, lower frequency of condom use, drug usage, higher number of sexual partners in the past 1 month, and people suffering from sexually transmitted diseases...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Sampurna Kakchapati, Nirmal Gautam, Khagendra Prakash Kc, Bir Bahadhur Rawal
Purpose: Knowledge on HIV and safe sex practices are the main determinants for the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS transmission. The aim of this study was to assess HIV awareness and safe sexual behavior among the female sex workers (FSWs) in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal. Methods: The study was based on data secondary to Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance surveys of 2093 FSWs in Kathmandu valley from 2006 to 2015. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with knowledge and misconceptions about HIV (BCDEF) and safe sexual practices (consistent condom use with regular clients and nonpaying partners)...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Amy L Slogrove, Jacqueline Sas, John Lengwe Kunda, Frederick Morfaw, Jackson K Mukonzo, Wei Cao, Gisele Ngomba-Kadima, Moleen Zunza, Pierre Ongolo-Zogo, Philip N Nana, Anne Cockcroft, Neil Andersson, Nelson Sewankambo, Mark F Cotton, Taisheng Li, Taryn Young, Joel Singer, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Jd Ross, Kyaw Thin, Lehana Thabane, Aslam H Anis
As a response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and part of Canadian Institutes for Health Research's mandate to support international health research capacity building, the Canadian Institutes for Health Research Canadian HIV Trial Network (CTN) developed an international postdoctoral fellowship award under the CTN's Postdoctoral Fellowship Awards Program to support and train young HIV researchers in resource-limited settings. Since 2010, the fellowship has been awarded to eight fellows in Cameroon, China, Lesotho, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Sri Masyeni, Erly Sintya, Dewi Megawati, Ni Made Hegard Sukmawati, Dewa Ga Budiyasa, Sri Agung Aryastuti, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Igkn Arijana, N Nasronudin
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of highly active antiretroviral therapy combination regimens for HIV infection. Unfortunately, NRTIs have been noticeably associated with many adverse effects related to mitochondrial toxicity leading to mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) depletion. However, similar mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been found even in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients, suggesting HIV itself could contribute to this abnormality...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Andrea K Daniels, Rudolph L Van Niekerk
Introduction: Attitudes, responses, and reactions of HIV-positive women in three sub-Saharan African regions toward a therapeutic exercise intervention, aimed to determine the presence of depression and low body self-image, were captured. This provided insight into body satisfaction and desire to exercise (Stage 1, n=60), body self-image and depression (Stage 2, n=60), and overall concerns around the often adverse side effects of antiretroviral treatment (ART). A program of therapeutic (specialty) exercise was developed for the experimental design (Stage 2), to quantify the psychological side effects of these variables...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Getu Mosisa, Kifle Woldemichael, Fantahun Ayalew
Background: HIV/AIDS remains a major public health problem. Practice of risky sexual behaviors is the major effective driver of the HIV epidemic among HIV-positive individuals. This behavior exposes their partners to HIV, and for those that are already positive it exposes them to a risk of suprainfection by other strains. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among people living with HIV attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic at Nekemte Referral Hospital...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Olivia Sánchez-Cabral, Dina Martínez-Mendoza, Ángel Paul Flores-Bello, José Arturo Martínez-Orozco, Rosa María Rivera-Rosales, César Luna-Rivero, Patricio Santillán-Doherty, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Background: The key diagnostic method for the evaluation of lung diseases associated with HIV infection is bronchoscopy, with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) being the most commonly used sampling technique. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) is often complementary. Setting: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the diagnostic usefulness of bronchoscopy with simultaneous samples obtained through BAL and TBB in HIV-infected patients with pneumonia at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases Ismael Cosío Villegas...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Syokau Ilovi, Richard Ngethe, Immaculate Mutisya, Evelyn W Ngugi, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo
Background: Understanding trends in patient profiles and identifying predictors for adverse outcomes are key to improving the effectiveness of HIV care and treatment programs. Previous work in Kenya has documented findings from a rural setting. This paper describes trends in demographic and clinical characteristics of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment cohorts at a large urban, referral HIV clinic and explores treatment outcomes and factors associated with attrition during 12 years of follow-up...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Natella Rakhmanina
Introduction: Successful management of pediatric and adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease includes lifelong administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The need for the continuous use of antiretroviral drugs throughout the life course poses a challenge to children, adolescents, and adults living with HIV and their caregivers. Historically, treatment interruptions have been viewed as a negative therapeutic strategy. Recently, however, treatment interruptions or treatment reduction strategies have become a focus of investigations as innovative approaches to the long-term management of HIV disease...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Ana Lucia L Munhoz Lima, Priscila Rosalba Oliveira, Vladimir C Carvalho, Alexandre Leme Godoy-Santos, Leandro Ejnisman, Claudia R Oliveira, David E Uip, Maria Irma S Duarte
Objective: To examine the presence of HIV in bone tissue of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with osteonecrosis of femoral head and describe clinical and anatomopathological findings. Design: This is a case series which included 44 PLWHIV with osteonecrosis of femoral head who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Methods: Clinical data were obtained through analysis of the patients' medical records. Bone tissue obtained during total hip arthroplasty was retrieved and sent for conventional and immunohistochemical analysis...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Laura Palau, Steven Menez, Javier Rodriguez-Sanchez, Tessa Novick, Marco Delsante, Blaithin A McMahon, Mohamed G Atta
Despite the decreased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy due to the widespread use of combined active antiretroviral therapy, it remains one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-1 seropositive patients. Patients usually present with low CD4 count, high viral load and heavy proteinuria, with the pathologic findings of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Increased susceptibility exists in individuals with African descent, largely due to polymorphism in APOL1 gene...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Fitsum Weldegebreal, Tesfaye Digaffe, Frehiwot Mesfin, Habtamu Mitiku
Background: Nutritional care is considered a crucial component of comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition and food insecurity are endemic problems, and low quality monotonous diets are the norm. The findings of this study provide baseline information on dietary diversity and related factors for health care providers so that they will be able to improve nutritional care and support activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults (18-65 years old) attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Munyaradzi Madhombiro, Bazondlile Marimbe-Dube, Michelle Dube, Malinda Kaiyo-Utete, Angeline Paradzai, Dixon Chibanda, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Asj van der Watt, Soraya Seedat
Background: Alcohol use is associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions of the impact of alcohol use in the context of HIV care. Methods: The study design was a descriptive qualitative study of HIV positive individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment. The study involved four focus group discussions with male and female participants at a tertiary center, city clinic, and rural church. We employed convenience sampling and invited patients coming for their routine visits and medication refills to participate...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Ya-Huei Li, Paula Cuccaro, Hua Chen, Susan Abughosh, Paras D Mehta, Ekere J Essien
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the dynamics of family structure and sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents using the ecodevelopmental theory. Methods: This study stratified data from 1,617 African-American adolescents of the Add Health Wave I respondents with an identified family composition. It examined the associations between family structure, parenting function, and adolescents' sexual decision-making: age of first sexual intercourse, sexual initiation before age 16, and using a condom during the first and last sexual intercourse...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Karl Peltzer, Sibusiso Sifunda, Lissa N Mandell, Violeta J Rodriguez, Tae Kyoung Lee, Ryan Cook, Stephen M Weiss, Deborah L Jones
Introduction: This study aimed to assess fertility intentions (planning to have more children in the future) and associated factors among pregnant and postpartum HIV positive women in rural South Africa. Methods: In a longitudinal study, as part of a prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) intervention trial, 699 HIV positive prenatal women, were systematically recruited and followed up at 6 months and 12 months postpartum (retention rate = 59.5%). Results: At baseline, 32...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Bazghina-Werq Semo, Kathleen E Wirth, Conrad Ntsuape, Scott Barnhart, Nora J Kleinman, Nankie Ramabu, Jessica Broz, Jenny H Ledikwe
Background: In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an add-on HIV-prevention strategy. Similar to many other sub-Saharan countries, VMMC uptake in Botswana has been low; as of February 2016, only 42.7% of the program target had been achieved. Previous work has examined how individual-level factors, such as knowledge and attitudes, influence the update of VMMC. This paper examines how factors related to the health system can be leveraged to maximize uptake of circumcision services, with a focus on demand creation, access to services, and service delivery...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"