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HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331370/can-the-hiv-1-splicing-machinery-be-targeted-for-drug-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Zodwa Dlamini, Rodney Hull
HIV-1 is able to express multiple protein types and isoforms from a single 9 kb mRNA transcript. These proteins are also expressed at particular stages of viral development, and this is achieved through the control of alternative splicing and the export of these transcripts from the nucleus. The nuclear export is controlled by the HIV protein Rev being required to transport incompletely spliced and partially spliced mRNA from the nucleus where they are normally retained. This implies a close relationship between the control of alternate splicing and the nuclear export of mRNA in the control of HIV-1 viral proliferation...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280391/sexually-transmitted-diseases-among-female-commercial-sex-workers-in-finote-selam-town-northwest-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#2
Zelalem Alamrew Anteneh, Yirdaw Amare Agumas, Molalign Tarekegn
BACKGROUND: Female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) are considered a high-risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet the reported prevalence varies in studies around the world. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude and associated factors of STDs among female sex workers. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among female sex workers in Finote Selam town. A total of 389 sex workers were studied using census method...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260948/magnitude-of-cytopenias-among-hiv-infected-children-in-bahir-dar-northwest-ethiopia-a-comparison-of-haart-na%C3%A3-ve-and-haart-experienced-children
#3
Yakob Gebregziabher Tsegay, Agerie Tadele, Zelalem Addis, Agersew Alemu, Mulugeta Melku
BACKGROUND: AIDS, caused by HIV, is a multisystem disease that affects hematopoiesis. The aim of this study was to assess cytopenias among HIV-infected children who had a follow-up at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between April and May 2013. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the study participants. Descriptive statistics, independent t-test as well as chi-square and logistic regression were used for analysis...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243151/anemia-among-adult-hiv-patients-in-ethiopia-a-hospital-based-cross-sectional-study
#4
Hermela Melese, Molla Mesele Wassie, Haile Woldie, Abilo Tadesse, Nebiyu Mesfin
BACKGROUND: Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243150/predictors-of-hypertension-in-an-urban-hiv-infected-population-at-the-university-of-calabar-teaching-hospital-calabar-nigeria
#5
Henry Ohem Okpa, Elvis Mbu Bisong, Ofem Egbe Enang, Emmanuel Monjok, Ekere James Essien
BACKGROUND: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, at the expense of the development of long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its associated mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN and to identify possible predictors among HIV-infected patients attending the HIV Special Treatment Clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184170/sexual-risk-behaviors-hiv-and-syphilis-among-female-sex-workers-in-nepal
#6
Sampurna Kakchapati, Dipendra Raman Singh, Bir Bahadhur Rawal, Apiradee Lim
PURPOSE: Female sex workers (FSWs) are a key-affected population susceptible to acquiring HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as transmitting the virus to others. The aim of the study was to assess HIV and syphilis prevalence among FSWs in Nepal and to examine factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was based on Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) surveys among FSWs in Nepal from 2004 to 2015. Statistical analysis used chi-squared test to assess statistically significant risk factors for HIV and syphilis...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053556/assessment-of-the-effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-renal-and-liver-functions-among-hiv-infected-patients-a-retrospective-study
#7
Habtamu Wondifraw Baynes, Birhanemeskel Tegene, Mikiyas Gebremichael, Gebrehawaria Birhane, Wabe Kedir, Belete Biadgo
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved quality of life in prolonging survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on treatment in developed as well as developing countries. However, the main shortcoming of HAART in long-term use is its potential to cause liver and kidney derangements that may be life threatening. The drugs are actively accumulated in the proximal renal tubule resulting in functional disturbance with mitochondrial injury being one of the most important targets recognized...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920581/hiv-stigma-and-associated-factors-among-antiretroviral-treatment-clients-in-jimma-town-southwest-ethiopia
#8
Neno Nikus Fido, Mamusha Aman, Zewdie Brihnu
BACKGROUND: HIV stigma has an important role in the spread of the AIDS epidemic. It profoundly affects the lives of individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Fear of being identified as having HIV may discourage a person from getting tested, accessing medical services, and obtaining medications. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing HIV-related stigma and associated factors among antiretroviral treatment (ART) clients in Jimma town, Oromia region, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 11 to April 26, 2015, in ART clinics in Jimma town...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843352/profile-of-once-daily-darunavir-cobicistat-fixed-dose-combination-for-the-treatment-of-hiv-aids
#9
REVIEW
Jordi Navarro, Adrian Curran
Efficacy is the main objective of antiretroviral treatment and adherence is one of the cornerstones to achieve it. For this reason, treatment simplification is of key importance with regard to antiretroviral regimens. Rezolsta® (darunavir/cobicistat) is the first fixed-dose combination containing a protease inhibitor approved for HIV treatment. This coformulation includes darunavir, a protease inhibitor that has shown its efficacy and safety in naïve and treatment-experienced patients, and cobicistat, the new pharmacokinetic enhancer that is expected to replace ritonavir...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822124/changes-in-coronary-heart-disease-risk-profiles-of-hiv-patients-in-zimbabwe-over-9-months-a-follow-up-study
#10
Danai Tavonga Zhou, Olav Oektedalen, Sandra Shawarira-Bote, Babill Stray-Pedersen
Dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, and coronary heart disease (CHD) are adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients even if they are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, data on CHD risk induced by HIV or ART in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe changes in CHD risk profiles measured by lipids, inflammatory markers, and Framingham scores among HIV-positive patients previously reported from Harare, Zimbabwe. Patients were grouped into ART-experienced patients (n=147) and ART-naïve patients (n=23) and followed up for 9 months...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799824/profile-of-cabotegravir-and-its-potential-in-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-hiv-1-infection-evidence-to-date
#11
REVIEW
Thomas Whitfield, Adele Torkington, Clare van Halsema
Modern antiretroviral therapy has demonstrated effectiveness in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment of HIV infection. There is a demand for prevention and treatment regimens that could overcome challenges of improving adherence, toxicity, and dosing convenience. Cabotegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor and an analog of dolutegravir. Unlike dolutegravir, cabotegravir has a long half-life and can be formulated into a long-acting nanosuspension for parenteral administration. Initial pharmokinetic studies in humans have demonstrated adequate drug levels with intramuscular (IM) administration at 4 weekly and 8 weekly intervals, with few interactions with commonly used concomitant medications...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785103/leishmaniasis-hiv-coinfection-current-challenges
#12
REVIEW
José Angelo Lauletta Lindoso, Mirella Alves Cunha, Igor Thiago Queiroz, Carlos Henrique Valente Moreira
Leishmaniasis - human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection can manifest itself as tegumentary or visceral leishmaniasis. Almost 35 countries have reported autochthonous coinfections. Visceral leishmaniasis is more frequently described. However, usual and unusual manifestations of tegumentary leishmaniasis have been reported mainly in the Americas, but the real prevalence of Leishmania infection in HIV-infected patients is not clear. Regarding the clinical manifestations, there are some reports showing unusual manifestations in visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in HIV-infected patients; yet, the usual manifestations are more frequent...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621669/first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-failure-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-patients-at-the-university-of-gondar-teaching-hospital-gondar-northwest-ethiopia
#13
Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Dawit Kumilachew, Assefa Belay, Samson Getu, Derso Teju, Desalegn Endale, Yemisirach Tsegaye, Zebiba Wale
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. But treatment failure erodes this advantage and leads to an increased morbidity and compromised quality of life in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with first-line ART failure in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 340 adults who had started ART during the period of September 2011 to May 2015...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574468/seroprevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-among-voluntary-counseling-and-testing-clients-at-the-university-of-gondar-teaching-hospital-northwest-ethiopia
#14
Yohannes Sinku, Takele Gezahegn, Yalewayiker Gashaw, Meseret Workineh, Tekalign Deressa
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Ethiopia varies with regions, study population, and time. Thus, timely information on HIV epidemiology is critical for the combat of the epidemic. In this study, we aim to update HIV prevalence and risk factors among voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 2,120 VCT clients' records from September 2007 to August 2010 were analyzed retrospectively...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462178/evaluation-of-cotrimoxazole-use-as-a-preventive-therapy-among-patients-living-with-hiv-aids-in-gondar-university-referral-hospital-northwestern-ethiopia-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#15
Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie, Minaleshewa Biruk Gebeyehu, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Yokabd Dechassa Tadesse
PURPOSE: Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) is a feasible, inexpensive, and well-tolerated way of using cotrimoxazole intervention for patients living with HIV/AIDS to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidities and mortalities caused by various bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH), northwestern Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS at GURH, northwestern Ethiopia from September 2013 to October 2015...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462177/decreases-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-rates-in-kombolcha-ethiopia-a-10-year-data-review
#16
Melashu Balew Shiferaw, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw, Yohannes Amede Yesuf
INTRODUCTION: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330330/usefulness-of-calcaneal-quantitative-ultrasound-stiffness-for-the-evaluation-of-bone-health-in-hiv-1-infected-subjects-comparison-with-dual-x-ray-absorptiometry
#17
Alessandra Fantauzzi, Marco Floridia, Fabrizio Ceci, Francesco Cacciatore, Vincenzo Vullo, Ivano Mezzaroma
OBJECTIVES: With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD) alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the "gold standard" technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217801/knowledge-of-pregnant-women-on-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-its-prevention-and-associated-factors-in-assosa-town-northwest-ethiopia
#18
Solomon Abtew, Worku Awoke, Anemaw Asrat
INTRODUCTION: HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death of children in sub-Saharan African countries. Almost all HIV-positive children acquire infection through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Successful intervention toward prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and achieving the goal of eliminating the new HIV infection is highly dependent on everyone; especially, women of child-bearing age should have accurate and up-to-date knowledge about HIV transmission, risk of transmission to babies, and possible interventions...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199571/fibroblast-growth-factors-1-and-2-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-are-associated-with-hiv-disease-methamphetamine-use-and-neurocognitive-functioning
#19
Ajay R Bharti, Steven Paul Woods, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner, Debra Rosario, Michael Potter, Robert K Heaton, Ian P Everall, Eliezer Masliah, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine use commonly affect neurocognitive (NC) functioning. We evaluated the relationships between NC functioning and two fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in volunteers who differed in HIV serostatus and methamphetamine dependence (MAD). METHODS: A total of 100 volunteers were categorized into four groups based on HIV serostatus and MAD in the prior year. FGF-1 and FGF-2 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with two reference biomarkers (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and neopterin)...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27175095/predictors-of-loss-to-follow-up-in-antiretroviral-treatment-for-adult-patients-in-the-oromia-region-ethiopia
#20
Abebe Megerso, Sileshi Garoma, Tolosa Eticha, Tilaye Workineh, Shallo Daba, Mihretu Tarekegn, Zelalem Habtamu
PURPOSE: It is known that antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome related causes. Patient's lost to follow-up (LTFU) in this treatment poses a paramount problem to the public and health care services. Information on predictors of loss to follow-up is scarce in this study area and similar settings. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying correlates of loss to follow-up in ART among adult patients in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted between February 2015 and April 2015 using medical records...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
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