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HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care

Jared O Mecha, Elizabeth N Kubo, Lucy W Nganga, Peter N Muiruri, Lilian N Njagi, Syokau Ilovi, Richard Ngethe, Immaculate Mutisya, Evelyn W Ngugi, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo
Background: Understanding trends in patient profiles and identifying predictors for adverse outcomes are key to improving the effectiveness of HIV care and treatment programs. Previous work in Kenya has documented findings from a rural setting. This paper describes trends in demographic and clinical characteristics of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment cohorts at a large urban, referral HIV clinic and explores treatment outcomes and factors associated with attrition during 12 years of follow-up...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Natella Rakhmanina
Introduction: Successful management of pediatric and adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease includes lifelong administration of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The need for the continuous use of antiretroviral drugs throughout the life course poses a challenge to children, adolescents, and adults living with HIV and their caregivers. Historically, treatment interruptions have been viewed as a negative therapeutic strategy. Recently, however, treatment interruptions or treatment reduction strategies have become a focus of investigations as innovative approaches to the long-term management of HIV disease...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Ana Lucia L Munhoz Lima, Priscila Rosalba Oliveira, Vladimir C Carvalho, Alexandre Leme Godoy-Santos, Leandro Ejnisman, Claudia R Oliveira, David E Uip, Maria Irma S Duarte
Objective: To examine the presence of HIV in bone tissue of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with osteonecrosis of femoral head and describe clinical and anatomopathological findings. Design: This is a case series which included 44 PLWHIV with osteonecrosis of femoral head who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Methods: Clinical data were obtained through analysis of the patients' medical records. Bone tissue obtained during total hip arthroplasty was retrieved and sent for conventional and immunohistochemical analysis...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Laura Palau, Steven Menez, Javier Rodriguez-Sanchez, Tessa Novick, Marco Delsante, Blaithin A McMahon, Mohamed G Atta
Despite the decreased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy due to the widespread use of combined active antiretroviral therapy, it remains one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-1 seropositive patients. Patients usually present with low CD4 count, high viral load and heavy proteinuria, with the pathologic findings of collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Increased susceptibility exists in individuals with African descent, largely due to polymorphism in APOL1 gene...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Fitsum Weldegebreal, Tesfaye Digaffe, Frehiwot Mesfin, Habtamu Mitiku
Background: Nutritional care is considered a crucial component of comprehensive care for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), particularly in resource-limited settings where malnutrition and food insecurity are endemic problems, and low quality monotonous diets are the norm. The findings of this study provide baseline information on dietary diversity and related factors for health care providers so that they will be able to improve nutritional care and support activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess dietary diversity and associated factors among HIV positive adults (18-65 years old) attending antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics at Hiwot Fana and Dilchora Hospitals, eastern Ethiopia...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Munyaradzi Madhombiro, Bazondlile Marimbe-Dube, Michelle Dube, Malinda Kaiyo-Utete, Angeline Paradzai, Dixon Chibanda, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Asj van der Watt, Soraya Seedat
Background: Alcohol use is associated with poor HIV treatment outcomes. This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions of the impact of alcohol use in the context of HIV care. Methods: The study design was a descriptive qualitative study of HIV positive individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment. The study involved four focus group discussions with male and female participants at a tertiary center, city clinic, and rural church. We employed convenience sampling and invited patients coming for their routine visits and medication refills to participate...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Ya-Huei Li, Paula Cuccaro, Hua Chen, Susan Abughosh, Paras D Mehta, Ekere J Essien
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the dynamics of family structure and sexual behaviors of African-American adolescents using the ecodevelopmental theory. Methods: This study stratified data from 1,617 African-American adolescents of the Add Health Wave I respondents with an identified family composition. It examined the associations between family structure, parenting function, and adolescents' sexual decision-making: age of first sexual intercourse, sexual initiation before age 16, and using a condom during the first and last sexual intercourse...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Karl Peltzer, Sibusiso Sifunda, Lissa N Mandell, Violeta J Rodriguez, Tae Kyoung Lee, Ryan Cook, Stephen M Weiss, Deborah L Jones
Introduction: This study aimed to assess fertility intentions (planning to have more children in the future) and associated factors among pregnant and postpartum HIV positive women in rural South Africa. Methods: In a longitudinal study, as part of a prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) intervention trial, 699 HIV positive prenatal women, were systematically recruited and followed up at 6 months and 12 months postpartum (retention rate = 59.5%). Results: At baseline, 32...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Bazghina-Werq Semo, Kathleen E Wirth, Conrad Ntsuape, Scott Barnhart, Nora J Kleinman, Nankie Ramabu, Jessica Broz, Jenny H Ledikwe
Background: In 2007, the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an add-on HIV-prevention strategy. Similar to many other sub-Saharan countries, VMMC uptake in Botswana has been low; as of February 2016, only 42.7% of the program target had been achieved. Previous work has examined how individual-level factors, such as knowledge and attitudes, influence the update of VMMC. This paper examines how factors related to the health system can be leveraged to maximize uptake of circumcision services, with a focus on demand creation, access to services, and service delivery...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Techalew Shimelis, Yayheyirad Tassachew, Agete Tadewos, Mesfin Worku Hordofa, Anteneh Amsalu, Birkneh Tilahun Tadesse, Endale Tadesse
Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses of public health significance worldwide. Despite their severe clinical impact in HIV-infected patients, there is inadequate information regarding the epidemiology of hepatitis/HIV coinfections in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected patients at a tertiary hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: Stored sera, which were originally collected for the investigation of syphilis among HIV-infected clients, were analyzed in this study...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Nazik Elmalaika Husain, Sufian K Noor, Wadie M Elmadhoun, Ahmed O Almobarak, Heitham Awadalla, Clare L Woodward, Dushyant Mital, Mohamed H Ahmed
Background: The current challenge in managing people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) includes the identification and monitoring for comorbid health risks associated with HIV and its treatment and longer survival. Dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome are increasingly seen in PLWHIV. Objective: In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about diabetes, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in PLWHIV in Africa and also to discuss the challenges that patients as well as health authorities in Africa may face...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Vickie A Lynn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Sara Pullen
BACKGROUND: HIV-related chronic pain has emerged as a major symptom burden among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Physical therapy (PT) has been shown to be effective as a non-pharmacological method of chronic pain management in the general population; however, there is a gap in research examining the role of PT for chronic pain among PLHIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study examined the effect of PT on self-reported pain scores and pain medication usage in PLHIV enrolled in a multidisciplinary HIV clinic...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Hadera Belay, Fessahaye Alemseged, Teklit Angesom, Solomon Hintsa, Mebrahtu Abay
BACKGROUND: The global incidence of HIV infection is not significantly decreasing, especially in sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia. Though there is availability and accessibility of free HIV services, people are not being diagnosed early for HIV, and hence patients are still dying of HIV-related causes. This research is aimed at verifying the effect of late diagnosis of HIV on HIV-related mortality in Central Zone Tigray, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study among adult (≥15 years old) HIV patients in three general hospitals of Tigray was conducted...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Takele Menna Adilo, Hirut Megerssa Wordofa
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
S Riva, S Del Sordo, U Genovese, G Pravettoni
AIMS: The overall goal of this article is to make a scientific comment about the psycho-social consequences of hemophilia patients affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and to point out the related medicolegal issues. METHODS: This commentary takes into account some published evidences about the current scenario of hemophilia patients infected by HIV and/or HCV who received contaminated blood products in the late 1970s through 1985...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Belete Bayu, Amare Tariku, Abera Balcha Bulti, Yohannes Ayanaw Habitu, Terefe Derso, Destaw Fetene Teshome
BACKGROUND: Viral load monitoring is used as an important biomarker for diagnosing treatment failure in patients with HIV infection/AIDS. Ethiopia has started targeted viral load monitoring. However, factors leading to virological failure are not well understood and studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants of virological failure among HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Jelili Olaide Mustapha, Anthony Uchenna Emeribe, Idris Abdullahi Nasir
BACKGROUND: Dengue and malaria are infections, of great public health concern, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where the burden of HIV infection is high. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of dengue virus IgG antibodies and dengue/malaria coinfection among febrile HIV-infected patients attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from 178 consenting HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy were collected and tested for plasmodiasis and anti-Dengue virus IgG using malaria microscopy and ELISA, respectively...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Habtamu Abera, Fanta Tamiru, Getiye Dejenu Kibret
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this research was to investigate the students' intention toward condom use and associated factors among students in Debre Work Secondary and Preparatory School, 2015. METHODS: A survey was carried out in the high school and the preparatory school. The self-administered semistructured questionnaire was distributed to 422 students. Systematic sampling techniques were employed to each class. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
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