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HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care

Mohammed Biset Ayalew, Dawit Kumilachew, Assefa Belay, Samson Getu, Derso Teju, Desalegn Endale, Yemisirach Tsegaye, Zebiba Wale
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) restores immune function and reduces HIV-related adverse outcomes. But treatment failure erodes this advantage and leads to an increased morbidity and compromised quality of life in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with first-line ART failure in HIV patients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 340 adults who had started ART during the period of September 2011 to May 2015...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Yohannes Sinku, Takele Gezahegn, Yalewayiker Gashaw, Meseret Workineh, Tekalign Deressa
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Ethiopia varies with regions, study population, and time. Thus, timely information on HIV epidemiology is critical for the combat of the epidemic. In this study, we aim to update HIV prevalence and risk factors among voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clients at the University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 2,120 VCT clients' records from September 2007 to August 2010 were analyzed retrospectively...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie, Minaleshewa Biruk Gebeyehu, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Daniel Asfaw Erku, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Yokabd Dechassa Tadesse
PURPOSE: Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) is a feasible, inexpensive, and well-tolerated way of using cotrimoxazole intervention for patients living with HIV/AIDS to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidities and mortalities caused by various bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH), northwestern Ethiopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS at GURH, northwestern Ethiopia from September 2013 to October 2015...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Melashu Balew Shiferaw, Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs, Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw, Yohannes Amede Yesuf
INTRODUCTION: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Alessandra Fantauzzi, Marco Floridia, Fabrizio Ceci, Francesco Cacciatore, Vincenzo Vullo, Ivano Mezzaroma
OBJECTIVES: With the development of effective treatments and the resulting increase in life expectancy, bone mineral density (BMD) alteration has emerged as an important comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. The potential contributors to the pathogenesis of osteopenia/osteoporosis include a higher prevalence of risk factors, combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-exposure, HIV-1 itself and chronic immune activation/inflammation. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the "gold standard" technique for assessing bone status in HIV-1 population...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Solomon Abtew, Worku Awoke, Anemaw Asrat
INTRODUCTION: HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death of children in sub-Saharan African countries. Almost all HIV-positive children acquire infection through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. Successful intervention toward prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and achieving the goal of eliminating the new HIV infection is highly dependent on everyone; especially, women of child-bearing age should have accurate and up-to-date knowledge about HIV transmission, risk of transmission to babies, and possible interventions...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Ajay R Bharti, Steven Paul Woods, Ronald J Ellis, Mariana Cherner, Debra Rosario, Michael Potter, Robert K Heaton, Ian P Everall, Eliezer Masliah, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and methamphetamine use commonly affect neurocognitive (NC) functioning. We evaluated the relationships between NC functioning and two fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in volunteers who differed in HIV serostatus and methamphetamine dependence (MAD). METHODS: A total of 100 volunteers were categorized into four groups based on HIV serostatus and MAD in the prior year. FGF-1 and FGF-2 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with two reference biomarkers (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and neopterin)...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Abebe Megerso, Sileshi Garoma, Tolosa Eticha, Tilaye Workineh, Shallo Daba, Mihretu Tarekegn, Zelalem Habtamu
PURPOSE: It is known that antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome related causes. Patient's lost to follow-up (LTFU) in this treatment poses a paramount problem to the public and health care services. Information on predictors of loss to follow-up is scarce in this study area and similar settings. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying correlates of loss to follow-up in ART among adult patients in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted between February 2015 and April 2015 using medical records...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Vladimir Zah, Mondher Toumi
PURPOSE: To model the budget and survival impact of implementing interventions to increase the proportion of HIV infections detected early in a given UK population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A Microsoft Excel decision model was designed to generate a set of outcomes for a defined population. Survival was modeled on the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE) study extrapolated to a 5-year horizon as a constant hazard. Hazard rates were specific to age, sex, and whether detection was early or late...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Mekuriaw Alemayehu, Mamo Wubshet, Nebiyu Mesfin
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfection with HIV/AIDS most often results in unfavorable responses to treatment, frequent relapses, and premature deaths. Scarce data are available, regarding the magnitude and poor treatment outcomes of VL-HIV coinfection. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this systematic review was to describe the pooled prevalence of VL and poor treatment outcome among HIV patients. REVIEW METHODS: Electronic databases mainly PubMed were searched...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Rustin D Crutchley, Rakesh C Guduru, Amy M Cheng
Atazanavir/cobicistat (ATV/c) and darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c) are newly approved once daily fixed-dose protease inhibitor combinations for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Studies in healthy volunteers have established bioequivalence between cobicistat and ritonavir as pharmacoenhancers of both atazanavir (ATV) and darunavir (DRV). In addition, two randomized clinical trials (one Phase II and one Phase III noninferiority trial with a 144-week followup period) demonstrated that cobicistat had sustainable and comparable efficacy and safety to ritonavir as a pharmacoenhancer of ATV through 144 weeks of treatment in HIV-1-infected patients...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Melissa E Badowski, Sarah E Perez
Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Wanjiku Kariuki, Jennifer I Manuel, Ngaruiya Kariuki, Ellen Tuchman, Johnnie O'Neal, Genevieve A Lalanne
High rates of smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) may reduce the effectiveness of HIV treatment and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Factors associated with smoking in PLWH include mental health comorbidity, alcohol and drug use, health-related quality of life, smoking among social networks and supports, and lack of access to care. PLWH smokers are at a higher risk of numerous HIV-associated infections and non-HIV related morbidity, including a decreased response to antiretroviral treatment, impaired immune functioning, reduced cognitive functioning, decreased lung functioning, and cardiovascular disease...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Nils von Hentig
The pharmacoenhancement of plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors by coadministration of so-called boosters has been an integral part of antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 1.5 decades. Nearly all HIV protease inhibitors are combined with low-dose ritonavir or cobicistat, which are able to effectively inhibit the cytochrome-mediated metabolism of HIV protease inhibitors in the liver and thus enhance the plasma concentration and prolong the dosing interval of the antiretrovirally active combination partners...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Nikolaos Davanos, George Panos, Charalambos A Gogos, Athanasia Mouzaki
BACKGROUND: The rapid replication rate of HIV-1, coupled with a high mutation rate and recombination, is the underlying force driving its genetic diversity. In the infected individual, a population of highly related but nonidentical strains exists. At the population level, multiple subtypes often cocirculate, leading to the generation of intersubtype recombinant forms. As a result, the geographic distribution of subtypes and recombinant forms is complex and uneven. Genetic subtyping of HIV-1 isolates has been shown to be helpful for understanding the genetic evolution, the worldwide spread of the virus, and the evaluation of drug resistance...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Sergey Shityakov, Thomas Dandekar, Carola Förster
Central nervous system dysfunction is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and acquired immunodeficiency virus syndrome (AIDS). Patients with AIDS are usually affected by HIV-associated encephalitis (HIVE) with viral replication limited to cells of monocyte origin. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying HIVE-induced dementia, the GSE4755 Affymetrix data were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the samples from AIDS patients with and without apparent features of HIVE-induced dementia were identified...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Mary J Burgess, John D Zeuli, Mary J Kasten
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer with their disease, as HIV has become a chronic illness managed with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This has led to an increasing number of patients greater than 50 years old living successfully with HIV. As the number of older adults with HIV has increased, there are special considerations for the management of HIV. Older adults with HIV must be monitored for drug side effects and toxicities. Their other non-HIV comorbidities should also be considered when choosing a cART regimen...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Bridget G Haire
Despite high levels of efficacy, the implementation of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a strategy to prevent new HIV infection has been slow. Studies show that PrEP works so long as it is taken, making adherence one of the great challenges of effective PrEP implementation alongside issues of access and uptake. Given that effective PrEP use requires ongoing self-administration of pills by people at high risk of HIV acquisition, it is a strategy best understood not as simply biomedical, but as biobehavioral or biopsychosocial, meaning that that social, psychological, cultural, and structural factors all contribute to the success or failure of the intervention...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Han Ju Lee, Linda Moneyham, Hee Sun Kang, Kyung Sun Kim
PURPOSE: This study's purpose was to explore the experiences of peer supporters regarding their work in a home visit program for people with HIV infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted using focus groups. Participants were 12 HIV-positive peer supporters conducting home visits with people living with HIV/AIDS in South Korea. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Six major themes emerged: feeling a sense of belonging; concern about financial support; facing HIV-related stigma and fear of disclosure; reaching out and acting as a bridge of hope; feeling burnout; and need for quality education...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Nadeem, Zeeshan Sattar, Sohaib Mohammad Khan, Sheikh Muhammad Faheem, Irfan Ahsan, Rabia Naheed, Tahir Mehmood Khattak, Shahzad Akbar, Muhammad Talha Khan, Muhammad Ilyas Khan, Muhammad Zubair Khan
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C need immediate worldwide attention as the infection rates are too high. More than 240 million people have chronic (long-term) liver infections. Every year, about 600,000 people die globally due to the acute or chronic consequences of hepatitis B and more than 350,000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases. METHODS: Our study was designed as a case-control, descriptive study. It was conducted through formal interviews by using structured questionnaires...
2015: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
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