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Behavior Analysis in Practice

Duncan Pritchard, Marguerite Hoerger, Heather Penney, Llio Eiri, Lorraine Hellawell, Simon Fothergill, F Charles Mace
Some training programs for staff working with individuals with intellectual disabilities fail to equip staff with the practical skills necessary to prevent behavioral episodes. The current research describes the results of a staff training program that, following traditional didactic training, used a card game followed by role-play training to increase staff competence in managing problem behavior. The card game and role-play training was based on behavioral episodes that had occurred previously in the research setting...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Scott V Page, Kristin Griffith, Becky Penrod
Rapid eating, a potentially dangerous and socially inappropriate behavior, has received relatively little attention in the literature. This study sought to extend the research in this area by further evaluating the effectiveness of a vibrating pager combined with a rule for increasing inter-response time between bites in one adolescent female diagnosed with autism. Results indicated that inter-response time increased from baseline only after a vocal prompt to "wait" was introduced across clinic and home settings...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Harry Voulgarakis, Solandy Forte, Cheryl Giacomelli, Debra Bendell-Estroff, Henry Krous
Recent research suggests supine positioning for sleeping infants is the safest position to prevent breathing related difficulties; however doing so can significantly increase obstruction in apneic infants resulting in decreased sleep quality. We implemented a multi-component treatment package compromised of antecedent interventions and parent-mediated social reinforcement to increase lateral positioning in a premature infant with obstructive sleep apnea. Results indicate that the intervention increased lateral positioning in the participant by over 80 % in the final phase of the study, indicating efficacy of the intervention...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Paulo Guilhardi, Jennifer Smith, Camille Rivera, Robert K Ross
Two children with autism were assessed for preference between intersession distribution of mastered and unknown instructional trials on a computerized matching-to-sample task consisting of 12 total learning opportunities. Choice responses yielded presentation of either massed-trial sequencing (six unknown/six mastered stimuli relations or vice-versa) or alternating-trial sequencing delivery (alternation of unknown and mastered stimuli relations) followed by reinforcement for correct responses. An extinction condition served as an experimental control...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Gina M Delli Bovi, Jason C Vladescu, Ruth M DeBar, Regina A Carroll, Randi A Sarokoff
The identification of putative reinforcers is a critical component of programming for individuals with disabilities. A multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment is one option for identifying putative reinforcers; however, staff must be trained on the steps necessary to conduct the assessment for it to be useful in practice. This study examined the effectiveness of using video modeling with voice-over instruction (VMVO) to train two public school staff to conduct this assessment. Results demonstrate that VMVO was effective in training, producing generalized responding, maintenance, and high social validity ratings...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Wesley H Dotson, Eric E Rasmussen, Autumn Shafer, Malinda Colwell, Rebecca L Densley, Adam T Brewer, Marisol C Alonzo, Laura A Martinez
Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood is a children's television show incorporating many elements of video modeling, an intervention that can teach skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study evaluated the impact of watching Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood episodes on the accurate performance of trying new foods and stopping play politely with two five-year-old children with ASD. Both children showed improved performance of skills only following exposure to episodes of Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood, suggesting that watching episodes can help children with ASD learn specific skills...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Laura L Grow, Rebecca Van Der Hijde
We compared the effectiveness and efficiency of a modified simple-conditional method and the conditional-only method for teaching receptive labeling of sight words. Jon, a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, participated. Across three comparative evaluations, the conditional-only method resulted in fewer sessions to mastery than a modified simple-conditional method. Textual responses emerged after Jon mastered the sight words as receptive labels. Practitioners should avoid teaching component simple discriminations as a strategy for facilitating conditional discrimination training in clinical practice...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Liesa A Klein, Daniel Houlihan, James L Vincent, Carlos J Panahon
The changing criterion design (CCD) has been a recognized format of single-case research for four decades. Published examples of the CCD have been limited and the structure of the design used in the literature has varied to a degree that might engender confusion. This review examines the structure of CCD studies published to date to identify prior implementation practices and identify best practices for future use.
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Patrick N O'Leary, Megan M Miller, Melissa L Olive, Amanda N Kelly
Social networking has a long list of advantages: it enables access to a large group of people that would otherwise not be geographically convenient or possible to connect with; it reaches several different generations, particularly younger ones, which are not typically involved in discussion of current events; and these sites allow a cost effective, immediate, and interactive way to engage with others. With the vast number of individuals who use social media sites as a way to connect with others, it may not be possible to completely abstain from discussions and interactions on social media that pertain to our professional practice...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Kristin L Miller
Program evaluation is the use of planned activities to monitor process, outcomes, and impact of a health program or intervention. The application of program evaluation to behavioral analytic treatment programs for children with autism is a useful and necessary activity to inform practitioners and other stakeholders of the efficacy of these programs and to promote adherence to best-practice treatments. A brief survey of behavioral providers in California and Texas and search of the behavioral literature suggest that the practice of program evaluation is underutilized among providers of behavioral services...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Steve Ward, Amanda Parker, Angelina Perdikaris
Inappropriate behaviors, ranging from passive resistance to physical aggression, property destruction, or self-injurious behavior frequently function for escape from or avoidance of non-preferred activities. Proactive procedures have been shown to be only moderately effective without the use of escape extinction, but escape extinction can produce negative side effects, and efforts have been made to find alternatives. The current study tested the efficacy of a reactive procedure that may serve as an alternative to traditional forms of escape extinction...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Dennis H Reid, Marsha B Parsons, Joyce M Jensen
A frequent challenge encountered by behavior analysts in human service agencies is maintaining effects of their training interventions with agency staff. A case example is provided to illustrate how effects of a staff training intervention initiated by a behavior analyst maintained for an extended period in a center-based program for adolescents and adults with severe disabilities. The process involved the behavior analyst working closely with the program supervisor and a professional staff member in a collaborative team approach to increase involvement of center participants in functional (vs...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Mallory Quinn, Raymond Miltenberger, Aracely Abreu, Taylor Narozanick
This study evaluated an intervention package that used public posting and feedback to enhance dance movements for adolescent dancers on a competition team. Four dancers each performing two or three dance movements (a turn, kick, and/or leap) had their scores posted on a bulletin board at their studio. Dance movements were scored as a percentage correct by using a 14- to 16-step task analysis checklist. Intervention was evaluated in a multiple baseline across behavior design. The students received graphical feedback on their performance from the previous weeks and saw the scoring sheet that reviewed the incorrect and correct aspects of their performance...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Pamela J Crooke, Michelle Garcia Winner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Tonya N Davis, Wendy Machalicek, Rachel Scalzo, Alicia Kobylecky, Vincent Campbell, Sarah Pinkelman, Jeffrey Michael Chan, Jeff Sigafoos
Some individuals with developmental disabilities develop inappropriate sexual behaviors such as public masturbation, disrobing, and touching others in an unwanted sexual manner. Such acts are problematic given the taboo nature of the behaviors and the potential for significant negative consequences, such as restricted community access, injury, and legal ramifications. Therefore, it is necessary to equip caregivers and practitioners with effective treatment options. The purpose of this paper is to review studies that have evaluated behavioral treatments to reduce inappropriate sexual behavior in persons with developmental disabilities...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Catarina Aldi, Alexandra Crigler, Kelly Kates-McElrath, Brian Long, Hillary Smith, Kim Rehak, Lisa Wilkinson
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Danielle M Ewry, Mitch J Fryling
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a variation of the high-probability (high-p) sequence involving bites of food as high-p tasks on the acceptance of low-probability (low-p) foods in an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder. After demonstrating the effectiveness of the high-p sequence using a reversal design, the participant's mother implemented the intervention. Intervention effects were partially maintained during 7-month maintenance probes. Implications for research and practice are provided.
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Carrie S W Borrero, Jennie D England, Ben Sarcia, Julia N Woods
In recent years, rather than being used to assess the potential function of a response, descriptive assessment methods have been applied to evaluate potential consequences or contingencies for problem behavior (Borrero, Woods, Borrero, Masler, & Lesser in Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 71-88. doi: 10.1901/jaba.2010.43-71, 2010) or to assist with designing baseline conditions to approximate caregiver behavior (Casey et al. in Behavior Modification, 33, 537-558. doi: 10.1177/0145445509341457, 2009)...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Justin B Leaf, Joseph H Cihon, Donna Townley-Cochran, Kevin Miller, Ronald Leaf, John McEachin, Mitchell Taubman
In this study, we evaluated the effects of positional prompts on teaching receptive identification to six children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The researchers implemented a most-to-least prompting system using a three level hierarchy to teach receptive picture identification. Within the prompting hierarchy, only positional prompts were used. The most assistive prompt was placing the target stimulus 12 in. closer to the participant, the less assistive prompt was placing the target stimulus 6 in...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Dennis R Dixon, Erik Linstead, Doreen Granpeesheh, Marlena N Novack, Ryan French, Elizabeth Stevens, Laura Stevens, Alva Powell
Ample research has shown the benefits of intensive applied behavior analysis (ABA) treatment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); research that investigates the role of treatment supervision, however, is limited. The present study examined the relationship between mastery of learning objectives and supervision hours, supervisor credentials, years of experience, and caseload in a large sample of children with ASD (N = 638). These data were retrieved from a large archival database of children with ASD receiving community-based ABA services...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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