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Behavior Analysis in Practice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630826/predicting-the-effects-of-interventions-a-tutorial-on-the-disequilibrium-model
#1
Kenneth W Jacobs, Zachary H Morford, James E King, Linda J Hayes
The disequilibrium approach to reinforcement and punishment, derived from the probability-differential hypothesis and response deprivation hypothesis, provides a number of potentially useful mathematical models for practitioners. The disequilibrium approach and its accompanying models have proven effective in the prediction and control of behavior, yet they have not been fully espoused and integrated into clinical practice. The purpose of this tutorial is to detail the disequilibrium approach and adapt its mathematical models for use as a tool in applied settings...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630825/video-modeling-training-effects-on-types-of-attention-delivered-by-educational-care-providers
#2
Traci A Taber, Nathan Lambright, James K Luiselli
We evaluated the effects of abbreviated (i.e., one-session) video modeling on delivery of student-preferred attention by educational care-providers. The video depicted a novel care-provider interacting with and delivering attention to the student. Within a concurrent multiple baseline design, video modeling increased delivery of the targeted attention for all participants as well as their delivery of another type of attention that was not trained although these effects were variable within and between care-providers...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630824/effects-of-reinforcer-magnitude-and-quality-on-preference-for-response-reinforcer-arrangements-in-young-children-with-autism
#3
John C Ward-Horner, Amy O Muehlberger, Joseph Vedora, Robert K Ross
The present study evaluated the effects of reinforcer magnitude and quality on preference for continuous and discontinuous arrangements. Two preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated in the study. Both participants initially preferred a discontinuous arrangement when choice options included the same quality and magnitude reinforcers; however, magnitude and quality manipulations resulted in a change in preference for continuous arrangements.
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630823/teaching-on-task-rollerblading-and-ice-skating-to-a-child-with-autism
#4
Stacey Bord, Tina M Sidener, Kenneth F Reeve, David W Sidener
The present study used a multi-component intervention package to teach on-task rollerblading and ice-skating to a boy with autism. Intervention consisted of response prompts, stimulus prompts, multiple-exemplar training, and a conditioned reinforcement system. The participant learned to remain on-task while rollerblading in a circular route marked by cones for up to 26 min. Both stimulus and response generalization of skating were demonstrated in a variety of non-training settings, including ice-skating at a rink...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630822/the-impact-of-stimulus-presentation-and-size-on-preference
#5
James W Moore, Keith C Radley, Evan H Dart, Heather M Whipple, Emily J Ness, Ashley N Murphy, Chris Furlow, Joy K Wimberly, Ashley Smith
The impact of stimulus size and presentation on choice during a preference assessment was investigated using a modified multiple-stimulus without replacement (MSWO) technique. Stimuli were either presented with a uniform magnitude, as determined by mass, or in a manner consistent with caregiver report of reinforcer consumption. While both assessment procedures identified the same top three preferred items in three out of five cases, greater variability in the preference rank of less preferred items was observed between assessments...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630821/evaluation-of-practice-trials-to-increase-self-drinking-in-a-child-with-a-feeding-disorder
#6
Kathryn M Peterson, Valerie M Volkert, Suzanne M Milnes
Self-drinking is an important skill for children to acquire as they transition from infancy to early childhood; however, the literature is limited (e.g., Collins, Gast, Wolery, Holcombe, & Leatherby, 1991; Peterson, Volkert, & Zeleny, 2015). We manipulated the consequences associated with self-drinking relative to those associated with being fed along the dimension of response effort. Results demonstrated that self-drinking increased when the child could either choose to self-feed one drink or be fed one drink and 5 practice trials with an empty cup...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630820/the-registered-behavior-technician%C3%A2-credential-a-response-to-leaf-et-al-2017
#7
James E Carr, Melissa R Nosik, Iser G DeLeon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630819/concerns-about-the-registered-behavior-technician%C3%A2-in-relation-to-effective-autism-intervention
#8
Justin B Leaf, Ronald Leaf, John McEachin, Mitchell Taubman, Tristram Smith, Sandra L Harris, B J Freeman, Toby Mountjoy, Tracee Parker, Todd Streff, Fred R Volkmar, Andi Waks
In 2014, the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB®) initiated a program for credentialing behavior technicians. The new credential, Registered Behavior Technician™ (RBT®), is for providers of behavioral intervention to a wide range of individuals with mental health needs and developmental delays, including individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The RBT® would represent the entry-level position within the range of the BACB® credentials. Despite the increasing acceptance of this newest level of credential from the behavioral community, the authors of this paper have substantial concerns with the RBT® credential as it relates to the delivery of intervention to individuals diagnosed with ASD...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630818/ethical-considerations-for-interdisciplinary-collaboration-with-prescribing-professionals
#9
Mindy K Newhouse-Oisten, Kimberly M Peck, Alissa A Conway, Jessica E Frieder
Behavior analysts often work as part of an interdisciplinary team, and different team members may prescribe different interventions for a single client. One such intervention that is commonly encountered is a change in medication. Changes in medication regimens have the potential to alter behavior in a number of ways. As such, it is important for all team members to be aware of every intervention and to consider how different interventions may interact with each other. These facts make regular and clear communication among team members vital for treatment success...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630817/an-abbreviated-evaluation-of-the-efficiency-of-listener-and-tact-instruction-for-children-with-autism
#10
Sarah E Frampton, Hannah C Robinson, Daniel E Conine, Caitlin H Delfs
We assessed the efficiency of tact and listener training for eight participants with autism spectrum disorder. Tact and listener probes were conducted in baseline for all target sets, and then tact training was initiated with one and listener training with another. Following mastery of one set, tact and listener probes were conducted with only the sets assigned to the same modality of training (i.e., sets 1, 3, and 5 for tact; sets 2, 4, and 6 for listener). Training and probes were repeated for all sets. The measures of efficiency included the number of skills mastered through direct training, the number of skills that emerged without training, the number of trials-to-criterion, and maintenance of skills...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630816/the-effects-of-an-auditory-matching-ipad-app-on-three-preschoolers-echoic-and-listener-responses
#11
Lin Du, Jeanne Speckman, Megan Medina, Michelle Cole-Hatchard
We investigated the effects of an auditory match-to-sample protocol on three preschoolers' accurate echoics to 100 English words and advanced listener responses. The protocol was presented by using an iPad app Sounds the same: an app to target listening and speaking clearly. We used a combination of a multiple probe design (for echoic responses) and a delayed multiple probe design (for advanced listener literacy responses) with a time-lagged baseline across participants to test the effectiveness of the protocol...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630815/acquisition-and-generalization-of-complex-empathetic-responses-among-children-with-autism
#12
Paul J Argott, Dawn Buffington Townsend, Claire L Poulson
Empathy can be defined as a social interaction skill that consists of four components: (1) a statement voiced in the (2) appropriate intonation, accompanied by a (3) facial expression and (4) gesture that correspond to the affect of another individual. A multiple-baseline across response categories experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a prompt sequence (video modeling, in vivo modeling, manual and verbal prompting) and reinforcement to increase the frequency of complex empathetic responding by four children with autism...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630814/normative-emotional-responses-to-behavior-analysis-jargon-or-how-not-to-use-words-to-win-friends-and-influence-people
#13
Thomas S Critchfield, Karla J Doepke, L Kimberly Epting, Amel Becirevic, Derek D Reed, Daniel M Fienup, Jamie L Kremsreiter, Cheryl L Ecott
It has been suggested that non-experts regard the jargon of behavior analysis as abrasive, harsh, and unpleasant. If this is true, excessive reliance on jargon could interfere with the dissemination of effective services. To address this often discussed but rarely studied issue, we consulted a large, public domain list of English words that have been rated by members of the general public for the emotional reactions they evoke. Selected words that behavior analysts use as technical terms were compared to selected words that are commonly used to discuss general science, general clinical work, and behavioral assessment...
June 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672046/erratum-to-the-impact-of-stimulus-presentation-and-size-on-preference
#14
James W Moore, Keith C Radley, Evan H Dart, Heather M Whipple, Emily J Ness, Ashley N Murphy, Chris Furlow, Joy K Wimberly, Ashley Smith
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40617-016-0148-6.].
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352514/training-staff-to-avoid-problem-behavior-related-to-restricting-access-to-preferred-activities
#15
Duncan Pritchard, Marguerite Hoerger, Heather Penney, Llio Eiri, Lorraine Hellawell, Simon Fothergill, F Charles Mace
Some training programs for staff working with individuals with intellectual disabilities fail to equip staff with the practical skills necessary to prevent behavioral episodes. The current research describes the results of a staff training program that, following traditional didactic training, used a card game followed by role-play training to increase staff competence in managing problem behavior. The card game and role-play training was based on behavioral episodes that had occurred previously in the research setting...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352513/reduction-of-rapid-eating-in-an-adolescent-female-with-autism
#16
Scott V Page, Kristin Griffith, Becky Penrod
Rapid eating, a potentially dangerous and socially inappropriate behavior, has received relatively little attention in the literature. This study sought to extend the research in this area by further evaluating the effectiveness of a vibrating pager combined with a rule for increasing inter-response time between bites in one adolescent female diagnosed with autism. Results indicated that inter-response time increased from baseline only after a vocal prompt to "wait" was introduced across clinic and home settings...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352512/effects-of-antecedent-manipulations-and-social-reinforcement-to-increase-lateral-positioning-in-a-premature-infant-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Harry Voulgarakis, Solandy Forte, Cheryl Giacomelli, Debra Bendell-Estroff, Henry Krous
Recent research suggests supine positioning for sleeping infants is the safest position to prevent breathing related difficulties; however doing so can significantly increase obstruction in apneic infants resulting in decreased sleep quality. We implemented a multi-component treatment package compromised of antecedent interventions and parent-mediated social reinforcement to increase lateral positioning in a premature infant with obstructive sleep apnea. Results indicate that the intervention increased lateral positioning in the participant by over 80 % in the final phase of the study, indicating efficacy of the intervention...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352511/learner-preference-between-massed-and-alternating-trial-sequencing-when-teaching-stimulus-relations-to-children-with-autism
#18
Paulo Guilhardi, Jennifer Smith, Camille Rivera, Robert K Ross
Two children with autism were assessed for preference between intersession distribution of mastered and unknown instructional trials on a computerized matching-to-sample task consisting of 12 total learning opportunities. Choice responses yielded presentation of either massed-trial sequencing (six unknown/six mastered stimuli relations or vice-versa) or alternating-trial sequencing delivery (alternation of unknown and mastered stimuli relations) followed by reinforcement for correct responses. An extinction condition served as an experimental control...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352510/using-video-modeling-with-voice-over-instruction-to-train-public-school-staff-to-implement-a-preference-assessment
#19
Gina M Delli Bovi, Jason C Vladescu, Ruth M DeBar, Regina A Carroll, Randi A Sarokoff
The identification of putative reinforcers is a critical component of programming for individuals with disabilities. A multiple stimulus without replacement preference assessment is one option for identifying putative reinforcers; however, staff must be trained on the steps necessary to conduct the assessment for it to be useful in practice. This study examined the effectiveness of using video modeling with voice-over instruction (VMVO) to train two public school staff to conduct this assessment. Results demonstrate that VMVO was effective in training, producing generalized responding, maintenance, and high social validity ratings...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352509/evaluating-the-ability-of-the-pbs-children-s-show-daniel-tiger-s-neighborhood-to-teach-skills-to-two-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Wesley H Dotson, Eric E Rasmussen, Autumn Shafer, Malinda Colwell, Rebecca L Densley, Adam T Brewer, Marisol C Alonzo, Laura A Martinez
Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood is a children's television show incorporating many elements of video modeling, an intervention that can teach skills to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study evaluated the impact of watching Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood episodes on the accurate performance of trying new foods and stopping play politely with two five-year-old children with ASD. Both children showed improved performance of skills only following exposure to episodes of Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood, suggesting that watching episodes can help children with ASD learn specific skills...
March 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
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