Read by QxMD icon Read

PLoS Currents

Alyssa T Pyke, Peter R Moore, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jamie L McMahon, Bruce J Harrower, Tanya R Constantino, Andrew F van den Hurk
INTRODUCTION: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. METHODS: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples...
September 7, 2016: PLoS Currents
Deon V Canyon, Frederick M Burkle
Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit's ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN's failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body...
August 30, 2016: PLoS Currents
Jessica R Terrill, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
BACKGROUND: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice...
April 29, 2016: PLoS Currents
Anu Susan Charles, Rebecca C Christofferson
INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged in dengue (DENV) endemic areas, where these two related flaviviruses continue to co-circulate. DENV is a complex of four serotypes and infections can progress to severe disease. It is thought that this is mediated by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) whereby antibodies from a primary DENV infection are incapable of neutralizing heterologous DENV infections with another serotype. ADE has been demonstrated among other members of the Flavivirus group...
2016: PLoS Currents
Kelly R Klein, Frederick M Burkle, Raymond Swienton, Richard V King, Thomas Lehman, Carol S North
INTRODUCTION: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. METHODS: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage...
2016: PLoS Currents
Zhen Cong, Ali Nejat, Daan Liang
INTRODUCTION: This study examines how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support among family members after Hurricane Sandy affected residents' psychological outcomes both positively and negatively. METHODS: The working sample included 130 family ties reported by 85 respondents recruited from community and shelter residents on Staten Island after it was seriously damaged by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. Regression with robust standard errors was used to examine how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support with adult family members affected respondents' posttraumatic psychological distress and posttraumatic growth...
2016: PLoS Currents
Thrissia Koralek, Miryha G Runnerstrom, Brandon J Brown, Chukwuemeka Uchegbu, Tania B Basta
Objectives. We examined the role of outbreak information sources through four domains: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and stigma related to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. Methods. We conducted an online survey of 797 undergraduates at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and Ohio University (OU) during the peak of the outbreak. We calculated individual scores for domains and analyzed associations to demographic variables and news sources. Results. Knowledge of EVD was low and misinformation was prevalent...
2016: PLoS Currents
C Jessica E Metcalf, Alan Barrett
INTRODUCTION: The greatest burden for a subset of pathogens is associated with infection during pregnancy. Evidence for teratogenic effects of Zika Virus have highlighted the importance of understanding the epidemiology of such pathogens. Rubella is perhaps the most classic example, and there is much to be learned from the long history of modelling associated with this virus. METHODS: We extended an existing framework for modeling age-specific dynamics of rubella to illustrate how the body of knowledge of rubella dynamics informs the dynamics of teratogenic infections more broadly, and particularly the impact of control on such infections in different transmission settings...
2016: PLoS Currents
Moise C Ngwa, Thomas Masalla, Seraphine Esemu, Foche Francis Fumoloh, Ian Kracalik, Eleonora Cella, Meer Taifur Alam, Jane-Francis Akoachere, Song Liang, Marco Salemi, J Glenn Morris, Afsar Ali, Lucy M Ndip
INTRODUCTION: During the cholera outbreak from 2010 to 2011 in Cameroon, 33,192 cases with 1,440 deaths (case fatality ratio 4.34%) were reported to the World Health Organization. Of these, the South West Region reported 3,120 clinical cases. This region is in the Equatorial Monsoon climatic subzone of Cameroon, close to the coast, raising questions as to whether cases were linked with development of environmental reservoirs. METHODS: In an investigation conducted by the Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Buea, toxigenic V...
2016: PLoS Currents
Sanch Kanagarajah, Piers Mook, Paul Crook, Adedoyin Awofisayo-Okuyelu, Noel McCarthy
INTRODUCTION: Restaurant guides such as the Good Food Guide Top 50 create a hierarchy focussing on taste and sophistication. Safety is not explicitly included. We used restaurant associated outbreaks to assess evidence for safety. METHODS: All foodborne disease outbreaks in England reported to the national database from 2000 to 2014 were used to compare the Top 50 restaurants (2015) to other registered food businesses using the Public Health England (PHE) outbreak database...
2016: PLoS Currents
Tamara Lotfi, Lama Bou-Karroum, Andrea Darzi, Rayan Hajjar, Ahmed El Rahyel, Jamale El Eid, Mira Itani, Hneine Brax, Chaza Akik, Mona Osman, Ghayda Hassan, Fadi El-Jardali, Elie Akl
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. METHODS: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library...
2016: PLoS Currents
Yuri Raoni Ramalho Rocha, José Ricardo Cavalcanti Costa, Pericles Almeida Costa, Gessica Maia, Rafael de Medeiros Vasconcelos, Cynthia Ramos Tejo, Rafaella Martins Batista, Manoel Lima Neto, Gustavo Graco Martins de Lima, Francisco Negromonte, Marcelle Borba, Selma Maria Bezerra Jeronimo, Eduardo Bouth Sequerra, Manuel Moreira Neto
INTRODUCTION: Brazil is facing, since October of 2015, an outbreak of microcephalic fetuses. This outbreak is correlated with the beginning of circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the country. Although it is clear that the size of the head is diminished in these fetuses, the brain phenotype associated with these malformations is unknown. METHODS: We collected computed tomography images of the microcephaly cases from the region of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, from September 2015 to February 2016...
2016: PLoS Currents
Eugenia E Lee, Barclay Stewart, Yuanting A Zha, Thomas A Groen, Frederick M Burkle, Adam L Kushner
BACKGROUND: Climate extremes will increase the frequency and severity of natural disasters worldwide.  Climate-related natural disasters were anticipated to affect 375 million people in 2015, more than 50% greater than the yearly average in the previous decade. To inform surgical assistance preparedness, we estimated the number of surgical procedures needed.   METHODS: The numbers of people affected by climate-related disasters from 2004 to 2014 were obtained from the Centre for Research of the Epidemiology of Disasters database...
2016: PLoS Currents
Linda Møllersen, Olve Moldestad, Alexander D Rowe, Anja Bjølgerud, Ingunn Holm, Linda Tveterås, Arne Klungland, Lars Retterstøl
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the HTT gene. Somatic repeat expansion in the R6/1 mouse model of HD depends on mismatch repair and is worsened by base excision repair initiated by the 7,8-dihydroxy-8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (Ogg1) or Nei-like 1 (Neil1). Ogg1 and Neil1 repairs common oxidative lesions. METHODS: We investigated whether anthocyanin antioxidants added daily to the drinking water could affect CAG repeat instability in several organs and behaviour in R6/1 HD mice...
2016: PLoS Currents
John Cw Hildyard, Dominic J Wells
Exon-skipping via synthetic antisense oligonucleotides represents one of the most promising potential therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), yet this approach is highly sequence-specific and thus each oligonucleotide is of benefit to only a subset of patients. The discovery that dystrophin mRNA is subject to translational suppression by the microRNA miR31, and that miR31 is elevated in the muscle of DMD patients, raises the possibility that the same oligonucleotide chemistries employed for exon skipping could be directed toward relieving this translational block...
2016: PLoS Currents
Susan Sienko, Cathleen Buckon, Eileen Fowler, Anita Bagley, Loretta Staudt, Mitell Sison-Williamson, Kathy Zebracki, Craig M McDonald, Michael Sussman
The aim of this study was to determine whether prednisone and deflazacort play a different role in child behavior and perceived health related psychosocial quality of life in ambulant boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As part of a prospective natural-history study, parents of sixty-seven ambulant boys with DMD (27 taking prednisone, 15 taking deflazacort, 25 were steroid naïve) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for assessment of behavioral, emotional and social problems and both parents and boys with DMD completed the PedsQL™4...
2016: PLoS Currents
Jaime Chow, Kennedy Uadiale, Agatha Bestman, Charity Kamau, Dominique A Caugant, Aminu Shehu, Jane Greig
BACKGROUND: In northwest Nigeria in 2013 and 2014, two sequential, localized outbreaks of meningitis were caused by a new strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC). In 2015, an outbreak caused by the same novel NmC strain occurred over a wider geographical area, displaying different characteristics to the previous outbreaks. We describe cases treated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in the 2015 outbreak.  METHODS: From February 10 to June 8, 2015, data on cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) cases and deaths were recorded on standardized line-lists from case management sites supported by MSF...
2016: PLoS Currents
Jimmy Osuret, Lynn M Atuyambe, Roy William Mayega, Julius Ssentongo, Nathan Tumuhamye, Grace Mongo Bua, Doreen Tuhebwe, William Bazeyo
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of landslides and floods in East Africa has increased over the past decades with enormous Public Health implications and massive alterations in the lives of those affected. In Uganda, the Elgon region is reported to have the highest occurrence of landslides and floods making this area vulnerable. This study aimed at understanding both coping strategies and the underlying causes of vulnerability to landslides and floods in the Mt. Elgon region. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study in three districts of Bududa, Manafwa and Butalejja in the Mt...
2016: PLoS Currents
Cathleen Buckon, Susan Sienko, Anita Bagley, Mitell Sison-Williamson, Eileen Fowler, Loretta Staudt, Kent Heberer, Craig M McDonald, Michael Sussman
BACKGROUND: In the absence of a curative treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), corticosteroid therapy (prednisone, deflazacort) has been adopted as the standard of care, as it slows the progression of muscle weakness and enables longer retention of functional mobility. The ongoing development of novel pharmacological agents that target the genetic defect underlying DMD offer hope for a significant alteration in disease progression; however, substantiation of therapeutic efficacy has proved challenging...
2016: PLoS Currents
Valentina Grasso, Alfonso Crisci
INTRODUCTION: During emergencies increasing numbers of messages are shared through social media platforms becoming a primary source of information for lay people and emergency managers. For Twitter codified hashtagging is emerging as a practical way to coordinate messages during emergencies and quickly identify relevant information. This paper considers a case study on the use of codified hashtags concerning weather warning in Italy in three different regions. METHODS: From November 3rd to December 2nd 2014, tweets identified by the 3 codified hashtags #allertameteoTOS, #allertameteoLIG and #allertameteoPIE were retrieved, collecting a total of 35,558 tweets published by 7361 unique tweets authors, with the aim to assess if codified hashtags could represent an effective way to align formal and informal sources of information during weather related emergencies...
2016: PLoS Currents
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"