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PLoS Currents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018750/red-algal-phylogenomics-provides-a-robust-framework-for-inferring-evolution-of-key-metabolic-pathways
#1
Huan Qiu, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya
Red algae comprise an anciently diverged, species-rich phylum with morphologies that span unicells to large seaweeds. Here, leveraging a rich red algal genome and transcriptome dataset, we used 298 single-copy orthologous nuclear genes from 15 red algal species to erect a robust multi-gene phylogeny of Rhodophyta. This tree places red seaweeds (Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae) at the base of the mesophilic red algae with the remaining non-seaweed mesophilic lineages forming a well-supported sister group. The early divergence of seaweeds contrasts with the evolution of multicellular land plants and brown algae that are nested among multiple, unicellular or filamentous sister lineages...
December 2, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018748/laboratory-investigation-of-i-salmonella-enterica-i-serovar-poona-outbreak-in-california-comparison-of-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-pfge-and-whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-results
#2
Varvara K Kozyreva, John Crandall, Ashley Sabol, Alyssa Poe, Peng Zhang, Jeniffer Concepción-Acevedo, Morgan N Schroeder, Darlene Wagner, Jeffrey Higa, Eija Trees, Vishnu Chaturvedi
INTRODUCTION: Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Poona caused a multistate outbreak, with 245 out of 907 cases occurring in California. We report a comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results with whole genome sequencing (WGS) for genotyping of Salmonella Poona isolates. METHODS: CA Salmonella Poona isolates, collected from July to August 2015, were genotyped by PFGE using XbaI restriction enzyme. WGS was done using Nextera XT library kit with 2x300 bp or 2x250 bp sequencing chemistry on the Illumina MiSeq Sequencer...
November 22, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018747/exploring-the-role-of-ad-hoc-grassroots-organizations-providing-humanitarian-aid-on-lesvos-greece
#3
George Tjensvoll Kitching, Hanne J Haavik, Birgit J Tandstad, Muhammad Zaman, Elisabeth Darj
INTRODUCTION: Syrian refugees displaced into Turkey have attempted high-risk sea migrations to reach safer destinations in Europe, most often initially arriving on the Greek island of Lesvos. These refugees were often in need of basic humanitarian assistance that has been provided in part by a new category of ad hoc grassroots organizations (AHGOs). The aim of this study was to understand the internal and external operations of these AHGOs and their role on Lesvos. METHODS: The experiences of AHGOs were investigated through a qualitative research design utilizing semi-structured interviews with organization leaders and spokespersons...
November 17, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018749/focused-training-for-humanitarian-responders-in-regional-anesthesia-techniques-for-a-planned-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-disaster-setting
#4
Adam R Aluisio, Carrei Teicher, Tess Wiskel, Allysia Guy, Adam Levine
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity trauma during earthquakes accounts for the largest burden of geophysical disaster-related injuries. Insufficient pain management is common in disaster settings, and regional anesthesia (RA) has the potential to reduce pain in injured patients beyond current standards. To date, no prospective research has evaluated the use of RA in a disaster setting. This cross-sectional study assesses knowledge translation and skill acquisition outcomes for lower extremity RA performed with and without ultrasound guidance among a cohort of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) volunteers who will function as proceduralists in a planned randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of RA for pain management in an earthquake setting...
November 16, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042515/pok%C3%A3-mon-go-and-exposure-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-how-not-to-catch-em-all
#5
Rachel J Oidtman, Rebecca C Christofferson, Quirine A Ten Bosch, Guido Espana, Moritz U G Kraemer, Andrew Tatem, Christopher M Barker, T Alex Perkins
Pokémon Go is a new game that encourages players to venture outdoors and interact with others in the pursuit of virtual Pokémon characters. With more time spent outdoors overall and in sometimes large congregations, Pokémon Go players could inadvertently elevate their risk of exposure to mosquito-borne diseases when playing in certain areas at certain times of year. Here, we make an initial assessment of the possible scope of this concern in the continental United States, which experiences its highest seasonal transmission of West Nile, Zika, and other viruses during summer and early fall...
November 15, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018746/identifying-candidate-targets-of-immune-responses-in-zika-virus-based-on-homology-to-epitopes-in-other-flavivirus-species
#6
Xiaojun Xu, Kerrie Vaughan, Daniela Weiskopf, Alba Grifoni, Michael S Diamond, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters
INTRODUCTION: The current outbreak of Zika virus has resulted in a massive effort to accelerate the development of ZIKV-specific diagnostics and vaccines. These efforts would benefit greatly from the definition of the specific epitope targets of immune responses in ZIKV, but given the relatively recent emergence of ZIKV as a pandemic threat, few such data are available. METHODS: We used a large body of epitope data for other Flaviviruses that was available from the IEDB for a comparative analysis against the ZIKV proteome in order to project targets of immune responses in ZIKV...
November 15, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974995/the-ebola-crisis-and-the-corresponding-public-behavior-a-system-dynamics-approach
#7
Nasser Sharareh, Nasim S Sabounchi, Hiroki Sayama, Roderick MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The interaction of several sociocultural and environmental factors during an epidemic crisis leads to behavioral responses that consequently make the crisis control a complex problem. METHODS: The system dynamics approach has been adopted to study the relationships between spread of disease, public attention, situational awareness, and community's response to the Ebola epidemic. RESULTS: In developing different simulation models to capture the trend of death and incidence data from the World Health Organization for the Ebola outbreak, the final model has the best fit to the historical trends...
November 3, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042514/quality-of-life-of-persons-injured-on-9-11-qualitative-analysis-from-the-world-trade-center-health-registry
#8
Lisa M Gargano, Robyn R Gershon, Robert M Brackbill
INTRODUCTION: A number of studies published by the World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) document the prevalence of injuries sustained by victims of the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) on 9/11. Injury occurrence during or in the immediate aftermath of this event has been shown to be a risk factor for long-term adverse physical and mental health status. More recent reports of ongoing physical health and mental health problems and overall poor quality of life among survivors led us to undertake this qualitative study to explore the long-term impact of having both disaster-related injuries and peri-event traumatic exposure on quality of life in disaster survivors...
October 27, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917304/quality-of-life-of-cypriot-patients-suffering-with-huntington-s-disease
#9
Eleni Varda, Christiana A Demetriou, Alexandros Heraclides, Yiolanda P Christou, Eleni Zamba-Papanicolaou
INTRODUCTION: Huntington's disease (HD) has profound motor, behavioural and cognitive symptoms. Despite the enormous burden of this disease on the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families, there is very limited evidence on this topic. Considering the severity of HD patients, and the high prevalence in Cyprus more studies are needed to assess QoL among Cypriot patients, in order to improve our knowledge about their living conditions and to assist the management of this condition...
October 25, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867737/developing-the-philippines-as-a-global-hub-for-disaster-risk-reduction-a-health-research-initiative-as-presented-at-the-10th-philippine-national-health-research-system-week-celebration
#10
Nicola Banwell, Jaime Montoya, Merlita Opeña, Carel IJsselmuiden, Ronald Law, Gloria J Balboa, Shannon Rutherford, Cordia Chu, Virginia Murray
The recent Philippine National Health Research System (PNHRS) Week Celebration highlighted the growing commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Philippines. The event was lead by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Health, and saw the participation of national and international experts in DRR, and numerous research consortia from all over the Philippines. With a central focus on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the DRR related events recognised the significant disaster risks faced in the Philippines...
October 25, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917306/education-and-training-of-emergency-medical-teams-recommendations-for-a-global-operational-learning-framework
#11
Nieves Amat Camacho, Amy Hughes, Frederick M Burkle, Pier Luigi Ingrassia, Luca Ragazzoni, Anthony Redmond, Ian Norton, Johan von Schreeb
An increasing number of international emergency medical teams are deployed to assist disaster-affected populations worldwide. Since Haiti earthquake those teams have been criticised for ill adapted care, lack of preparedness in addition to not coordinating with the affected country healthcare system. The Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) initiative, as part of the Word Health Organization's Global Health Emergency Workforce program, aims to address these shortcomings by improved EMT coordination, and mechanisms to ensure quality and accountability of national and international EMTs...
October 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917305/laboratory-diagnosis-for-outbreak-prone-infectious-diseases-after-typhoon-yolanda-haiyan-philippines
#12
Mariko Saito-Obata, Mayuko Saito, Titus C Tan, Inez Andrea P Medado, Clyde Dapat, Michiko Okamoto, Raita Tamaki, Rowena C Capistrano, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Socorro P Lupisan, Hitoshi Oshitani
Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) hit the central part of the Philippines on November 8, 2013. To identify possible outbreaks of communicable diseases after the typhoon, nasopharyngeal swabs, stool and blood samples were collected from patients who visited the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center due to acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or other febrile illness (OFI) including suspected dengue fever, between November 28, 2013 and February 5, 2014.   Methods: Samples were tested on-site for selected pathogens using rapid diagnostic tests...
October 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803839/series-of-norovirus-outbreaks-caused-by-consumption-of-green-coral-lettuce-denmark-april-2016
#13
Luise Müller, Lasse Dam Rasmussen, Tenna Jensen, Anna Charlotte Schultz, Charlotte Kjelsø, Celine Barnadas, Kim Sigsgaard, Anne Ribert Larsen, Carl Widstrup Jensen, Simon Jeppesen, Katrine Uhrbrand, Nikolas Hove, Kåre Mølbak, Steen Ethelberg
INTRODUCTION: In early April 2016, an unusual high number of point-source outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease were reported to occur in Denmark. METHODS: Outbreaks were individually investigated. Two analytical studies were performed. Patient stool samples collected and analysed; positive stool samples were sequenced over the polymerase and/or capsid gene areas. Implicated lettuce heads were collected and analysed for the presence of norovirus. Foods were traced-back and traced-forward and international alert systems applied...
October 4, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807510/measuring-outcomes-in-a-community-resilience-program-a-new-metric-for-evaluating-results-at-the-household-level
#14
David P Eisenman, Rachel M Adams, Helene Rivard
: Community resilience programs require metrics for evaluation but none exist for measuring outcomes at the household and neighborhood level. OBJECTIVES: We develop and describe a new index, the LACCDR index of community resilience, to examine how resilience varied across communities at baseline, prior to implementation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR). METHODS: We surveyed 4700 adult residents in the sixteen LACCDR communities in English, Spanish and Korean...
September 28, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790383/mass-casualty-decontamination-guidance-and-psychosocial-aspects-of-cbrn-incident-management-a-review-and-synthesis
#15
Holly Carter, Richard Amlôt
INTRODUCTION: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents...
September 27, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803840/experiences-and-psychosocial-impact-of-west-africa-ebola-deployment-on-us-health-care-volunteers
#16
Robyn Gershon, Liza A Dernehl, Ezinne Nwankwo, Qi Zhi, Kristine Qureshi
BACKGROUND:  This qualitative study was designed to assess health care volunteers' experiences and psychosocial impacts associated with deployment to the West Africa Ebola epidemic. METHODS: In 2015, using snowball sampling, 16 US health care volunteers who had recently returned from West Africa were recruited for this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect information associated with each phase of deployment (pre, peri, and post). RESULTS: Participants reported that they were motivated to volunteer because of a sense of responsibility and feelings of empathy and altruism...
September 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790381/mass-casualty-decontamination-in-a-chemical-or-radiological-nuclear-incident-further-guiding-principles
#17
Holly Carter, Richard Amlôt, Richard Williams, G James Rubin, John Drury
This short report presents a response to an article written by Cibulsky et al. (2016). The paper by Cibulsky et al. presents a useful and timely overview of the evidence surrounding the technical and operational aspects of mass casualty decontamination. It identifies three priority targets for future research, the third of which is how casualties' needs can be met in ways that best support compliance with and effectiveness of casualty decontamination. While further investigation into behavioural, communication and privacy issues during mass decontamination is warranted, there is now a substantial body of research in this area which is not considered in detail in the succinct summary provided by Cibulsky et al...
September 15, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790382/resilience-and-disaster-trends-in-the-philippines-opportunities-for-national-and-local-capacity-building
#18
Tilly Alcayna, Vincenzo Bollettino, Philip Dy, Patrick Vinck
INTRODUCTION:  The Philippines is one of the top countries in the world at risk of climate-related disasters. For populations subsisting at the poverty line in particular, but also the nation as a whole, daily lives and wellbeing are routinely challenged. The Philippines government takes disaster risk seriously and has devoted significant resources to build disaster capacity and reduce population exposure and vulnerability, nationally and locally. This paper explores the policy and institutional mechanisms for disaster risk reduction management and research which have been conducted in the Philippines related to disaster preparedness, management and resilience...
September 14, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679739/isolation-of-zika-virus-imported-from-tonga-into-australia
#19
Alyssa T Pyke, Peter R Moore, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jamie L McMahon, Bruce J Harrower, Tanya R Constantino, Andrew F van den Hurk
INTRODUCTION: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. METHODS: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples...
September 7, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679738/the-2016-world-humanitarian-summit-report-card-both-failing-marks-and-substantive-gains-for-an-increasingly-globalized-humanitarian-landscape
#20
Deon V Canyon, Frederick M Burkle
Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit's ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN's failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body...
August 30, 2016: PLoS Currents
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