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PLoS Currents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228974/the-solidarity-and-health-neutrality-of-physicians-in-war-peace
#1
Frederick M Burkle, Timothy Erickson, Johan von Schreeb, Stephanie Kayden, Anthony Redmond, Emily Yy Chan, Francesco Della Corte, Hilarie Cranmer, Yasuhiro Otomo, Kirsten Johnson, Nobhojit Roy
The wars in the Middle East have led to unprecedented threats and attacks on patients, healthcare workers, and purposeful targeting of hospitals and medical facilities. It is crucial that every healthcare provider, both civilian and military, on either side of the conflict become aware of the unique and inherent protections afforded to them under International Humanitarian Law. However, these protections come with obligations. Whereas Governments must guarantee these protections, when violated, medical providers have equal duty and obligations under the Law to ensure that they will neither commit nor assist in these violations nor take part in any act of hostility...
January 20, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228976/facebook-enables-disaster-research-studies-the-use-of-social-media-to-recruit-participants-in-a-post-disaster-setting
#2
Karin Hugelius, Annsofie Adolfsson, Mervyn Gifford, Per Örtenwall
INTRODUCTION: Disaster research entails several methodological challenges, given the context of a disaster. This article aims to describe and evaluate the use of Facebook as a tool to recruit participants for a self-selected Internet sample using a web-based survey in a post-disaster setting in the Philippines after the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the country in November 2013. METHOD: An invitation to a web-based survey about health was posted on several Facebook pages during a ten-day period...
January 19, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228973/duchenne-regulatory-science-consortium-meeting-on-disease-progression-modeling-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#3
Jane Larkindale, Richard Abresch, Enrique Aviles, Abby Bronson, Janice Chin, Pat Furlong, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Elizabeth Habeeb-Louks, Erik Henricson, Hans Kroger, Charles Lynn, Stephen Lynn, Dana Martin, Glen Nuckolls, William Rooney, Klaus Romero, Lee Sweeney, Krista Vandenborne, Glenn Walter, Jodi Wolff, Brenda Wong, Craig M McDonald, Members Of The Duchenne Regulatory Science Consortium Imaging-Dmd Consortium And The Cinrg Investigators
The Duchenne Regulatory Science Consortium (D-RSC) was established to develop tools to accelerate drug development for DMD.  The resulting tools are anticipated to meet validity requirements outlined by qualification/endorsement pathways at both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Administration (EMA), and will be made available to the drug development community. The initial goals of the consortium include the development of a disease progression model, with the goal of creating a model that would be used to forecast changes in clinically meaningful endpoints, which would inform clinical trial protocol development and data analysis...
January 12, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228972/emergency-preparedness-and-management-at-the-university-of-l-aquila-central-italy-and-the-role-of-students-associations-in-the-april-6th-2009-earthquake
#4
Michele Magni, Rita Fraboni, Fausto Marincioni
INTRODUCTION: On April 6th 2009 an earthquake of Mw=6.3 hit the historical downtown of L'Aquila and its hinterland causing more than 300 fatalities and severe damage to private and public buildings. At the time, the University of L'Aquila represented a major source of employment and income for the city. The earthquake impacted both the facilities and the administrative, financial and patrimonial activities of the university, bringing into the open the tendency - widespread in Italy - to rely on adaptive tactics rather than on strategic pre-disaster plans...
January 12, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228975/the-politics-of-global-public-health-in-fragile-states-and-ungoverned-territories
#5
Frederick M Burkle
The reasons for global health crises and how the world responds to them have dramatically changed over the last half century. Increasingly, natural disasters result in failure of public health and security systems leading to preventable conflict, unconventional war and unprecedented population migration. While scientific expertise exists to mitigate these failures in fragile states and ungoverned territories, inactions are mired by the lack of political will, international legal mandates, and capacity to strategically monitor multidisciplinary public health indicator failures...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154787/survivors-solidarity-and-attachment-in-the-immediate-aftermath-of-the-typhoon-haiyan-philippines
#6
Andrea Bartolucci, Michele Magni
INTRODUCTION: Anti-social behavior and self-preservation are often assumed to be normal responses to threats and disasters; on the contrary, decades of research and empirical studies in social sciences showed that pro-social behaviors are frequently common and that solidarity is the typical response to a variety of threats. The main objective of this study is to investigate and describe survivors' behavior, especially solidarity, according to the presence of familiar persons and to the perception of physical danger, elaborating the framework of Mawson's social attachment theory...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154786/social-cognition-executive-functions-and-self-report-of-psychological-distress-in-huntington-s-disease
#7
Ida Unmack Larsen, Tua Vinther-Jensen, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Anders Gade, Asmus Vogel
OBJECTIVE: Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. METHOD: 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R))...
December 28, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133562/new-recommendation-on-biological-materials-could-hamper-muscular-dystrophy-research
#8
Pauline McCormack, Simon Woods
The new 'Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to member States on research on biological materials of human origin', adopted in Europe in May 2016 is confusing and lacks specificity on the research use of biomaterials taken from persons not able to consent. It is possible to interpret the relevant clauses in a restrictive manner and doing so would hamper biobank research, by requiring researchers or biobank curators to examine individual records in detail, to check they are adhering to the Recommendation...
December 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123859/epidemic-potential-for-local-transmission-of-zika-virus-in-2015-and-2016-in-queensland-australia
#9
Elvina Viennet, Gina Mincham, Francesca D Frentiu, Cassie C Jansen, Brian L Montgomery, David Harley, Robert L P Flower, Craig R Williams, Helen M Faddy
INTRODUCTION: Zika virus could be transmitted in the state of Queensland, Australia, in parts of the state where the mosquito vectors are established. METHODS: We assessed the epidemic potential of Zika in Queensland from January 2015 to August 2016, and estimate the epidemic potential from September to December 2016, by calculating the temperature-dependent relative vectorial capacity (rVc), based on empirical and estimated parameters. RESULTS: Through 2015, we estimated a rVc of 0...
December 13, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123860/community-event-based-surveillance-for-ebola-virus-disease-in-sierra-leone-implementation-of-a-national-level-system-during-a-crisis
#10
Erin Stone, Laura Miller, Joseph Jasperse, Grayson Privette, Juan Cruz Diez Beltran, Amara Jambai, John Kpaleyea, Alfred Makavore, Mohamed Foday Kamara, Ruwan Ratnayake
INTRODUCTION:  There are few documented examples of community networks that have used unstructured information to support surveillance during a health emergency. In January 2015, the Ebola Response Consortium rapidly implemented community event-based surveillance for Ebola virus disease at a national scale in Sierra Leone. METHODS: Community event based surveillance uses community health monitors in each community to provide an early warning system of events that are suggestive of Ebola virus disease transmission...
December 7, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123858/social-media-as-a-sentinel-for-disease-surveillance-what-does-sociodemographic-status-have-to-do-with-it
#11
Elaine O Nsoesie, Luisa Flor, Jared Hawkins, Adyasha Maharana, Tobi Skotnes, Fatima Marinho, John S Brownstein
INTRODUCTION: Data from social media have been shown to have utility in augmenting traditional approaches to public health surveillance. Quantifying the representativeness of these data is needed for making accurate public health inferences. METHODS: We applied machine-learning methods to explore spatial and temporal dengue event reporting trends on Twitter relative to confirmed cases, and quantified associations with sociodemographic factors across three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais) at the municipality level...
December 7, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018750/red-algal-phylogenomics-provides-a-robust-framework-for-inferring-evolution-of-key-metabolic-pathways
#12
Huan Qiu, Hwan Su Yoon, Debashish Bhattacharya
Red algae comprise an anciently diverged, species-rich phylum with morphologies that span unicells to large seaweeds. Here, leveraging a rich red algal genome and transcriptome dataset, we used 298 single-copy orthologous nuclear genes from 15 red algal species to erect a robust multi-gene phylogeny of Rhodophyta. This tree places red seaweeds (Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae) at the base of the mesophilic red algae with the remaining non-seaweed mesophilic lineages forming a well-supported sister group. The early divergence of seaweeds contrasts with the evolution of multicellular land plants and brown algae that are nested among multiple, unicellular or filamentous sister lineages...
December 2, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018748/laboratory-investigation-of-i-salmonella-enterica-i-serovar-poona-outbreak-in-california-comparison-of-pulsed-field-gel-electrophoresis-pfge-and-whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-results
#13
Varvara K Kozyreva, John Crandall, Ashley Sabol, Alyssa Poe, Peng Zhang, Jeniffer Concepción-Acevedo, Morgan N Schroeder, Darlene Wagner, Jeffrey Higa, Eija Trees, Vishnu Chaturvedi
INTRODUCTION: Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Poona caused a multistate outbreak, with 245 out of 907 cases occurring in California. We report a comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results with whole genome sequencing (WGS) for genotyping of Salmonella Poona isolates. METHODS: CA Salmonella Poona isolates, collected from July to August 2015, were genotyped by PFGE using XbaI restriction enzyme. WGS was done using Nextera XT library kit with 2x300 bp or 2x250 bp sequencing chemistry on the Illumina MiSeq Sequencer...
November 22, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018747/exploring-the-role-of-ad-hoc-grassroots-organizations-providing-humanitarian-aid-on-lesvos-greece
#14
George Tjensvoll Kitching, Hanne J Haavik, Birgit J Tandstad, Muhammad Zaman, Elisabeth Darj
INTRODUCTION: Syrian refugees displaced into Turkey have attempted high-risk sea migrations to reach safer destinations in Europe, most often initially arriving on the Greek island of Lesvos. These refugees were often in need of basic humanitarian assistance that has been provided in part by a new category of ad hoc grassroots organizations (AHGOs). The aim of this study was to understand the internal and external operations of these AHGOs and their role on Lesvos. METHODS: The experiences of AHGOs were investigated through a qualitative research design utilizing semi-structured interviews with organization leaders and spokespersons...
November 17, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018749/focused-training-for-humanitarian-responders-in-regional-anesthesia-techniques-for-a-planned-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-disaster-setting
#15
Adam R Aluisio, Carrei Teicher, Tess Wiskel, Allysia Guy, Adam Levine
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity trauma during earthquakes accounts for the largest burden of geophysical disaster-related injuries. Insufficient pain management is common in disaster settings, and regional anesthesia (RA) has the potential to reduce pain in injured patients beyond current standards. To date, no prospective research has evaluated the use of RA in a disaster setting. This cross-sectional study assesses knowledge translation and skill acquisition outcomes for lower extremity RA performed with and without ultrasound guidance among a cohort of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) volunteers who will function as proceduralists in a planned randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of RA for pain management in an earthquake setting...
November 16, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042515/pok%C3%A3-mon-go-and-exposure-to-mosquito-borne-diseases-how-not-to-catch-em-all
#16
Rachel J Oidtman, Rebecca C Christofferson, Quirine A Ten Bosch, Guido Espana, Moritz U G Kraemer, Andrew Tatem, Christopher M Barker, T Alex Perkins
Pokémon Go is a new game that encourages players to venture outdoors and interact with others in the pursuit of virtual Pokémon characters. With more time spent outdoors overall and in sometimes large congregations, Pokémon Go players could inadvertently elevate their risk of exposure to mosquito-borne diseases when playing in certain areas at certain times of year. Here, we make an initial assessment of the possible scope of this concern in the continental United States, which experiences its highest seasonal transmission of West Nile, Zika, and other viruses during summer and early fall...
November 15, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018746/identifying-candidate-targets-of-immune-responses-in-zika-virus-based-on-homology-to-epitopes-in-other-flavivirus-species
#17
Xiaojun Xu, Kerrie Vaughan, Daniela Weiskopf, Alba Grifoni, Michael S Diamond, Alessandro Sette, Bjoern Peters
INTRODUCTION: The current outbreak of Zika virus has resulted in a massive effort to accelerate the development of ZIKV-specific diagnostics and vaccines. These efforts would benefit greatly from the definition of the specific epitope targets of immune responses in ZIKV, but given the relatively recent emergence of ZIKV as a pandemic threat, few such data are available. METHODS: We used a large body of epitope data for other Flaviviruses that was available from the IEDB for a comparative analysis against the ZIKV proteome in order to project targets of immune responses in ZIKV...
November 15, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974995/the-ebola-crisis-and-the-corresponding-public-behavior-a-system-dynamics-approach
#18
Nasser Sharareh, Nasim S Sabounchi, Hiroki Sayama, Roderick MacDonald
BACKGROUND: The interaction of several sociocultural and environmental factors during an epidemic crisis leads to behavioral responses that consequently make the crisis control a complex problem. METHODS: The system dynamics approach has been adopted to study the relationships between spread of disease, public attention, situational awareness, and community's response to the Ebola epidemic. RESULTS: In developing different simulation models to capture the trend of death and incidence data from the World Health Organization for the Ebola outbreak, the final model has the best fit to the historical trends...
November 3, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042514/quality-of-life-of-persons-injured-on-9-11-qualitative-analysis-from-the-world-trade-center-health-registry
#19
Lisa M Gargano, Robyn R Gershon, Robert M Brackbill
INTRODUCTION: A number of studies published by the World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) document the prevalence of injuries sustained by victims of the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) on 9/11. Injury occurrence during or in the immediate aftermath of this event has been shown to be a risk factor for long-term adverse physical and mental health status. More recent reports of ongoing physical health and mental health problems and overall poor quality of life among survivors led us to undertake this qualitative study to explore the long-term impact of having both disaster-related injuries and peri-event traumatic exposure on quality of life in disaster survivors...
October 27, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917304/quality-of-life-of-cypriot-patients-suffering-with-huntington-s-disease
#20
Eleni Varda, Christiana A Demetriou, Alexandros Heraclides, Yiolanda P Christou, Eleni Zamba-Papanicolaou
INTRODUCTION: Huntington's disease (HD) has profound motor, behavioural and cognitive symptoms. Despite the enormous burden of this disease on the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families, there is very limited evidence on this topic. Considering the severity of HD patients, and the high prevalence in Cyprus more studies are needed to assess QoL among Cypriot patients, in order to improve our knowledge about their living conditions and to assist the management of this condition...
October 25, 2016: PLoS Currents
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