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PLoS Currents

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917304/quality-of-life-of-cypriot-patients-suffering-with-huntington-s-disease
#1
Eleni Varda, Christiana A Demetriou, Alexandros Heraclides, Yiolanda P Christou, Eleni Zamba-Papanicolaou
INTRODUCTION: Huntington's disease (HD) has profound motor, behavioural and cognitive symptoms. Despite the enormous burden of this disease on the quality of life (QoL) of patients and their families, there is very limited evidence on this topic. Considering the severity of HD patients, and the high prevalence in Cyprus more studies are needed to assess QoL among Cypriot patients, in order to improve our knowledge about their living conditions and to assist the management of this condition...
October 25, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867737/developing-the-philippines-as-a-global-hub-for-disaster-risk-reduction-a-health-research-initiative-as-presented-at-the-10th-philippine-national-health-research-system-week-celebration
#2
Nicola Banwell, Jaime Montoya, Merlita Opeña, Carel IJsselmuiden, Ronald Law, Gloria J Balboa, Shannon Rutherford, Cordia Chu, Virginia Murray
The recent Philippine National Health Research System (PNHRS) Week Celebration highlighted the growing commitment to Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in the Philippines. The event was lead by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development of the Department of Science and Technology and the Department of Health, and saw the participation of national and international experts in DRR, and numerous research consortia from all over the Philippines. With a central focus on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the DRR related events recognised the significant disaster risks faced in the Philippines...
October 25, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917306/education-and-training-of-emergency-medical-teams-recommendations-for-a-global-operational-learning-framework
#3
Nieves Amat Camacho, Amy Hughes, Frederick M Burkle, Pier Luigi Ingrassia, Luca Ragazzoni, Anthony Redmond, Ian Norton, Johan von Schreeb
An increasing number of international emergency medical teams are deployed to assist disaster-affected populations worldwide. Since Haiti earthquake those teams have been criticised for ill adapted care, lack of preparedness in addition to not coordinating with the affected country healthcare system. The Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) initiative, as part of the Word Health Organization's Global Health Emergency Workforce program, aims to address these shortcomings by improved EMT coordination, and mechanisms to ensure quality and accountability of national and international EMTs...
October 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917305/laboratory-diagnosis-for-outbreak-prone-infectious-diseases-after-typhoon-yolanda-haiyan-philippines
#4
Mariko Saito-Obata, Mayuko Saito, Titus C Tan, Inez Andrea P Medado, Clyde Dapat, Michiko Okamoto, Raita Tamaki, Rowena C Capistrano, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Socorro P Lupisan, Hitoshi Oshitani
Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) hit the central part of the Philippines on November 8, 2013. To identify possible outbreaks of communicable diseases after the typhoon, nasopharyngeal swabs, stool and blood samples were collected from patients who visited the Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Center due to acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or other febrile illness (OFI) including suspected dengue fever, between November 28, 2013 and February 5, 2014.   Methods: Samples were tested on-site for selected pathogens using rapid diagnostic tests...
October 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803839/series-of-norovirus-outbreaks-caused-by-consumption-of-green-coral-lettuce-denmark-april-2016
#5
Luise Müller, Lasse Dam Rasmussen, Tenna Jensen, Anna Charlotte Schultz, Charlotte Kjelsø, Celine Barnadas, Kim Sigsgaard, Anne Ribert Larsen, Carl Widstrup Jensen, Simon Jeppesen, Katrine Uhrbrand, Nikolas Hove, Kåre Mølbak, Steen Ethelberg
INTRODUCTION: In early April 2016, an unusual high number of point-source outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease were reported to occur in Denmark. METHODS: Outbreaks were individually investigated. Two analytical studies were performed. Patient stool samples collected and analysed; positive stool samples were sequenced over the polymerase and/or capsid gene areas. Implicated lettuce heads were collected and analysed for the presence of norovirus. Foods were traced-back and traced-forward and international alert systems applied...
October 4, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807510/measuring-outcomes-in-a-community-resilience-program-a-new-metric-for-evaluating-results-at-the-household-level
#6
David P Eisenman, Rachel M Adams, Helene Rivard
: Community resilience programs require metrics for evaluation but none exist for measuring outcomes at the household and neighborhood level. OBJECTIVES: We develop and describe a new index, the LACCDR index of community resilience, to examine how resilience varied across communities at baseline, prior to implementation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR). METHODS: We surveyed 4700 adult residents in the sixteen LACCDR communities in English, Spanish and Korean...
September 28, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790383/mass-casualty-decontamination-guidance-and-psychosocial-aspects-of-cbrn-incident-management-a-review-and-synthesis
#7
Holly Carter, Richard Amlôt
INTRODUCTION: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents...
September 27, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803840/experiences-and-psychosocial-impact-of-west-africa-ebola-deployment-on-us-health-care-volunteers
#8
Robyn Gershon, Liza A Dernehl, Ezinne Nwankwo, Qi Zhi, Kristine Qureshi
BACKGROUND:  This qualitative study was designed to assess health care volunteers' experiences and psychosocial impacts associated with deployment to the West Africa Ebola epidemic. METHODS: In 2015, using snowball sampling, 16 US health care volunteers who had recently returned from West Africa were recruited for this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect information associated with each phase of deployment (pre, peri, and post). RESULTS: Participants reported that they were motivated to volunteer because of a sense of responsibility and feelings of empathy and altruism...
September 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790381/mass-casualty-decontamination-in-a-chemical-or-radiological-nuclear-incident-further-guiding-principles
#9
Holly Carter, Richard Amlôt, Richard Williams, G James Rubin, John Drury
This short report presents a response to an article written by Cibulsky et al. (2016). The paper by Cibulsky et al. presents a useful and timely overview of the evidence surrounding the technical and operational aspects of mass casualty decontamination. It identifies three priority targets for future research, the third of which is how casualties' needs can be met in ways that best support compliance with and effectiveness of casualty decontamination. While further investigation into behavioural, communication and privacy issues during mass decontamination is warranted, there is now a substantial body of research in this area which is not considered in detail in the succinct summary provided by Cibulsky et al...
September 15, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790382/resilience-and-disaster-trends-in-the-philippines-opportunities-for-national-and-local-capacity-building
#10
Tilly Alcayna, Vincenzo Bollettino, Philip Dy, Patrick Vinck
INTRODUCTION:  The Philippines is one of the top countries in the world at risk of climate-related disasters. For populations subsisting at the poverty line in particular, but also the nation as a whole, daily lives and wellbeing are routinely challenged. The Philippines government takes disaster risk seriously and has devoted significant resources to build disaster capacity and reduce population exposure and vulnerability, nationally and locally. This paper explores the policy and institutional mechanisms for disaster risk reduction management and research which have been conducted in the Philippines related to disaster preparedness, management and resilience...
September 14, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679739/isolation-of-zika-virus-imported-from-tonga-into-australia
#11
Alyssa T Pyke, Peter R Moore, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jamie L McMahon, Bruce J Harrower, Tanya R Constantino, Andrew F van den Hurk
INTRODUCTION: The globally emergent Zika virus (ZIKV) is a threat to Australia, given the number of imported cases from epidemic regions and the presence of competent mosquito vectors. We report the isolation of ZIKV from a female traveler who recently returned from Tonga to Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2016. METHODS: A specific TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect ZIKV in serum and urine samples...
September 7, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679738/the-2016-world-humanitarian-summit-report-card-both-failing-marks-and-substantive-gains-for-an-increasingly-globalized-humanitarian-landscape
#12
Deon V Canyon, Frederick M Burkle
Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit's ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN's failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body...
August 30, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525172/prednisone-and-deflazacort-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-do-they-play-a-different-role-in-child-behavior-and-perceived-quality-of-life
#13
Susan Sienko, Cathleen Buckon, Eileen Fowler, Anita Bagley, Loretta Staudt, Mitell Sison-Williamson, Kathy Zebracki, Craig M McDonald, Michael Sussman
The aim of this study was to determine whether prednisone and deflazacort play a different role in child behavior and perceived health related psychosocial quality of life in ambulant boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. As part of a prospective natural-history study, parents of sixty-seven ambulant boys with DMD (27 taking prednisone, 15 taking deflazacort, 25 were steroid naïve) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for assessment of behavioral, emotional and social problems and both parents and boys with DMD completed the PedsQL™4...
June 17, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679740/increased-taurine-in-pre-weaned-juvenile-mdx-mice-greatly-reduces-the-acute-onset-of-myofibre-necrosis-and-dystropathology-and-prevents-inflammation
#14
Jessica R Terrill, Miranda D Grounds, Peter G Arthur
BACKGROUND: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice...
April 29, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158558/vaccine-effectiveness-of-polysaccharide-vaccines-against-clinical-meningitis-niamey-niger-june-2015
#15
Marc Rondy, Djibo Issifou, Alkassoum S Ibrahim, Zaneidou Maman, Goumbi Kadade, Hamidou Omou, Sidikou Fati, Esther Kissling, Sarah Meyer, Olivier Ronveaux
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, a large outbreak of serogroup C meningococcal meningitis hit Niamey, Niger, in response to which a vaccination campaign was conducted late April. Using a case-control study we measured the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of tri - (ACW) and quadrivalent (ACYW) polysaccharide meningococcal vaccines against clinical meningitis among 2-15 year olds in Niamey II district between April 28th and June 30th 2015. METHODS: We selected all clinical cases registered in health centers and conducted a household- vaccination coverage cluster survey (control group)...
April 18, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818843/is-there-an-association-of-physical-activity-with-brain-volume-behavior-and-day-to-day-functioning-a-cross-sectional-design-in-prodromal-and-early-huntington-disease
#16
McKenzie Wallace, Nancy Downing, Spencer Lourens, James Mills, Ji-In Kim, Jeffrey Long, Jane Paulsen, Predict-Hd Investigators And Coordinators Of The Huntington Study Group
BACKGROUND: Huntington disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive motor, cognitive, and behavioral decline. Subtle changes in these domains are detectable up to 15 years before a definitive motor diagnosis is made. This period, called prodromal HD, provides an opportunity to examine lifestyle behaviors that may impact disease progression. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: Physical activity relates to decreased rates of brain atrophy and improved cognitive and day-to-day functioning in Alzheimer disease and healthy aging populations...
March 17, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819833/medication-use-in-early-hd-participants-in-track-hd-an-investigation-of-its-effects-on-clinical-performance
#17
Ruth Keogh, Chris Frost, Gail Owen, Rhian M Daniel, Doug R Langbehn, Blair Leavitt, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Ralf Reilmann, Beth Borowsky, Julie Stout, David Craufurd, Sarah J Tabrizi
 Insufficient evidence exists to guide the long-term pharmacological management of Huntington's disease (HD) although most current interventions rely on symptomatic management. The effect of many frontline treatments on potential endpoints for HD clinical trials remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate how therapies widely used to manage HD affect the symptom for which they are prescribed and other endpoints using data from TRACK-HD. We used longitudinal models to estimate effects of medication use on performance on tests of motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric function using data from 123 TRACK-HD stage 1/2 participants across four study visits...
January 11, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660733/utility-of-a-dengue-derived-monoclonal-antibody-to-enhance-zika-infection-in-vitro
#18
Anu Susan Charles, Rebecca C Christofferson
INTRODUCTION: Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged in dengue (DENV) endemic areas, where these two related flaviviruses continue to co-circulate. DENV is a complex of four serotypes and infections can progress to severe disease. It is thought that this is mediated by antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) whereby antibodies from a primary DENV infection are incapable of neutralizing heterologous DENV infections with another serotype. ADE has been demonstrated among other members of the Flavivirus group...
2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651979/qualitative-analysis-of-surveyed-emergency-responders-and-the-identified-factors-that-affect-first-stage-of-primary-triage-decision-making-of-mass-casualty-incidents
#19
Kelly R Klein, Frederick M Burkle, Raymond Swienton, Richard V King, Thomas Lehman, Carol S North
INTRODUCTION: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. METHODS: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage...
2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651978/the-effect-of-emotional-closeness-and-exchanges-of-support-among-family-members-on-residents-positive-and-negative-psychological-responses-after-hurricane-sandy
#20
Zhen Cong, Ali Nejat, Daan Liang
INTRODUCTION: This study examines how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support among family members after Hurricane Sandy affected residents' psychological outcomes both positively and negatively. METHODS: The working sample included 130 family ties reported by 85 respondents recruited from community and shelter residents on Staten Island after it was seriously damaged by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. Regression with robust standard errors was used to examine how changes in emotional closeness and exchanges of support with adult family members affected respondents' posttraumatic psychological distress and posttraumatic growth...
2016: PLoS Currents
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