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Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331351/long-term-management-of-type-2-diabetes-with-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists
#1
REVIEW
Hamish Courtney, Rahul Nayar, Chinnadorai Rajeswaran, Ravi Jandhyala
Continuously reducing excess blood glucose is a primary goal for the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Most patients with T2D require glucose-lowering medications to achieve and maintain adequate glycemic control; however, treatment failure may occur, limiting treatment options. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are an emerging therapeutic class that can be prescribed for patients instead of basal insulin after the failure of oral therapies. Recent studies have focused on the durability and tolerability of long-term GLP-1RA therapy...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280376/single-donor-islet-transplantation-in-type-1-diabetes-patient-selection-and-special-considerations
#2
REVIEW
Jacob A Tatum, Max O Meneveau, Kenneth L Brayman
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disorder of the endocrine pancreas that currently affects millions of people in the United States. Although the disease can be managed with exogenous insulin administration, the ultimate cure for the condition lies in restoring a patient's ability to produce their own insulin. Islet cell allotransplantation provides a means of endogenous insulin production. Though far from perfected, islet transplants are now a proven treatment for type 1 diabetics. However, proper patient selection is critical for achieving optimal outcomes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255250/clinical-utility-of-metabolic-syndrome-severity-scores-considerations-for-practitioners
#3
REVIEW
Mark D DeBoer, Matthew J Gurka
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255249/association-between-obesity-and-heart-rate-variability-indices-an-intuition-toward-cardiac-autonomic-alteration-a-risk-of-cvd
#4
Ram Lochan Yadav, Prakash Kumar Yadav, Laxmi Kumari Yadav, Kopila Agrawal, Santosh Kumar Sah, Md Nazrul Islam
BACKGROUND: Obese people have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, which is supposed to be due to autonomic dysfunction and/or metabolic disorder. The alterations in cardiac autonomic functions bring out the changes in the heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, an assessing tool for cardiac autonomic conditions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cardiac autonomic activity between obese and normal weight adults and find out the highest association between the indices of HRV and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184166/canagliflozin-improves-risk-factors-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Michael J Davies, Katherine W Merton, Ujjwala Vijapurkar, Dainius A Balis, Mehul Desai
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP) in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome. METHODS: This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1) and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2)...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144155/different-consecutive-training-protocols-to-design-an-intervention-program-for-overweight-youth-a-controlled-study
#6
Giovanni Fiorilli, Enzo Iuliano, Giovanna Aquino, Emidio Campanella, Despina Tsopani, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno, Alessandra di Cagno
OBJECTIVE: To find the optimal exercise program to be recommended in reducing adiposity and promoting long-term physical activity adherence in a sample of overweight adolescents. METHODS: Forty-five overweight adolescents were randomly divided into three exercise groups, to perform two phases of physical activity as follows: in the first phase, the first group performed a 16-week moderate-intensity resistance training (RT), the second group performed a 16-week high-intensity RT, and the third group performed a 16-week aerobic training (AT); in the second phase, all groups performed a 6-week AT...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138261/the-effects-of-exercise-training-and-caloric-restriction-on-the-cardiac-oxytocin-natriuretic-peptide-system-in-the-diabetic-mouse
#7
Tom L Broderick, Marek Jankowski, Jolanta Gutkowska
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123309/improvement-of-impaired-diastolic-left-ventricular-function-after-diet-induced-weight-reduction-in-severe-obesity
#8
Sevda Karimian, Juergen Stein, Boris Bauer, Claudius Teupe
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is independently associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and altered cardiac morphology. Morbidity and mortality in patients with diastolic dysfunction are similar to values observed in patients with systolic heart failure. We hypothesized that dysfunctional cardiac responses in people with obesity are reversible after weight loss. Thus, we studied the effect of dietary weight reduction on LV diastolic function as well as on cardiac structure using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115861/role-of-glycemic-control-on-hospital-related-outcomes-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-undergoing-renal-transplantation
#9
Elizabeth M Lamos, Marniker A Wijesinha, Seba Ramhmdani, Laurence S Magder, Kristi D Silver
OBJECTIVE: To compare length of stay (LOS) and incidence of hypoglycemic events and infections in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing renal transplantation, among groups of patients defined by admission glucose and mean inpatient daily glucose. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 190 charts of patients with DM who underwent renal transplantation over a 2-year period was conducted. Patients were grouped according to admission glucose and mean inpatient daily glucose (≤140 mg/dL, 141-180 mg/dL, and >180 mg/dL)...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096687/coaching-and-barriers-to-weight-loss-an-integrative-review
#10
REVIEW
Karen Fernanda Muñoz Obino, Caroline Aguiar Pereira, Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert
INTRODUCTION: Coaching is proposed to raise a patient's awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional-patient relationship. OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient's state of health. METHODOLOGY: An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003768/symptom-profiles-of-subsyndromal-depression-in-disease-clusters-of-diabetes-excess-weight-and-progressive-cerebrovascular-conditions-a-promising-new-type-of-finding-from-a-reliable-innovation-to-estimate-exhaustively-specified-multiple-indicators-multiple-causes
#11
Richard B Francoeur
Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad) mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders) from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE) was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI]) and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994477/acarbose-promotes-remission-of-both-early-and-late-dumping-syndromes-in-post-bariatric-patients
#12
Flavio A Cadegiani, Osvalmir Sá Silva
OBJECTIVE: Acarbose is a glucosidase inhibitor that slows carbohydrate digestion. It could thus be effective to promote remission of dumping syndrome (DS). Previous studies associating acarbose and late dumping, although not early dumping, have been reported. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of acarbose in dumping syndrome prevention and treatment and in resistive exercises resistance in bariatric subjects. METHODS: Bariatric patients with DS and complete adherence to diet plan and resistive exercises were included (n=25)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980431/rdna-insulin-glargine-u300-a-critical-appraisal
#13
REVIEW
Fei Wang, Stefanie Zassman, Philip A Goldberg
BACKGROUND: As the first once-daily basal insulin analog, insulin glargine 100 U/mL (Gla-100; Lantus(®)) rapidly evolved into the most commonly prescribed insulin therapy worldwide. However, this insulin has clinical limitations. The approval of new basal insulin analogs in 2015 has already started to alter the prescribing landscape. OBJECTIVE: To review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy and safety of a more concentrated insulin glargine (recombinant DNA origin) injection 300 U/mL (Gla-300) compared to insulin Gla-100 in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980430/evaluation-of-serum-ferritin-and-some-metal-elements-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#14
Amare Desalegn Wolide, Belay Zawdie, Tilahun Alemayehu, Samuel Tadesse
BACKGROUND: The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes has been associated with an imbalance of some trace metal elements in the blood sample of type 2 diabetes patients. AIM: To evaluate the status of serum ferritin and some selected metal elements among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: Facility-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15, 2015 to October 30, 2015, at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877058/teneligliptin-real-world-efficacy-assessment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-in-india-treat-india-study
#15
Sujoy Ghosh, Shailesh Trivedi, Debmalya Sanyal, K D Modi, Sandeep Kharb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Teneligliptin was introduced in India in May 2015. It has gained popularity and is already widely prescribed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This "real life" data collection was conducted to assess the efficacy of teneligliptin in Indian T2DM patients. METHODS: Predesigned structured proforma was used to collect information from the prescribing physicians regarding the efficacy of teneligliptin when prescribed as monotherapy as well as combination therapy with other antidiabetic drugs in T2DM patients...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853384/ehealth-technologies-to-support-nutrition-and-physical-activity-behaviors-in-diabetes-self-management
#16
REVIEW
Megan E Rollo, Elroy J Aguiar, Rebecca L Williams, Katie Wynne, Michelle Kriss, Robin Callister, Clare E Collins
Diabetes is a chronic, complex condition requiring sound knowledge and self-management skills to optimize glycemic control and health outcomes. Dietary intake and physical activity are key diabetes self-management (DSM) behaviors that require tailored education and support. Electronic health (eHealth) technologies have a demonstrated potential for assisting individuals with DSM behaviors. This review provides examples of technologies used to support nutrition and physical activity behaviors in the context of DSM...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843332/trends-in-medication-use-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-long-term-view-of-real-world-treatment-between-2000-and-2015
#17
Victoria Higgins, James Piercy, Adam Roughley, Gary Milligan, Andrea Leith, James Siddall, Mike Benford
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of a variety of treatments, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not achieving glucose control. We analyzed successive waves of the Adelphi Real World Diabetes Disease Specific Programmes (DSPs) to assess treatment patterns reported by primary care physicians (PCPs) and specialists and the effect of treatment on levels of glucose control. METHODS: Data were collected between 2000 and 2015 in the US and EU5 (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826204/practical-combination-therapy-based-on-pathophysiology-of-type-2-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Philip A Levin
Type 2 diabetes is a complex, chronic, and progressive condition that often necessitates the use of multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Clinical guidelines generally recommend intensifying pharmacotherapy if glycemic goals are not achieved after 3 months of treatment. However, for many patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment intensification is delayed or does not occur. Initiating combination therapy early in the disease course has the potential to delay disease progression and improve patient outcomes...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822077/changes-in-hba1c-body-weight-and-systolic-blood-pressure-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-initiating-dapagliflozin-therapy-a-primary-care-database-study
#19
Markus F Scheerer, Roland Rist, Orm Proske, Annika Meng, Karel Kostev
AIMS: To investigate changes in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) primary care patients initiating dapagliflozin treatment. METHODS: T2D patients who started dapagliflozin in 985 general and 32 diabetologist practices (Disease Analyzer, Germany: December 2012-October 2014) were analyzed (3- and 6-month follow-up). Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to identify clinical characteristics and comorbidity associated with changes in HbA1c, BW, and SBP...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757044/myocutaneous-revascularization-following-graded-ischemia-in-lean-and-obese-mice
#20
Ross M Clark, Brittany Coffman, Paul G McGuire, Thomas R Howdieshell
BACKGROUND: Murine models of diabetes and obesity have provided insight into the pathogenesis of impaired epithelialization of excisional skin wounds. However, knowledge of postischemic myocutaneous revascularization in these models is limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A myocutaneous flap was created on the dorsum of wild type (C57BL/6), genetically obese and diabetic (ob/ob, db/db), complementary heterozygous (ob(+)/ob(-), db(+)/db(-)), and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (n=48 total; five operative mice per strain and three unoperated mice per strain as controls)...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
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