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Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919795/type-2-diabetes-in-vietnam-a-cross-sectional-prevalence-based-cost-of-illness-study
#1
Nguyen Tu Dang Le, Luyen Dinh Pham, Trung Quang Vo
BACKGROUND: According to the International Diabetes Federation, total global health care expenditures for diabetes tripled between 2003 and 2013 because of increases in the number of people with diabetes as well as in the average expenditures per patient. This study aims to provide accurate and timely information about the economic impacts of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Vietnam. METHOD: The cost-of-illness estimates followed a prospective, prevalence-based approach from the societal perspective of T2DM with 392 selected diabetic patients who received treatment from a public hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, during the 2016 fiscal year...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860833/novel-biomarkers-for-prediabetes-diabetes-and-associated-complications
#2
REVIEW
Brenda Dorcely, Karin Katz, Ram Jagannathan, Stephanie S Chiang, Babajide Oluwadare, Ira J Goldberg, Michael Bergman
The number of individuals with prediabetes is expected to grow substantially and estimated to globally affect 482 million people by 2040. Therefore, effective methods for diagnosing prediabetes will be required to reduce the risk of progressing to diabetes and its complications. The current biomarkers, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fructosamine, and glycated albumin have limitations including moderate sensitivity and specificity and are inaccurate in certain clinical conditions. Therefore, identification of additional biomarkers is being explored recognizing that any single biomarker will also likely have inherent limitations...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814891/diabetes-and-dyslipidemia-characterizing-lipoprotein-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
G H Tomkin, D Owens
Premature atherosclerosis in diabetes accounts for much of the decreased life span. New treatments have reduced this risk considerably. This review explores the relationship among the disturbances in glucose, lipid, and bile salt metabolic pathways that occur in diabetes. In particular, excess nutrient intake and starvation have major metabolic effects, which have allowed us new insights into the disturbance that occurs in diabetes. Metabolic regulators such as the forkhead transcription factors, the farnesyl X transcription factors, and the fibroblast growth factors have become important players in our understanding of the dysregulation of metabolism in diabetes and overnutrition...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790859/dyslipidemia-and-associated-factors-among-diabetic-patients-attending-durame-general-hospital-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-people-s-region
#4
Shiferaw Bekele, Tagesech Yohannes, Abdurehman Eshete Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that are caused by deficiency in insulin secretion or the decreased ability of insulin to act effectively on target tissues, particularly muscle, liver, and fat. As a result of insulin resistance in the target tissues, particularly in the adipocytes, free fatty acid flux is increased, leading to increased lipid synthesis in hepatocytes, which is responsible for diabetic dyslipidemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of dyslipidemia among diabetic patients in Durame General Hospital in Kembata Tembaro zone...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790858/diabetes-in-sub-saharan-africa-from-policy-to-practice-to-progress-targeting-the-existing-gaps-for-future-care-for-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Sonak D Pastakia, Chelsea R Pekny, Simon M Manyara, Lydia Fischer
The global prevalence and impact of diabetes has increased dramatically, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This region faces unique challenges in combating the disease including lack of funding for noncommunicable diseases, lack of availability of studies and guidelines specific to the population, lack of availability of medications, differences in urban and rural patients, and inequity between public and private sector health care. Because of these challenges, diabetes has a greater impact on morbidity and mortality related to the disease in sub-Saharan Africa than any other region in the world...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769579/emerging-use-of-combination-therapies-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-focus-on-saxagliptin-and-dapagliflozin
#6
REVIEW
Huan Yu, Vincent C Woo
AIMS: The aim of this article is to review the safety and efficacy data of dapagliflozin, saxagliptin, and their combination in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. Evidence for the use of the single-tablet combination formulation is also presented. METHODS: A nonsystematic literature review was performed using the Ovid, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. RESULTS: The addition of dapagliflozin/saxagliptin to metformin can lower mean hemoglobin A1c by as much as 1...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740414/the-role-of-endoscopic-therapy-in-obesity-management-intragastric-balloons-and-aspiration-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Nitin Kumar, Shelby Sullivan, Christopher C Thompson
Weight management is increasingly incorporating endoscopic bariatric therapy (EBT). As the global burden of obesity and its comorbidities has increased, it is evident that novel therapeutic approaches will be necessary to address the obesity epidemic. EBTs offer greater efficacy than diet and lifestyle modification and lower invasiveness than bariatric surgery. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved two intragastric balloons and aspiration therapy for the treatment of obesity: Apollo Orbera is indicated for the treatment of Class I and Class II obesity, Re Shape Integrated Dual Balloon system is indicated for the same range with a comorbidity, and Aspire Bariatrics AspireAssist is approved for patients with a body mass index of 35-55 kg/m(2)...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740413/dose-ranging-pilot-randomized-trial-of-amino-acid-mixture-combined-with-physical-activity-promotion-for-reducing-abdominal-fat-in-overweight-adults
#8
Hiroyuki Sasai, Keisuke Ueda, Takehiko Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Chiaki Sanbongi, Shuji Ikegami, Yoshio Nakata
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effective dose of an amino acid mixture comprising arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine combined with physical activity promotion in reducing abdominal fat among overweight adults. METHODS: A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, pilot trial was conducted in Mito, Japan, from January through April 2016, and the data were analyzed from May through November 2016. The study participants were 35 overweight adults, aged 20-64 years, with no regular exercise habit...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740412/prevalence-of-diabetes-and-obesity-in-association-with-prematurity-and-growth-restriction
#9
REVIEW
Gretchen Kopec, Prem S Shekhawat, Maroun J Mhanna
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is when fetuses and newborn infants have not reached their true growth potential as genetically defined. Fetuses with IUGR develop in a less than ideal environment that leads to epigenetic changes and marks infants' metabolism for the rest of their lives. Epigenetic changes affect insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and lead to insulin resistance and ultimately to a metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of illnesses that raise one's risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, and ischemic heart disease, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, central obesity, insulin resistance, and inflammation...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721081/insulin-glargine-300-u-ml-for-basal-insulin-therapy-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Ip Tim Lau, Ka Fai Lee, Wing Yee So, Kathryn Tan, Vincent Tok Fai Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To review published clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of new insulin glargine 300 units/mL (Gla-300), a new long-acting insulin analog, for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data sources comprised primary research articles on Gla-300, including pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and clinical studies. RESULTS: In pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies, Gla-300 showed a flatter time-action profile and longer duration of action than Gla-100...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684917/effects-of-a-tailored-lifestyle-self-management-intervention-talent-study-on-weight-reduction-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Dieter Melchart, Peter Löw, Erich Wühr, Victoria Kehl, Wolfgang Weidenhammer
OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity are globally increasing risk factors for diseases in the context of metabolic syndrome. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate whether there are any existing differences between two lifestyle intervention strategies with respect to weight reduction after 1 year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 166 subjects with a body mass index of 28-35 kg/m(2) were enrolled in this trial at seven study centers; 109 were randomly allocated to the intervention group (comprehensive lifestyle modification program: web-based Individual Health Management [IHM]) with 3-month reduction phase plus 9-month maintenance phase, and 57 were allocated to the control group (written information with advice for healthy food habits: usual care [UC])...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652791/off-label-drugs-for-weight-management
#12
REVIEW
Ed J Hendricks
The global pandemic of obesity and overweight now affects between 2.8 and 3.5 billion of the world population and shows no signs of abatement. Treatment for what is now recognized as a chronic disease includes pharmacotherapy, considered an essential component of comprehensive therapy. New drug discovery is robust, but the pace of the US Food and Drug Administration approval for obesity drugs has been glacial, and only a handful of approved drugs are available for treating obesity. In the last 20 years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved 208 drugs for cancer, 118 for cardiovascular diseases, 168 for neurological diseases, and 223 endocrinologic drugs, but only 6 for obesity, 2 of which have been taken off market...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652790/sitagliptin-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy-by-diminishing-the-mir-200a-keap-1-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#13
Esther Civantos, Enrique Bosch, Elisa Ramirez, Olha Zhenyukh, Jesús Egido, Oscar Lorenzo, Sebastián Mas
BACKGROUND: Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor used in type 2 diabetes therapy, has demonstrated protective effects in diabetic chronic kidney disease, in part due to its pleiotropic actions. However, its potential direct effects on the kidney are still not completely defined. Here, by means of proteomics and miRNA profiling, we have further unveiled the role of sitagliptin in oxidative stress, as well as the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Renal cortex samples from 9-month-old wild-type (Wistar), type II diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and sitagliptin-treated GK rats (GK+Sita) (10 mg kg(-1) per day) were subjected to quantitative miRNA transcriptomic array, immunohistochemistry and Western blot studies...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615960/personalized-multistep-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-obesity
#14
EDITORIAL
Riccardo Dalle Grave, Massimiliano Sartirana, Marwan El Ghoch, Simona Calugi
Multistep cognitive behavioral therapy for obesity (CBT-OB) is a treatment that may be delivered at three levels of care (outpatient, day hospital, and residential). In a stepped-care approach, CBT-OB associates the traditional procedures of weight-loss lifestyle modification, ie, physical activity and dietary recommendations, with specific cognitive behavioral strategies that have been indicated by recent research to influence weight loss and maintenance by addressing specific cognitive processes. The treatment program as a whole is delivered in six modules...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533692/changes-in-muscle-strength-after-diet-induced-weight-reduction-in-adult-men-with-obesity-a-prospective-study
#15
Bokun Kim, Takehiko Tsujimoto, Rina So, Xiaoguang Zhao, Sechang Oh, Kiyoji Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The benefits of weight reduction for musculoskeletal disorders are well understood. Steep declines in muscle mass following considerable weight reduction can decrease muscle strength and, consequently, physical performance. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the changes in muscle mass and strength in the context of interventional weight reduction programs. Thus, we investigated the influence of muscle mass decrease caused by diet-induced weight reduction on muscle strength in obese men...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507444/antibodies-against-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-and-indices-of-insulin-resistance-and-insulin-secretion-in-nondiabetic-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Carlos O Mendivil, Freddy Jk Toloza, Maria L Ricardo-Silgado, Martha C Morales-Álvarez, Jose O Mantilla-Rivas, Jairo A Pinzón-Cortés, Hernán N Lemus
BACKGROUND: Autoimmunity against insulin-producing beta cells from pancreatic islets is a common phenomenon in type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Some reports have also related beta-cell autoimmunity to insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which autoimmunity against components of beta cells is present and relates to IR and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults is uncertain. AIM: To explore the association between antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), a major antigen from beta cells, and indices of whole-body IR and beta-cell capacity/insulin secretion in adults who do not have diabetes...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496349/effect-of-vitamin-k-supplementation-on-insulin-sensitivity-a-meta-analysis
#17
Naeti Suksomboon, Nalinee Poolsup, Htoo Darli Ko Ko
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials to assess the effect of vitamin K supplementation on insulin sensitivity. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, and clinicaltrialresults.org were searched up to January 2017. Reference lists of related papers were also scanned. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials were selected if they compared vitamin K supplementation with placebo or no treatment and reported homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, or interleukin-6 levels...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496348/role-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-type-i-diabetes-mellitus
#18
REVIEW
Hala Ahmadieh, Nisrine Ghazal, Sami T Azar
The burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) in general has been extensively increasing over the past few years. Selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were extensively studied in type 2 DM and found to have sustained urinary glucose loss, improvement of glycemic control, in addition to their proven metabolic effects on weight, blood pressure, and cardiovascular benefits. Type 1 DM (T1D) patients clearly depend on insulin therapy, which till today fails to achieve the optimal glycemic control and metabolic targets that are needed to prevent risk of complications...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496347/hearing-thresholds-in-adult-nigerians-with-diabetes-mellitus-a-case-control-study
#19
Jones Ndubuisi Nwosu, Ethel Nkechi Chime
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of hearing loss and associated factors in a hospital population of adult Nigerians with diabetes mellitus. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study was a prospective hospital-based study conducted at the Otorhinolaryngology and Diabetic Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, for a period of 12 months. Consecutively presenting eligible adult diabetics and their age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496346/do-we-need-to-measure-vitamin-b12-and-magnesium-in-morbidly-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Anna Wåhlén, Arvo Haenni, Hans-Erik Johansson
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of B12 deficiency in metformin-treated, morbidly obese, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, compared to morbidly obese controls, as well as to evaluate the magnesium status. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis of plasma vitamin B12, plasma magnesium, glucometabolic status and clinical measurements in all consecutive morbidly obese patients was conducted during 1 year. SETTING: Outpatient Clinic of Obesity Care...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
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