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Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

Natalie Flath, Karin Tobin, Aleks Mihailovic, Paige Hammond, Carl Latkin
Among 100 people who inject drugs enrolled in a peer mentorship intervention aiming to promote injection-related risk reduction behavior change, we evaluated the role of participation in a dyad session on reducing sharing of syringes and cookers in the past 6 months. Dyad participants (n = 69) invited an injection, sex partner, or family member to the study site to reinforce learnt behavior change tools by practicing communication skills and risk reduction lessons. In all, 31 participants did not participate in the dyad session...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Gregory L Stuart, Ryan C Shorey, Christopher R France, Jenny Macfie, Kathryn Bell, Kimberly B Fortner, Craig V Towers, Paul Schkolnik, Susan Ramsey
Opioid misuse has become one of the most pressing public health problems facing the country. In this article, we briefly review literature regarding the opioid epidemic in the United States and the negative consequences of opioid use disorder. We provide information regarding treatment and relapse using a variety of intervention approaches. We call for research on people with opioid use disorder that can contribute to a variety of areas: improving medication-assisted treatment, addressing chronic pain, examination of adjunctive behavioral interventions, overdose, high risk behaviors and infections, pregnancy, diverse populations, and other psychological factors...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Kirsten Robertson, Karen Tustin
There is an unquestionable need to address drinking patterns in subcultures where excessive drinking is normative. Regulatory bodies advocate moderating alcohol consumption but it is unclear whether individuals have agency to do so, particularly when excessive consumption is the norm. This study aimed to address this gap by examining student's perceptions of limiting consumption, as recommended by government guidelines, in one university in New Zealand. Using a qualitative social science approach, university students surveyed and interviewed their heavy-drinking peers (n = 201) to investigate perceptions of 3 drinking behaviors (Heavy, Moderation, and Abstinence)...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Victoria A Albright, Eric Otto Johnson
Cannabis use is ascendant in our society, affecting the health of our citizens, our social norms and social structures, and our economies. This special issue brings together a diverse set of research manuscripts that push the borders of our understanding of burgeoning cannabis use and displays innovative methods developed to study these phenomena.
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv, Silje Katrine Elgen Fevang, Sondre Aasen Nilsen, Tormod Bøe, Rolf Gjestad, Siren Haugland, Irene Bircow Elgen
Prenatal exposure to substances may influence a child's neurodevelopment and impact on subsequent mental health. In a hospital-based population of school-aged children prenatally exposed to opiates and a number of illicit substances (n = 57), we evaluated mental health symptoms associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Questionnaire, revision IV (SNAP-IV) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and compared the scores to a reference group which comprised children from the population-based Bergen Child Study (n = 171)...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Grant Ig Christie, Lynda M Bavin, Sophie Wills
Understanding which adolescents remain in substance abuse treatment may facilitate the development of effective strategies for enhancing engagement and retention. Using clinical service data from a large naturalistic sample of adolescents, we examined whether client characteristics predict retention in outpatient alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. χ2 tests and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to examine relationships between sociodemographic and substance use variables and clinic attendance...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Helle Wessel Andersson, Aslak Steinsbekk, Espen Walderhaug, Eli Otterholt, Trond Nordfjærn
Introduction: Dropout from inpatient treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this study was to identify demographic, substance use, and psychological factors that predict dropout from postdetoxification inpatient SUD treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 454 patients from 5 inpatient SUD centers in Central Norway were consecutively included in this naturalistic, prospective cohort study. Results: A total of 132 patients (28%) did not complete the planned treatment stay (dropped out)...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Henning Pettersen, Anne Landheim, Ivar Skeie, Stian Biong, Morten Brodahl, Victoria Benson, Larry Davidson
Although a significant proportion of adults recover from substance use disorders (SUDs), little is known about how they reach this turning point or why they stop using. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors that influence reasoning and decision making about quitting substance use after a long-term SUD. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 participants, each of whom had been diagnosed with a SUD and had been abstinent for at least 5 years. A resource group of peer consultants in long-term recovery from SUDs contributed to the study's planning, preparation, and initial analyses...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv, Mari Hysing, Malin Rognlid, Sondre Aasen Nilsen, Irene Bircow Elgen
Prenatal exposure to substances can possibly influence a child's neurodevelopment and may impact on subsequent mental health. We investigated the mental health status of school-aged children referred to a pediatric hospital with a history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other substances. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared with a reference group. A total of 105 of 128 (82%) eligible children prenatally exposed to substances participated in the study, with 48 children exposed to alcohol and 57 to other substances...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Julie Maslowsky, Julie Whelan Capell, D Paul Moberg, Richard L Brown
Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students' perceptions of SBIRT, and students' intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Hope M Smiley-McDonald, Katherine N Moore, David C Heller, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Gregory L McIntire, Frank N Wallace
This study is a 6-month retrospective analysis of urine drug testing (UDT) data from a pain management population among specimens with clinician-ordered marijuana testing (N = 194 809). Descriptive statistics about the specimen positivity of clinician-ordered marijuana UDT are provided as well as other drug positivity. Specimens from men and adults aged 18 to 34 years had the highest prevalence rates of marijuana positivity. The prevalence of past-month marijuana use among a comparative national population was lower than the prevalence of positive marijuana tests in the UDT specimens by all characteristics...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Theodore V Parran, A G Mace, Yael J Dahan, Christopher A Adelman, Mykola Kolganov
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Buprenorphine has been available with few reports of the dose range necessary to adequately maintain patients. We report on the effect of 8 mg/d versus 16 mg/d of buprenorphine on long-term patient retention in office-based opioid maintenance (OBOMT). DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Case series, at an urban hospital-based primary care clinic providing OBOMT to 157 opiate-dependent, low socioeconomic status, uninsured, nonhomeless patients...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Deric R Kenne, Rebecca L Fischbein, Andy Sl Tan, Mark Banks
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown in popularity, especially among youth and young adults. Although e-cigarettes were originally intended to vaporize a liquid mixture containing nicotine, there appears to be an increasing trend in other substance use in e-cigarettes (OSUE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 1542 undergraduate college student e-cigarette users from a large Midwestern university were collected via online survey to assess prevalence of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, perceived harm, and prevalence and predictors of OSUE...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Renee Zahnow, Joseph J Palamar, Larissa J Maier, Adam R Winstock
A decline in response rates in traditional household surveys, combined with increased internet coverage and decreased research budgets, has resulted in increased attractiveness of web survey research designs based on purposive and voluntary opt-in sampling strategies. In the study of hidden or stigmatised behaviours, such as cannabis use, web survey methods are increasingly common. However, opt-in web surveys are often heavily criticised due to their lack of sampling frame and unknown representativeness. In this article, we outline the current state of the debate about the relevance of pursuing representativeness, the state of probability sampling methods, and the utility of non-probability, web survey methods especially for accessing hidden or minority populations...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Nikki Freeman, Justin Landwehr, Tasseli McKay, James Derzon, Anupa Bir
Substance users are more likely to have co-occurring health problems, and this pattern is intensified among those involved with the criminal justice system. Interview data for 1977 incarcerated men in 5 states from the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering that was conducted between December 2008 and August 2011 were analyzed to compare pre-incarceration substance use patterns and health outcomes between men who primarily used marijuana, primarily used alcohol, primarily used other drugs, and did not use any illicit substances during that time...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Nicholas C Peiper, Camille Gourdet, Angélica Meinhofer, Amanda Reiman, Nicco Reggente
BACKGROUND: Most cannabis patients engage with dispensary staff, like budtenders, for medical advice on cannabis. Yet, little is known about these interactions and how the characteristics of budtenders affect these interactions. This study investigated demographics, workplace characteristics, medical decision-making, and online behaviors among a sample of budtenders. METHODS: Between June and September 2016, a cross-sectional Internet survey was administered to budtenders in the San Francisco Bay Area and Greater Los Angeles...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Andrea L Howard, Tyler R Pritchard
This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31) compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146). Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Gerard J Connors, Stephen A Maisto, Clare E Campbell, Brenda To, David Sack
Systematic outcome assessment is central to ascertaining the impact of treatment services and to informing future treatment initiatives. This project was designed to be conducted within the clinical operations of 4 private addictions treatment centers. A structured interview was used to assess patients' alcohol and other drug use and related variables (on treatment entry and at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment discharge). The primary outcomes were percentage of days abstinent (PDA) from alcohol and drugs, PDA from alcohol, and PDA from other drugs...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Theodore V Parran, Joseph Z Muller, Elina Chernyak, Chris Adelman, Christina M Delos Reyes, Douglas Rowland, Mykola Kolganov
IMPORTANCE: Office-based opiate agonist therapy has dramatically expanded access to medication-assisted treatment over the past decade but has also led to increased buprenorphine diversion. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to characterize physicians who participate in office-based therapy (OBT) to assess patient access to OBT in Ohio 10 years after its introduction. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of Drug Addiction Treatment Act-waivered physicians in Ohio listed by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT)...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Alice Ordean, Lisa Graves, Brian Chisamore, Lorraine Greaves, Adrian Dunlop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
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