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Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas, Daniel G Barrus, Nicholas C Peiper, Richard C Kevin, Jenny L Wiley
Smoking is the most common route of administration for cannabis; however, vaping cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids ("fake marijuana") in electronic cigarette devices has become increasingly popular. Yet, most animal models used to investigate biological mechanisms underlying cannabis use employ injection as the route of administration. This study evaluated a novel e-cigarette device that delivers aerosolized cannabinoids to mice. The effects of aerosolized and injected synthetic cannabinoids (CP 55,940, AB-CHMINACA, XLR-11, and JWH-018) in mice were compared in a battery of bioassays in which psychoactive cannabinoids produce characteristic effects...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Ronald Simeone
OBJECTIVES: "Doctor shopping" as a means of prescription opioid diversion is examined. The number and percentage of prescriptions and morphine-equivalent milligrams diverted in this manner are estimated by state and molecule for the period 2008-2012. METHODS: Eleven billion prescriptions with unique patient, doctor, and pharmacy identifiers were used to construct diversion "events" that involved between 1 and 6 unique doctors and between 1 and 6 unique pharmacies...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Denise Hatzis, Sharon Dawe, Paul Harnett, Jane Barlow
BACKGROUND: The quality of caregiving in mothers with substance abuse problems appears to be compromised. However, divergent findings, methodological variability, and sample characteristics point to the need for research synthesis. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was undertaken. Studies were eligible if they (1) compared substance-misusing mothers with non-substance-misusing mothers, (2) involved children from birth to 3 years, and (3) maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness were measured using observational methodology...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Julia Woo, Anuja Bhalerao, Monica Bawor, Meha Bhatt, Brittany Dennis, Natalia Mouravska, Laura Zielinski, Zainab Samaan
INTRODUCTION: Despite its efficacy and widespread use, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) continues to be widely stigmatized. Reducing the stigma surrounding MMT will help improve the accessibility, retention, and treatment outcomes in MMT. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 adults undergoing MMT. Thematic content analysis was used to identify overarching themes. RESULTS: In total, 78% of participants reported having experienced stigma surrounding MMT...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Meredith A Hoyland, Wade C Rowatt, Shawn J Latendresse
Prior research has demonstrated that adolescent delinquency and depression are prospectively related to adult alcohol use and that adolescent religiosity may influence these relationships. However, such associations have not been investigated using person-centered approaches that provide nuanced explorations of these constructs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined whether adolescent delinquency and depression differentiated typologies of adult alcohol users and whether these relationships varied across religiosity profiles...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Valory De Lucia, Deyu Pan, Mona Mojtahedzadeh, Elham Rahmani, Sinan Jabori, Golara Zahmatkesh, Mohsen Bazargan
BACKGROUND: Residential treatment for alcoholism is associated with high completion rates for clients, yet there appear to be gender disparities in patient referrals and treatment completion rates. We studied whether (A) gender is associated with differential patient placement to outpatient vs. residential treatment facilities and (B) completion rates differ by gender. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the admission and discharge data from 185 publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities across Los Angeles County between 2005 and 2010...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Lucinda Burns, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Courtney Breen
Substance use in pregnancy can have adverse effects on mother and fetus alike. Australia and the US are countries with high levels of substance use and policies advising abstinence, although the Australian approach occurs within a broader framework of harm minimization. Less attention has been paid to treatment of the mothers' substance use and what is considered gold standard. This is despite evidence that prior substance use in pregnancy is the most important factor in predicting future substance use in pregnancy...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Ann Kern-Godal, Ida Halvorsen Brenna, Espen Ajo Arnevik, Edle Ravndal
Inclusion of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is rarely reported. Our previous studies show improved treatment retention and the importance of the patient-horse relationship. This qualitative study used thematic analysis, within a social constructionist framework, to explore how eight patients experienced contextual aspects of HAT's contribution to their SUD treatment. Participants described HAT as a "break from usual treatment". However, four interrelated aspects of this experience, namely "change of focus", "activity", "identity", and "motivation," suggest HAT is more than just a break from usual SUD treatment...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Brian Chisamore, Safaa Labana, Sandra Blitz, Alice Ordean
Current estimates of the prevalence of opioid withdrawal in newborns from the 2012 Better Outcomes Registry and Network Ontario reveal that more than 4 births per 1000 display recognizable symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). With a growing consensus surrounding aspects of newborn opioid withdrawal care, clinicians might agree that all infants exposed to maternal opioids require supportive observation and care to ensure appropriate adaptation and growth in the newborn period and, likewise, that there exists a smaller percentage of newborns who require additional pharmacotherapy...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Keele E Wurst, Barbara K Zedler, Andrew R Joyce, Maciek Sasinowski, E Lenn Murrelle
BACKGROUND: Untreated opioid dependence in pregnant women is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Buprenorphine and methadone are options for opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe adverse birth outcomes observed with buprenorphine or methadone treatment compared to the general population in Sweden. METHODS: Pregnant women and their corresponding births during 2005-2011 were identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Register...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Esther K Choo, Chantal Tapé, Kimberly M Glerum, Michael J Mello, Caron Zlotnick, Kate Morrow Guthrie
Although booster phone calls have been used to enhance the impact of brief interventions in the emergency department, there has been less number of studies describing the content of these boosters. We conducted a qualitative analysis of booster calls occurring two weeks after an initial Web-based intervention for drug use and intimate partner violence (IPV) among women presenting for emergency care, with the objective of identifying the following: progress toward goals set during the initial emergency department visit, barriers to positive change, and additional resources and services needed in order to inform improvements in future booster sessions...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Espen Ajo Arnevik, Sissel Berge Helverschou
OBJECTIVE: Patients with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD) require special attention from clinical services. Screening for this co-occurrence is not generally an integral part of routine clinical assessments, and failure to identify and understand this group of patients may contribute to a worsening of their symptoms and/or an increase in drug abuse. Thus, there is a need to review the evidence base on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD in order to enhance clinical practice and future research...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Susan E Ramsey, Dan Rounsaville, Randall Hoskinson, Tae Woo Park, Evan G Ames, Victor D Neirinckx, Peter Friedmann
Given the increase of opioid dependence and opioid-related morbidity and mortality, improving treatment options for individuals with opioid dependence warrants increased attention. This article provides a concise review of work in this area. Remission from opioid dependence can be very difficult to sustain, particularly in the absence of opioid replacement or opioid antagonist therapy. For those who wish to transition from opioid use or opioid replacement therapy to opioid antagonist therapy, a significant challenge can be the period of withdrawal symptoms that must be endured prior to the initiation of opioid antagonist therapy...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Lisa E Graves, Suzanne Turner, Maya Nader, Sucheta Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Despite research demonstrating the safety and benefit of breastfeeding in opioid substitution therapy, few women in treatment breastfeed. Understanding the factors contributing to the choices women on opioid substitution therapy make about infant feeding is important. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to better understand and support infant feeding choices and breastfeeding experiences in women on opioid substitution therapy. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on five databases: (1) Ovid MEDLINE(R) without revisions, (2) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, (3) EMBASE, (4) CINAHL, and (5) FRANCIS...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
John F Kelly, Julie D Yeterian, Julie V Cristello, Yifrah Kaminer, Christopher W Kahler, Christine Timko
Adolescent substance use disorder treatment programs are often based on the 12-step philosophy of Alcoholics Anonymous and/or link adolescents to these free resources. Despite this, no studies have developed and rigorously tested a twelve-step facilitation (TSF) intervention for young people, leaving a significant evidence gap. This study describes the first systematic development of an outpatient adolescent TSF treatment. An integrated twelve-step facilitation (iTSF) treatment incorporated TSF, motivational enhancement therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy elements and was developed in an iterative manner with weekly feedback provided by 36 adolescents (M age 17 years [SD = 1...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Naana Afua Jumah
The nature, impact, and treatment of substance use during pregnancy are well described for women living in urban settings. Less is known about pregnant substance-using women living in rural communities. The objective of this review is to describe the existing evidence for the management of substance use in pregnant women living in rural areas. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Fiona E Benson, Gera E Nagelhout, Vera Nierkens, Marc C Willemsen, Karien Stronks
In 2011, the Dutch government reimbursed smoking cessation pharmacotherapy with behavioral therapy for quitting smokers. We investigate whether inequalities in the use of pharmacotherapy change and, if not, whether this is due to a relatively positive injunctive norm in lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups. A total of 75,415 participants aged ≥15 years from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits, 2009-2012, were considered with the following measures: SES (education/income), injunctive norm (mostly acceptable/neutral/mostly unacceptable), period (2011/all other years), and pharmacotherapy use (yes/no)...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
JoAnna Elmquist, Ryan C Shorey, Scott E Anderson, Jeff R Temple, Gregory L Stuart
Research has demonstrated that individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) and comorbid mental health problems evidence heightened negative consequences, including poorer treatment outcomes, a higher risk for relapse, and mortality compared to individuals with a single disorder. In this study, we focus on the comorbidity between SUDs and eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, as EDs are similarly associated with high rates of relapse, morbidity, and mortality. Of particular importance is research examining treatment rejection among individuals in treatment for SUDs with cooccurring ED symptomatology...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
John-Kåre Vederhus, Are Hugo Pripp, Thomas Clausen
Quality of life (QoL) in patients admitted to a general hospital was compared with those admitted to a detoxification unit for the treatment of substance use disorder (SUD). This study combines data from two separate data collections: a cross-sectional study in a general hospital unit (somatic sample, N = 519) and a follow-up study in a detoxification unit (SUD sample, N = 140). A total of 659 patients recruited during 2008-2013 were included in this study. All patients completed a generic QoL questionnaire at inclusion, and the SUD sample also completed it at the six-month follow-up...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Kirsten I Black, Carolyn A Day
Much has been written about the consequences of substance use in pregnancy, but there has been far less focus on the prevention of unintended pregnancies in women with substance use disorders (SUDs). We examine the literature on pregnancy incidence for women with SUDs, the clinical and economic benefits of increasing access to long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods in this population, and the current hurdles to increased access and uptake. High rates of unintended pregnancies and poor physical and psychosocial outcomes among women with SUDs underscore the need for increased access to, and uptake of, LARC methods among these women...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
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