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Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634426/prevalence-and-consequences-of-perinatal-substance-use-growing-worldwide-concerns
#1
EDITORIAL
Alice Ordean, Lisa Graves, Brian Chisamore, Lorraine Greaves, Adrian Dunlop
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615950/utilizing-big-data-and-twitter-to-discover-emergent-online-communities-of-cannabis-users
#2
Peter Baumgartner, Nicholas Peiper
Large shifts in medical, recreational, and illicit cannabis consumption in the United States have implications for personalizing treatment and prevention programs to a wide variety of populations. As such, considerable research has investigated clinical presentations of cannabis users in clinical and population-based samples. Studies leveraging big data, social media, and social network analysis have emerged as a promising mechanism to generate timely insights that can inform treatment and prevention research...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615949/contextual-effects-of-neighborhoods-and-schools-on-adolescent-and-young-adult-marijuana-use-in-the-united-states
#3
Carly E Milliren, Tracy K Richmond, Clare R Evans, Erin C Dunn, Renee M Johnson
Little is known about the unique contribution of schools vs neighborhoods in driving adolescent marijuana use. This study examined the relative contribution of each setting and the influence of school and neighborhood socioeconomic status on use. We performed a series of cross-classified multilevel logistic models predicting past 30-day adolescent (N = 18 329) and young adult (N = 13 908) marijuana use using data from Add Health. Marijuana use differed by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and public assistance in adjusted models...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615948/marijuana-use-recent-marijuana-initiation-and-progression-to-marijuana-use-disorder-among-young-male-and-female-adolescents-aged-12-14-living-in-us-households
#4
Valerie L Forman-Hoffman, Cristie Glasheen, Kathryn R Batts
Marijuana initiation during adolescence, and early adolescence in particular, is associated with adverse health consequences. Our study used 2005-2014 data from the annual, cross-sectional National Survey on Drug Use and Health to study the prevalence and correlates of marijuana initiation, use, and marijuana use disorder (MUD; abuse or dependence) among 12- to 14-year olds living in civilian US households (n = 84 954). Examined correlates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty status, metropolitan status, year of survey, depression, tobacco use, alcohol use, and fighting at school...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607542/interactions-of-cannabinoids-with-biochemical-substrates
#5
REVIEW
Brian F Thomas
Recent decades have seen much progress in the identification and characterization of cannabinoid receptors and the elucidation of the mechanisms by which derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant bind to receptors and produce their physiological and psychological effects. The information generated in this process has enabled better understanding of the fundamental physiological and psychological processes controlled by the central and peripheral nervous systems and has fostered the development of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as therapeutic agents...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607541/residential-mobility-transience-depression-and-marijuana-use-initiation-among-adolescents-and-young-adults
#6
REVIEW
Cristie Glasheen, Valerie L Forman-Hoffman, Jason Williams
Marijuana use initiation is associated with numerous health and behavioral consequences, particularly among young adolescents. Finding easily identifiable risk markers for marijuana initiation is an important step for targeting primary and secondary prevention efforts. This study used data from the 2010-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to evaluate the association between residential mobility (no mobility, low mobility, high mobility [ie, transience]), and major depressive episode(s) (MDE) on marijuana initiation among adolescents (12-17) and young adults (18-20)...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469427/vaping-synthetic-cannabinoids-a-novel-preclinical-model-of-e-cigarette-use-in-mice
#7
Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas, Daniel G Barrus, Nicholas C Peiper, Richard C Kevin, Jenny L Wiley
Smoking is the most common route of administration for cannabis; however, vaping cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids ("fake marijuana") in electronic cigarette devices has become increasingly popular. Yet, most animal models used to investigate biological mechanisms underlying cannabis use employ injection as the route of administration. This study evaluated a novel e-cigarette device that delivers aerosolized cannabinoids to mice. The effects of aerosolized and injected synthetic cannabinoids (CP 55,940, AB-CHMINACA, XLR-11, and JWH-018) in mice were compared in a battery of bioassays in which psychoactive cannabinoids produce characteristic effects...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469426/doctor-shopping-behavior-and-the-diversion-of-prescription-opioids
#8
REVIEW
Ronald Simeone
OBJECTIVES: "Doctor shopping" as a means of prescription opioid diversion is examined. The number and percentage of prescriptions and morphine-equivalent milligrams diverted in this manner are estimated by state and molecule for the period 2008-2012. METHODS: Eleven billion prescriptions with unique patient, doctor, and pharmacy identifiers were used to construct diversion "events" that involved between 1 and 6 unique doctors and between 1 and 6 unique pharmacies...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469425/quality-of-caregiving-in-mothers-with-illicit-substance-use-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Denise Hatzis, Sharon Dawe, Paul Harnett, Jane Barlow
BACKGROUND: The quality of caregiving in mothers with substance abuse problems appears to be compromised. However, divergent findings, methodological variability, and sample characteristics point to the need for research synthesis. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was undertaken. Studies were eligible if they (1) compared substance-misusing mothers with non-substance-misusing mothers, (2) involved children from birth to 3 years, and (3) maternal sensitivity and child responsiveness were measured using observational methodology...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469424/-don-t-judge-a-book-its-cover-a-qualitative-study-of-methadone-patients-experiences-of-stigma
#10
Julia Woo, Anuja Bhalerao, Monica Bawor, Meha Bhatt, Brittany Dennis, Natalia Mouravska, Laura Zielinski, Zainab Samaan
INTRODUCTION: Despite its efficacy and widespread use, methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) continues to be widely stigmatized. Reducing the stigma surrounding MMT will help improve the accessibility, retention, and treatment outcomes in MMT. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 adults undergoing MMT. Thematic content analysis was used to identify overarching themes. RESULTS: In total, 78% of participants reported having experienced stigma surrounding MMT...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469423/prior-delinquency-and-depression-differentially-predict-conditional-associations-between-discrete-patterns-of-adolescent-religiosity-and-adult-alcohol-use-patterns
#11
Meredith A Hoyland, Wade C Rowatt, Shawn J Latendresse
Prior research has demonstrated that adolescent delinquency and depression are prospectively related to adult alcohol use and that adolescent religiosity may influence these relationships. However, such associations have not been investigated using person-centered approaches that provide nuanced explorations of these constructs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examined whether adolescent delinquency and depression differentiated typologies of adult alcohol users and whether these relationships varied across religiosity profiles...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008266/gender-comparison-in-referrals-and-treatment-completion-to-residential-and-outpatient-alcohol-treatment
#12
Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi, Valory De Lucia, Deyu Pan, Mona Mojtahedzadeh, Elham Rahmani, Sinan Jabori, Golara Zahmatkesh, Mohsen Bazargan
BACKGROUND: Residential treatment for alcoholism is associated with high completion rates for clients, yet there appear to be gender disparities in patient referrals and treatment completion rates. We studied whether (A) gender is associated with differential patient placement to outpatient vs. residential treatment facilities and (B) completion rates differ by gender. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the admission and discharge data from 185 publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities across Los Angeles County between 2005 and 2010...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980414/managing-maternal-substance-use-in-the-perinatal-period-current-concerns-and-treatment-approaches-in-the-united-states-and-australia
#13
REVIEW
Lucinda Burns, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Courtney Breen
Substance use in pregnancy can have adverse effects on mother and fetus alike. Australia and the US are countries with high levels of substance use and policies advising abstinence, although the Australian approach occurs within a broader framework of harm minimization. Less attention has been paid to treatment of the mothers' substance use and what is considered gold standard. This is despite evidence that prior substance use in pregnancy is the most important factor in predicting future substance use in pregnancy...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746677/more-than-just-a-break-from-treatment-how-substance-use-disorder-patients-experience-the-stable-environment-in-horse-assisted-therapy
#14
Ann Kern-Godal, Ida Halvorsen Brenna, Espen Ajo Arnevik, Edle Ravndal
Inclusion of horse-assisted therapy (HAT) in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is rarely reported. Our previous studies show improved treatment retention and the importance of the patient-horse relationship. This qualitative study used thematic analysis, within a social constructionist framework, to explore how eight patients experienced contextual aspects of HAT's contribution to their SUD treatment. Participants described HAT as a "break from usual treatment". However, four interrelated aspects of this experience, namely "change of focus", "activity", "identity", and "motivation," suggest HAT is more than just a break from usual SUD treatment...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695339/a-comparison-of-morphine-delivery-in-neonatal-opioid-withdrawal
#15
Brian Chisamore, Safaa Labana, Sandra Blitz, Alice Ordean
Current estimates of the prevalence of opioid withdrawal in newborns from the 2012 Better Outcomes Registry and Network Ontario reveal that more than 4 births per 1000 display recognizable symptoms of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). With a growing consensus surrounding aspects of newborn opioid withdrawal care, clinicians might agree that all infants exposed to maternal opioids require supportive observation and care to ensure appropriate adaptation and growth in the newborn period and, likewise, that there exists a smaller percentage of newborns who require additional pharmacotherapy...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679504/a-swedish-population-based-study-of-adverse-birth-outcomes-among-pregnant-women-treated-with-buprenorphine-or-methadone-preliminary-findings
#16
Keele E Wurst, Barbara K Zedler, Andrew R Joyce, Maciek Sasinowski, E Lenn Murrelle
BACKGROUND: Untreated opioid dependence in pregnant women is associated with adverse birth outcomes. Buprenorphine and methadone are options for opioid agonist medication-assisted treatment during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe adverse birth outcomes observed with buprenorphine or methadone treatment compared to the general population in Sweden. METHODS: Pregnant women and their corresponding births during 2005-2011 were identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Register...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660459/-that-s-where-the-arguments-come-in-a-qualitative-analysis-of-booster-sessions-following-a-brief-intervention-for-drug-use-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-the-emergency-department
#17
Esther K Choo, Chantal Tapé, Kimberly M Glerum, Michael J Mello, Caron Zlotnick, Kate Morrow Guthrie
Although booster phone calls have been used to enhance the impact of brief interventions in the emergency department, there has been less number of studies describing the content of these boosters. We conducted a qualitative analysis of booster calls occurring two weeks after an initial Web-based intervention for drug use and intimate partner violence (IPV) among women presenting for emergency care, with the objective of identifying the following: progress toward goals set during the initial emergency department visit, barriers to positive change, and additional resources and services needed in order to inform improvements in future booster sessions...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559296/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-co-occurring-substance-use-disorder-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Espen Ajo Arnevik, Sissel Berge Helverschou
OBJECTIVE: Patients with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD) require special attention from clinical services. Screening for this co-occurrence is not generally an integral part of routine clinical assessments, and failure to identify and understand this group of patients may contribute to a worsening of their symptoms and/or an increase in drug abuse. Thus, there is a need to review the evidence base on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD in order to enhance clinical practice and future research...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512336/the-need-for-psychosocial-interventions-to-facilitate-the-transition-to-extended-release-naltrexone-xr-ntx-treatment-for-opioid-dependence-a-concise-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Susan E Ramsey, Dan Rounsaville, Randall Hoskinson, Tae Woo Park, Evan G Ames, Victor D Neirinckx, Peter Friedmann
Given the increase of opioid dependence and opioid-related morbidity and mortality, improving treatment options for individuals with opioid dependence warrants increased attention. This article provides a concise review of work in this area. Remission from opioid dependence can be very difficult to sustain, particularly in the absence of opioid replacement or opioid antagonist therapy. For those who wish to transition from opioid use or opioid replacement therapy to opioid antagonist therapy, a significant challenge can be the period of withdrawal symptoms that must be endured prior to the initiation of opioid antagonist therapy...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429549/breastfeeding-and-opiate-substitution-therapy-starting-to-understand-infant-feeding-choices
#20
REVIEW
Lisa E Graves, Suzanne Turner, Maya Nader, Sucheta Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Despite research demonstrating the safety and benefit of breastfeeding in opioid substitution therapy, few women in treatment breastfeed. Understanding the factors contributing to the choices women on opioid substitution therapy make about infant feeding is important. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to better understand and support infant feeding choices and breastfeeding experiences in women on opioid substitution therapy. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted on five databases: (1) Ovid MEDLINE(R) without revisions, (2) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, (3) EMBASE, (4) CINAHL, and (5) FRANCIS...
2016: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
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