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Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment

Michael A Cucciare, Catherine B Scarbrough
Unhealthy substance use is a public health problem facing rural communities across the United States. Unfortunately, numerous challenges including stigma, perceived need for care, and perceived accessibility of substance use treatment serve as barriers to many rural adults using substances in obtaining the care they need. It is therefore important to examine whether accessing health care options other than substance use treatment is associated with improved substance use. In a recent study published in the American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse , we explored whether use of outpatient medical care (OMC) was associated with reductions in substance use among rural stimulant users over a 3-year period...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Georgios Papazisis, Spyridon Siafis, Ioannis Tsakiridis, Ioannis Koulas, Themistoklis Dagklis, Dimitrios Kouvelas
Objective: Cannabis is reported to be the most common illicit substance used among medical students; however, the number of related studies is limited and their results are not systematically reviewed. The aim of our study was to analyze the prevalence of lifetime and current use of cannabis among medical students worldwide. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed with adherence to the PRISMA guidelines. The electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane library were searched for studies on the prevalence of cannabis use among medical students...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Carla J Berg
Young adults are at high risk for using marijuana, driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, and fatalities or serious injuries from motor vehicle crashes related to DUI of marijuana. Within the context of increased legalization of marijuana use and shifting social norms, these public health concerns are particularly prominent. Drawing from a socioecological perspective, this commentary summarizes the literature indicating the importance of multilevel influences on DUI of marijuana among young adults...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Chakkraphan Phetphum, Boonchanuttha Pongpreecha, Jariya Hangsantea, Warangaungkana Muankaew
This cross-sectional survey aims to study the behaviors and predictors for smoking behaviors among women who frequent nightlife entertainment venues around a university in the northern region of Thailand. Samples comprised 279 women who visited nightlife venues around a university in the northern region of Thailand. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were analyzed by chi-square and binary logistic regression. The results found that women who frequented nightlife venues and smoked accounted for 32% and 22% of those who smoked inside such venues...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Georgios Papazisis, Ioannis Tsakiridis, Spyridon Siafis
Nonmedical use of prescription medications is a growing health problem including not only the opioid painkiller overdose epidemic but also benzodiazepine and stimulants misuse. Medical students express considerable high percentages of prescription drug misuse but also of illicit drug use, with cannabis being the frequently used illicit drug. We report the final results of a cross-sectional study among medical students that examined prevalence and motivation for use and suggest that medical students display similar patterns of misuse, for both licit and illicit drugs, to other students...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Alyssa M Peckham, Kirk E Evoy, Leslie Ochs, Jordan R Covvey
Gabapentin is widely used in the United States for a number of off-label indications, often as an alternative to opioid therapy. Increasing evidence has emerged suggesting that gabapentin may not be as benign as once thought and may be associated with substance abuse in concert with opioids. With concerns for safety mounting, it is prudent to examine the efficacy of gabapentin across its many uses to understand the risk-benefit balance. Reviews on off-label indications such as migraine, fibromyalgia, mental illness, and substance dependence have found modest to no effect on relevant clinical outcomes...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Natalie Flath, Karin Tobin, Aleks Mihailovic, Paige Hammond, Carl Latkin
Among 100 people who inject drugs enrolled in a peer mentorship intervention aiming to promote injection-related risk reduction behavior change, we evaluated the role of participation in a dyad session on reducing sharing of syringes and cookers in the past 6 months. Dyad participants (n = 69) invited an injection, sex partner, or family member to the study site to reinforce learnt behavior change tools by practicing communication skills and risk reduction lessons. In all, 31 participants did not participate in the dyad session...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Gregory L Stuart, Ryan C Shorey, Christopher R France, Jenny Macfie, Kathryn Bell, Kimberly B Fortner, Craig V Towers, Paul Schkolnik, Susan Ramsey
Opioid misuse has become one of the most pressing public health problems facing the country. In this article, we briefly review literature regarding the opioid epidemic in the United States and the negative consequences of opioid use disorder. We provide information regarding treatment and relapse using a variety of intervention approaches. We call for research on people with opioid use disorder that can contribute to a variety of areas: improving medication-assisted treatment, addressing chronic pain, examination of adjunctive behavioral interventions, overdose, high risk behaviors and infections, pregnancy, diverse populations, and other psychological factors...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Kirsten Robertson, Karen Tustin
There is an unquestionable need to address drinking patterns in subcultures where excessive drinking is normative. Regulatory bodies advocate moderating alcohol consumption but it is unclear whether individuals have agency to do so, particularly when excessive consumption is the norm. This study aimed to address this gap by examining student's perceptions of limiting consumption, as recommended by government guidelines, in one university in New Zealand. Using a qualitative social science approach, university students surveyed and interviewed their heavy-drinking peers (n = 201) to investigate perceptions of 3 drinking behaviors (Heavy, Moderation, and Abstinence)...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Victoria A Albright, Eric Otto Johnson
Cannabis use is ascendant in our society, affecting the health of our citizens, our social norms and social structures, and our economies. This special issue brings together a diverse set of research manuscripts that push the borders of our understanding of burgeoning cannabis use and displays innovative methods developed to study these phenomena.
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv, Silje Katrine Elgen Fevang, Sondre Aasen Nilsen, Tormod Bøe, Rolf Gjestad, Siren Haugland, Irene Bircow Elgen
Prenatal exposure to substances may influence a child's neurodevelopment and impact on subsequent mental health. In a hospital-based population of school-aged children prenatally exposed to opiates and a number of illicit substances (n = 57), we evaluated mental health symptoms associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Questionnaire, revision IV (SNAP-IV) and the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and compared the scores to a reference group which comprised children from the population-based Bergen Child Study (n = 171)...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Grant Ig Christie, Lynda M Bavin, Sophie Wills
Understanding which adolescents remain in substance abuse treatment may facilitate the development of effective strategies for enhancing engagement and retention. Using clinical service data from a large naturalistic sample of adolescents, we examined whether client characteristics predict retention in outpatient alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment. χ2 tests and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to examine relationships between sociodemographic and substance use variables and clinic attendance...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Helle Wessel Andersson, Aslak Steinsbekk, Espen Walderhaug, Eli Otterholt, Trond Nordfjærn
Introduction: Dropout from inpatient treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this study was to identify demographic, substance use, and psychological factors that predict dropout from postdetoxification inpatient SUD treatment. Materials and methods: A total of 454 patients from 5 inpatient SUD centers in Central Norway were consecutively included in this naturalistic, prospective cohort study. Results: A total of 132 patients (28%) did not complete the planned treatment stay (dropped out)...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Henning Pettersen, Anne Landheim, Ivar Skeie, Stian Biong, Morten Brodahl, Victoria Benson, Larry Davidson
Although a significant proportion of adults recover from substance use disorders (SUDs), little is known about how they reach this turning point or why they stop using. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors that influence reasoning and decision making about quitting substance use after a long-term SUD. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 participants, each of whom had been diagnosed with a SUD and had been abstinent for at least 5 years. A resource group of peer consultants in long-term recovery from SUDs contributed to the study's planning, preparation, and initial analyses...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Lisbeth Beate Sandtorv, Mari Hysing, Malin Rognlid, Sondre Aasen Nilsen, Irene Bircow Elgen
Prenatal exposure to substances can possibly influence a child's neurodevelopment and may impact on subsequent mental health. We investigated the mental health status of school-aged children referred to a pediatric hospital with a history of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other substances. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared with a reference group. A total of 105 of 128 (82%) eligible children prenatally exposed to substances participated in the study, with 48 children exposed to alcohol and 57 to other substances...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Julie Maslowsky, Julie Whelan Capell, D Paul Moberg, Richard L Brown
Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an evidence-based approach to reducing substance use in adolescents. An emerging literature shows the promise of school-based SBIRT. However, most school-based SBIRT has only targeted substance-using adolescents and used school-based health clinics, which most schools lack. This project aimed to describe the following: a model for implementing universal SBIRT in high schools without school-based clinics, reasons students most commonly endorsed for reducing or avoiding substance use, students' perceptions of SBIRT, and students' intentions to change substance use or remain abstinent following SBIRT...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Hope M Smiley-McDonald, Katherine N Moore, David C Heller, Jeri D Ropero-Miller, Gregory L McIntire, Frank N Wallace
This study is a 6-month retrospective analysis of urine drug testing (UDT) data from a pain management population among specimens with clinician-ordered marijuana testing (N = 194 809). Descriptive statistics about the specimen positivity of clinician-ordered marijuana UDT are provided as well as other drug positivity. Specimens from men and adults aged 18 to 34 years had the highest prevalence rates of marijuana positivity. The prevalence of past-month marijuana use among a comparative national population was lower than the prevalence of positive marijuana tests in the UDT specimens by all characteristics...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Theodore V Parran, A G Mace, Yael J Dahan, Christopher A Adelman, Mykola Kolganov
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Buprenorphine has been available with few reports of the dose range necessary to adequately maintain patients. We report on the effect of 8 mg/d versus 16 mg/d of buprenorphine on long-term patient retention in office-based opioid maintenance (OBOMT). DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Case series, at an urban hospital-based primary care clinic providing OBOMT to 157 opiate-dependent, low socioeconomic status, uninsured, nonhomeless patients...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Deric R Kenne, Rebecca L Fischbein, Andy Sl Tan, Mark Banks
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have grown in popularity, especially among youth and young adults. Although e-cigarettes were originally intended to vaporize a liquid mixture containing nicotine, there appears to be an increasing trend in other substance use in e-cigarettes (OSUE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 1542 undergraduate college student e-cigarette users from a large Midwestern university were collected via online survey to assess prevalence of e-cigarette use, reasons for use, perceived harm, and prevalence and predictors of OSUE...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Monica J Barratt, Jason A Ferris, Renee Zahnow, Joseph J Palamar, Larissa J Maier, Adam R Winstock
A decline in response rates in traditional household surveys, combined with increased internet coverage and decreased research budgets, has resulted in increased attractiveness of web survey research designs based on purposive and voluntary opt-in sampling strategies. In the study of hidden or stigmatised behaviours, such as cannabis use, web survey methods are increasingly common. However, opt-in web surveys are often heavily criticised due to their lack of sampling frame and unknown representativeness. In this article, we outline the current state of the debate about the relevance of pursuing representativeness, the state of probability sampling methods, and the utility of non-probability, web survey methods especially for accessing hidden or minority populations...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
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