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Psychology Research and Behavior Management

Paola Ferri, Monica Silvestri, Cecilia Artoni, Rosaria Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the "Violent Incident Form" to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Winnie Mucherah, Elizabeth Owino, Kaleigh McCoy
While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Duangta Pawa, Chitlada Areesantichai
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand reported unsafe injection practices resulting in injection-related health consequences. Harm reduction self-efficacy plays an important role and could be improved to reduce harm associated with injecting drugs. Evidence-based interventions targeting PWID are needed. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the behavior change intervention within the PWID population. METHODS: The behavior change intervention, Triple-S, was designed to improve harm reduction self-efficacy among PWID...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Bagoes Widjanarko, Dyah Anantalia Widyastari, Martini Martini, Praba Ginandjar
PURPOSE: Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Jean-Paul Steinmetz, Claus Vögele, Christiane Theisen-Flies, Carine Federspiel, Stefan Sütterlin
The reliable measurement of quality of life (QoL) presents a challenge in individuals with alcohol-related brain damage. This study investigated vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) as a physiological predictor of QoL. Self- and proxy ratings of QoL and dysexecutive symptoms were collected once, while vmHRV was repeatedly assessed over a 3-week period at weekly intervals in a sample of nine alcohol-related brain damaged patients. We provide robustness checks, bootstrapped correlations with confidence intervals, and standard errors for mean scores...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Hui Chien Ong, Norhayati Ibrahim, Suzaily Wahab
Nowadays, family members are gradually taking on the role of full-time caregivers for patients suffering from schizophrenia. The increasing burden and tasks of caretaking can cause them psychological distress such as depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to measure the correlation between perceived stigma and coping, and psychological distress as well as determine the predictors of psychological distress among the caregivers. Results showed that 31.5% of the caregivers experienced psychological distress...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Consuelo Arbona, Weihua Fan, Nausheen Noor
This study compared the relative goodness of fit of three well-established factorial models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among 477 African American male firefighters in a large city in the US. The compared models were the two four-factor emotional numbing and dysphoria models and a five-factor dysphoric arousal model. The study also examined the convergent and discriminant validity of PTSD symptom clusters in relation to depression and alcohol dependence symptoms. Both the emotional numbing and dysphoric arousal PTSD models provided a superior fit to the data compared to the dysphoria model...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Douglas D Murdoch
Psychological literacy is the ethical application of psychological skills and knowledge. This could benefit individuals in their personal, occupational, and civic lives and subsequently benefit society as a whole. We know that psychology has a wide-ranging impact on society. The potential benefits of a psychologically literate citizenry in improved parenting, better business practices, enlightened legislation, and many other areas make this a desirable goal. It has been proposed that this should become the primary goal of an undergraduate psychology education to benefit the majority who do not go on to graduate school and even those who only take a few psychology courses...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
David Tod, Christian Edwards, Ieuan Cranswick
Since 1997, there has been increasing research focusing on muscle dysmorphia, a condition underpinned by people's beliefs that they have insufficient muscularity, in both the Western and non-Western medical and scientific communities. Much of this empirical interest has surveyed nonclinical samples, and there is limited understanding of people with the condition beyond knowledge about their characteristics. Much of the existing knowledge about people with the condition is unsurprising and inherent in the definition of the disorder, such as dissatisfaction with muscularity and adherence to muscle-building activities...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Brett Williams, Adiva Sifris, Marty Lynch
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature indicates that empathic behaviors are positively linked, in several ways, with the professional performance and mental well-being of lawyers and law students. It is therefore important to assess empathy levels among law students using psychometrically sound tools that are suitable for this cohort. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The 20-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Health Profession Students Version was adapted for a law context (eg, the word "health care" became "legal"), and the new Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Law Students (JSE-L-S) version was completed by 275 students at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Jordi Escartín
Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman
We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not) influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Mieko Kanayama, Machiko Suzuki, Yoshikazu Yuma
The present study aimed to identify and characterize potential burnout types and the relationship between burnout and collaboration over time. Latent class growth analysis and the growth mixture model were used to identify and characterize heterogeneous patterns of longitudinal stability and change in burnout, and the relationship between burnout and collaboration. We collected longitudinal data at three time points based on Japanese academic terms. The 396 study participants included academic teachers, yogo teachers, and registered nurses in Japanese special needs schools...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Rahim Baghaei, Elham Sharifian, Aziz Kamran
BACKGROUND: Hand washing is the best strategy to prevent known nosocomial infections but the nurses' hand hygiene is estimated to be poor in Iran. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of BASNEF (Behavior, Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Enabling Factors) model on hand hygiene adherence education. METHODS: This controlled quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 hemodialysis unit nurses (35 case and 35 control) in the health and educational centers of the University of Medical Sciences of Urmia, Iran...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Maziyar Molavi, Jasmy Yunus, Nugraha P Utama
Fasting can influence psychological and mental states. In the current study, the effect of periodical fasting on the process of emotion through gazed facial expression as a realistic multisource of social information was investigated for the first time. The dynamic cue-target task was applied via behavior and event-related potential measurements for 40 participants to reveal the temporal and spatial brain activities - before, during, and after fasting periods. The significance of fasting included several effects...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Meagan B MacKenzie, Nancy L Kocovski
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was developed as a psychological intervention for individuals at risk of depressive relapse. Possible mechanisms of change for this intervention are in line with its theoretical underpinnings, and include increases in mindfulness and/or decreases in negative repetitive thoughts. This review provides an overview of current trends in MBCT research, including efficacy and questions regarding the specific effects of MBCT in light of recent comparisons with structurally equivalent control conditions, mechanisms of change, and moderators of treatment outcome...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Mark Edgar Lemstra, Marla Rochelle Rogers
OBJECTIVES: The risk for many chronic diseases increases with obesity. In addition to these, the risk for depression also increases. Exercise interventions for weight loss among those who are not overweight or obese have shown a moderate effect on depression, but few studies have looked at those with obesity. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) the prevalence of depressed mood in obese participants as determined by the Beck Depression Inventory II at baseline and follow-up; 2) the change in depressed mood between those who completed the program and those who did not; and 3) the differences between those whose depressed mood was alleviated after the program and those who continued to have depressed mood...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Daniel J Reed
The current study aimed at measuring whether coping flexibility is a reliable and valid construct in a UK sample and subsequently investigating the association between coping flexibility, optimism, and psychological health - measured by perceived stress and life satisfaction. A UK university undergraduate student sample (N=95) completed an online questionnaire. The study is among the first to examine the validity and reliability of the English version of a scale measuring coping flexibility in a Western population and is also the first to investigate the association between optimism and coping flexibility...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Fatin Mhaidat
This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Eline Grelland Røkholt, Jon-Håkon Schultz, Åse Langballe
Parents are advised to get their children back to school soon after exposure to trauma, so that they may receive social support and restore the supportive structure of everyday life. This study explores parents' experiences of supporting adolescents in regaining school functioning after the July 2011 massacre at Utøya summer camp in Norway. One year after the attack, 87 parents of 63 young people who survived the massacre were interviewed using qualitative interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis...
2016: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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