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OncoTargets and Therapy

Xiaoliang Mao, Jichun Tong
Objective: Rho GTPase-activating protein 30 (ARHGAP30), a member of the Rho GTPase-activating proteins (Rho GAPs) family, plays an important role in the regulation of cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion. Materials and methods: mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell assays were conducted to detect cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Results: ARHGAP30 expression was downregulated in specimens and cell lines of lung cancer in comparison to non-cancerous specimens and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines, respectively...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Han Yu, Weiyuan Wei, Wenlong Cao, Zexu Zhan, Linhai Yan, Kun Wu, Dongyi Xie, Bin Cai, Yubo Xie, Qiang Xiao
Background: MicroRNA (miRNA) array analysis has reported that the expression of miR-593-5p is associated with lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer (GC); however, the function and mechanism of miR-593-5p in GC have not been described yet. miR-593-5p has also not been elucidated widely in other cancers. Methods: miR-593-5p expression was detected by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in human GC tissues and cell lines. Cell proliferation was investigated using CCK-8 assays, cell cycle was detected by flow cytometric method, and cell migration and invasion abilities were evaluated by wound-healing and transwell assays...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Wan He, Xiangmei Zhang, Wenwen Li, Cheng Kong, Yuanyang Wang, Lianyu Zhu, Ruilian Xu, Guofang Deng, Peize Zhang
Background: PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors have shown a robust tumor response in the treatment of various cancers. Pembrolizumab is an anti-PD-1 checkpoint antibody approved for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in more than 40 countries. Although autoimmune pneumonitis is considered a common immune-related adverse event of PD-1 inhibitors, only limited studies have assessed the development of opportunistic infections such as pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Case presentation: A patient with metastatic melanoma whose pulmonary TB was activated after administration of pembrolizumab for melanoma is reported...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Rong Liang, Ziyu Liu, Xuemin Piao, Mingtang Zuo, Jinyan Zhang, Zhihui Liu, Yongqiang Li, Yan Lin
Malignant cancer is one of the most serious diseases that currently endanger human health. As most tumors are diagnosed at an advanced stage, the current treatments show poor therapeutic efficacy, and the patients have poor prognosis. However, a 5-year survival rate higher than 80% could be achieved if tumors are diagnosed at an early stage. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment play important roles in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors, and serum tumor markers are important for the early diagnosis of malignant cancers...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Li-Wei Gao, Guo-Liang Wang
Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify critical genes in lung cancer progression. Methods: We downloaded and reanalyzed gene expression profiles from different public data-sets using comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in lung adenocarcinoma tissues compared with adjacent nonmalignant lung tissues. The overlapping DEGs identified from different datasets were used for functional and pathway enrichment analyses and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Jiajun Tian, Xianfang Liu, Xiuxiu Liu, Peihang Jing, Na Sa, Haibo Wang, Wei Xu
Objective: Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) remains one of the most lethal malignancies in head and neck. Notch1 has been validated to play prominent roles in the occurrence and development of various types of cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the function and underlying mechanism of Notch1 in HSCC. Patients and methods: Seventy-one cancer tissue samples and adjacent noncancerous formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Sai Cao, Guohao Chen, Liumei Yan, Libo Li, Xianying Huang
Purpose: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that circRNAs regulate diverse cellular processes and cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether circRNAs play any functional role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Materials and methods: The significance of circRNA_100876 in ESCC was analyzed by studying circRNA_100876 expression in ESCC tissues and the association between circRNA_100876 expression and clinicopathologic parameters. The biological effects of circRNA_100876 knockdown by lentivirus-mediated siRNAs on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and migration were investigated in vitro and in vivo...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Min Peng, Xing Li, Gu Lei, Yi Ming Weng, Meng Xue Hu, Qi Bin Song
The value of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combination therapy for patients with lung cancer remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis using PubMed, Embase, and databases to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that might provide a reference for clinical practice. The selection criteria were defined according to the population, intervention, comparison, outcome and study design (PICOS) framework. In all, 12 RCTs with 5,989 patients were included in this meta-analysis...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Marcello Tucci, Clizia Zichi, Consuelo Buttigliero, Francesca Vignani, Giorgio V Scagliotti, Massimo Di Maio
The new-generation hormonal agent enzalutamide has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), in both post- and predocetaxel setting, due to the significant improvement in overall survival. More recently, enzalutamide also showed impressive results in the treatment of men with nonmetastatic CRPC. Unfortunately, not all patients with CRPC are responsive to enzalutamide, and even in responders, benefits are limited by the development of drug resistance. Adaptive resistance of metastatic prostate cancer to enzalutamide treatment can be due to the activation of both androgen receptor (AR)-dependent pathways (expression of constitutively active AR splice variants, AR point mutations, gene amplification and overexpression) and mechanisms independent of AR signaling pathway (altered steroidogenesis, upregulation of the glucocorticoid receptor, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, neuroendocrine transformation, autophagy and activation of the immune system)...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Yu Jie Gao, De Lin Liu, Sheng Li, Gao Feng Yuan, Li Li, Hong Yan Zhu, Guan Yi Cao
Background: The poor prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) largely results from local invasion and tumor metastases. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step in the progression of solid tumors and plays a vital role in tumor metastasis. Recent studies demonstrate that C-X-C motif chemokine 11 (CXCL11) is involved in various cancers' progression. However, its biological activity in CRC needs deeper exploration. Methods: The level of CXCL11 in CRC tissues and cell lines was determined using the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Zhefeng Liu, Lin Wu, Jun Cao, Zhe Yang, Chengzhi Zhou, Liming Cao, Hao Wu, Haibo Shen, Meiling Jin, Yong Zhang, Xinru Mao, Jianxing Xiang, Ke Ma, Bing Li, Tengfei Zhang, Yi Hu
Purpose: ERBB2 exon 20 insertions (20ins) have been identified as oncogenic drivers in lung cancers. Lung cancer patients with 20ins benefit from afatinib. However, response heterogeneity was observed in patients harboring different 20ins subtypes. In this study, we interrogated clinical characteristics in ERBB2 -mutated Chinese lung cancer and investigated the clinical outcomes of specific ERBB2 20ins in response to afatinib. Experimental design: In this study, we retrospectively collected genomic profiling data of 7,520 lung cancer patients sequenced using next-generation sequencing in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-certified laboratory...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Weiguo Xiang, Chao-Yie Yang, Longchuan Bai
Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1), a member of antiapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins, is a key regulator of mitochondrial homeostasis. Frequent overexpression of MCL-1 in human primary and drug-resistant cancer cells makes it an attractive cancer therapeutic target. Significant progress has been made in the development of small-molecule MCL-1 inhibitors in recent years, and three MCL-1 selective inhibitors have advanced to clinical trials. This review briefly discusses recent advances in the development of small molecules targeting MCL-1 for cancer therapy...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Pamela Salman, Sergio Panay, René Fernández, Mauricio Mahave, Cristian Soza-Ried
Patients with Lynch Syndrome (LS) are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer at an early age. Germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes and microsatellite instability are clear signatures of this autosomal dominant disorder. Here, we report the clinical history of a 38-year-old patient with LS-related metastatic colon cancer treated in Chile with immunotherapy (pembrolizumab). The patient exhibited a pathogenic deletion in Epithelial cell Adhesion Molecule ( EPCAM ) and mutS homolog 2 ( MSH2 ) genes, and after diagnosis received 12 cycles of FOLFOX...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Changling Li, Ting Liu, Bo Zhou, Yubin Zhou, Huiying Yu, Yun Sun
Background: Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine is a promising therapy for high-grade gliomas (HGGs); however, its actual effectiveness still remains controversial. This meta-analysis aims to extensively evaluate the efficacy and safety of DC vaccine for HGG patients. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and Web of Science for relevant parallel randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and properly controlled non-randomized studies (NRS) published in English...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Yu Zhu, Chengmao Zhou, Qixiong He
Objective: To identify survival outcomes for patients with oral tongue cancer and the effects of different prognostic factors on survival. Methods: A study was performed with the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database to confirm whether survival improved in patients who had received radiation therapy along with surgery compared with others who had received surgery alone. Results: A total of 9,474 patients were included as respondents in the study...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Cong Bo, Qiang Wu, Hai Zhao, Xuebing Li, Qinghua Zhou
Background: Thymosin α1 (Tα1) is one of the most commonly used immunomodulators for metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in many countries. Despite the identification of the direct suppression on cancer cell proliferation, little is known about its effect on metastasis and metastasis-related signaling such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Materials and methods: NSCLC cells with distinguishing PD-L1 expression levels were treated with Tα1...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Rongjie Cheng, Nan Li, Shuyan Yang, Lei Liu, Shiyu Han
Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in cancer initiation and development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the functions and mechanisms of lncRNA ZEB1-AS1 in human cervical cancer (CC). Methods: A total of 106 pairs of CC tissues and adjacent normal epithelial tissues were collected from CC patients who underwent resection. Three human CC cell lines (HeLa, C33A and SiHa) and a normal cervical cell line Crl-2614 and were transfected with human ZEB1-AS1 cDNA, or empty vector as the control...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Liping Wang, Xuecheng Yang, Dan Li, Zhijuan Liang, Yuanbin Chen, Guofeng Ma, Yonghua Wang, Yongxin Li, Ye Liang, Haitao Niu
Background: Metabolic reprogramming occurs in the tumor microenvironment and influences the survival and function of tumor and immune cells. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) produced by T cells up-regulates PD-L1 expression in tumors. However, reports regarding the relationship between nutrient metabolism and the up-regulation of PD-L1 expression are lacking. Materials and methods: In this paper, we analyzed the metabolic changes in T cells and bladder cancer cells in a simulated tumor microenvironment to provide evidence regarding their relevance to PD-L1 up-regulation...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Changyu Lu, Xiaolei Chen, Qun Wang, Xinghua Xu, Bainan Xu
Background and objective: The present study was designed to explore the roles of mitochondrial fission and MAPK-ERK-YAP signaling pathways and to determine their mutual relationship in TNFα-mediated glioblastoma mitochondrial apoptosis. Materials and methods: Cellular viability was measured via TUNEL staining, MTT assays, and Western blot. Immunofluorescence was performed to observe mitochondrial fission. YAP overexpression assays were conducted to observe the regulatory mechanisms of MAPK-ERK-YAP signaling pathways in mitochondrial fission and glioblastoma mitochondrial apoptosis...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Eric J Devor, Elizabeth Cha, Akshaya Warrier, Marina D Miller, Jesus Gonzalez-Bosquet, Kimberly K Leslie
Background: The miR-503 miRNA cluster, located at Xq23.1, is composed of six miRNAs; miR-424, miR-503, miR-542, miR-450a-1, miR-450a-2 and miR-450b. Numerous studies have focused on the relationship of one or two members of the cluster and various human cancers. Here, we suggest that the entire cluster as a single coordinately expressed polycistron transcribed from a single promoter in endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEA). Subjects and methods: A tissue panel composed of twenty histologically confirmed endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas (EEA) and four benign endometrium was assembled under informed consent...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
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