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Virologica Sinica

Jianhao Cao, Shuhong Luo, Yuanyan Xiong
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important human pathogen belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family, Orthohepadnavirus genus. Over 240 million people are infected with HBV worldwide. The reverse transcription during its genome replication leads to low fidelity DNA synthesis, which is the source of variability in the viral proteins. To investigate the variability quantitatively, we retrieved amino acid sequences of 5,167 records of all available HBV genotypes (A-J) from the Genbank database. The amino acid sequences encoded by the open reading frames (ORF) S/C/P/X in the HBV genome were extracted and subjected to alignment...
January 4, 2019: Virologica Sinica
Liping Ma, Haizhou Liu, Runkun Wang, Tao Jin, Di Liu, George Fu Gao, Quanjiao Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2019: Virologica Sinica
William J Liu, Yuhai Bi, Dayan Wang, George F Gao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Sheila Ommeh, Wei Zhang, Ali Zohaib, Jing Chen, Huajun Zhang, Ben Hu, Xing-Yi Ge, Xing-Lou Yang, Moses Masika, Vincent Obanda, Yun Luo, Shan Li, Cecilia Waruhiu, Bei Li, Yan Zhu, Desterio Ouma, Vincent Odendo, Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E Anderson, Jacqueline Lichoti, Erick Mungube, Francis Gakuya, Peng Zhou, Kisa-Juma Ngeiywa, Bing Yan, Bernard Agwanda, Zheng-Li Shi
We describe the first genome isolation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Kenya. This fatal zoonotic pathogen was first described in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Epidemiological and molecular evidence revealed zoonotic transmission from camels to humans and between humans. Currently, MERS-CoV is classified by the WHO as having high pandemic potential requiring greater surveillance. Previous studies of MERS-CoV in Kenya mainly focused on site-specific and archived camel and human serum samples for antibodies...
December 20, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Jia Liu, Wen Pan, Dongliang Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Li Yuan, Wen-Jiang Chen, Jia-Ye Wang, Yan Li, Dan Tian, Ming-Xia Wang, Hao-Tong Yu, Ying-Chu Xu, Di Li, Min Zhuang, Hong Ling
The development of a vaccine based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) that elicits potent protective antibodies against infection has been challenging. Recently, we compared the antibody production patterns of HIV-1 Env gp120 and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) to provide insights into how we may improve the protective efficacy of Env-based immunogens. Our previous study showed that HIV Env and HBsAg display different mechanisms of antibody elicitation and that T cells facilitate the responses to repeated immunizations...
December 19, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Jinfeng Zhang, Rong Su, Xiaoyun Jian, Hongliang An, Ronbing Jiang, Chris Ka Pun Mok
Mutations in the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) gene of avian influenza viruses are important signatures for their adaptation to mammalian hosts. Various adaptive mutations have been identified around the 627 and nuclear localization sequence (NLS) domains of PB2 protein, and these mutations contribute to the replicative ability of avian influenza viruses. However, few studies have focused on adaptive mutations in other regions of PB2. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of the D253N mutation in PB2 in an H9N2 virus...
December 19, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Zhenglin Ji, Fangfang Li, Zhiqiang Xia, Xingchen Guo, Minjun Gao, Fang Sun, Yuting Cheng, Yingliang Wu, Wenxin Li, Syed Abid Ali, Zhijian Cao
Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have spread throughout many countries in the developing world and infect millions of people every year, causing severe harm to human health and the economy. Unfortunately, there are few effective vaccines and therapies available against these viruses. Therefore, the discovery of new antiviral agents is critical. Herein, a scorpion venom peptide (Smp76) characterized from Scorpio maurus palmatus was successfully expressed and purified in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant Smp76 (rSmp76) was found to effectively inhibit DENV and ZIKV infections in a dose-dependent manner in both cultured cell lines and primary mouse macrophages...
December 19, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Rui Han, Yin-Jing Song, Si-Yuan Sun, Qiang Zhou, Xian-Zhen Chen, Qiao-Li Zheng, Hao Cheng
The major difficulties of human papillomavirus (HPV) treatment are its persistence and recurrence. The HPV E7 oncoprotein-loaded dendritic cells have been evaluated as cellular vaccine in previous reports. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an essential role of connecting the innate immune response and adaptive immune response in the immune system. But they function in HPV E7 loading is unclear. To investigate whether loading of the HPV type 6b, 11, and 16 E7 proteins affects the activity of pDCs, human peripheral blood-separated pDCs and mouse bone marrow-derived pDCs were pulsed with the HPV E7 proteins...
December 19, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Xiangdong Li, Zengyang Pei, Yilin Bai, Lihua Wang, Jishu Shi, Kegong Tian
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) continues to be one of the most important swine diseases worldwide. Interferon-γ (IFNγ)-mediated type I cell-mediated immune response plays an important role in protection from, and clearance of, PRRS virus (PRRSV). Several lymphocyte subsets including T-helper, CTLs, Th/memory cells, and γδ T lymphocytes were previously reported to produce IFNγ during PRRSV infection. However, the proportion and phenotypic characterization of these IFNγ-secreting lymphocytes have not been explored...
December 17, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Huiqiang Wang, Yuhuan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens that causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). HFMD caused by EV71 infection is mostly self-limited; however, some infections can cause severe neurological diseases, such as aseptic meningitis, brain stem encephalitis, and even death. There are still no effective clinical drugs used for the prevention and treatment of HFMD. Studying EV71 protein function is essential for elucidating the EV71 replication process and developing anti-EV71 drugs and vaccines. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in the studies of EV71 non-coding regions (5' UTR and 3' UTR) and all structural and nonstructural proteins, especially the key motifs involving in viral infection, replication, and immune regulation...
December 14, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Dengyuan Zhou, Fan Jia, Qiuyan Li, Luping Zhang, Zheng Chen, Zikai Zhao, Min Cui, Yunfeng Song, Huanchun Chen, Shengbo Cao, Jing Ye
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne virus and the major cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. NS1', a 52-amino acid C-terminal extension of NS1, is generated with a -1 programmed ribosomal frameshift and is only present in members of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup of flaviviruses. Previous studies demonstrated that NS1' plays a vital role in virulence, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, an NS1' defected (rG66A) virus was generated. We found that rG66A virus was less virulent than its parent virus (pSA14) in wild-type mice...
December 12, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Yanling Yang, Yuening Cheng, Nan Li, Shipeng Cheng, Li Guo, Yucheng Zhou, Haiwei Zhang, Xinyuan Zhang, Linzhu Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Catherine Sodroski, Brianna Lowey, Laura Hertz, T Jake Liang, Qisheng Li
Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to modulate HCV infection via directly acting on the viral genome or indirectly through targeting the virus-associated host factors. Recently we generated a comprehensive map of HCV-miRNA interactions through genome-wide miRNA functional screens and transcriptomics analyses. Many previously unappreciated cellular miRNAs were identified to be involved in HCV infection, including miR-135a, a human cancer-related miRNA. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-135a in regulating HCV life cycle and showed that it preferentially enhances viral genome replication...
November 19, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Alfred Niyokwishimira, Yongxi Dou, Bang Qian, Prajapati Meera, Zhidong Zhang
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious transboundary animal disease with a severe socio-economic impact on the livestock industry, particularly in poor countries where it is endemic. Full understanding of PPR virus (PPRV) pathobiology and molecular biology is critical for effective control and eradication of the disease. To achieve these goals, establishment of stable reverse genetics systems for PPRV would play a key role. Unfortunately, this powerful technology remains less accessible and poorly documented for PPRV...
November 19, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Jiajie Wei, Jonathan W Yewdell
Since the publication of the DRiP (defective ribosomal product) hypothesis in 1996, numerous studies have addressed the contribution of DRiPs to generating viral antigenic peptides for CD8+ T cell immunosurveillance. Here, we review studies characterizing the generation of antigenic peptides from influenza A virus encoded DRiPs, discuss the many remaining mysteries regarding the nature of their co-translational generation, and speculate on where the future might lead.
November 19, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Pinghu Zhang, Shuo Zhai, Jinhong Chang, Ju-Tao Guo
2',3'-dideoxyguanosine (DoG) has been demonstrated to inhibit duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in vivo in a duck model of HBV infection. In the current study, the in vitro antiviral effects of DoG on human and animal hepadnaviruses were investigated. Our results showed that DoG effectively inhibited HBV, DHBV, and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) replication in hepatocyte-derived cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% effective concentrations (EC50 ) of 0.3 ± 0.05, 6.82 ± 0.25, and 23...
November 12, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Ming Ni, Chen Chen, Di Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Yuan Zhou, Qian Wang, Qi Yang, Jielin Tang, Chonghui Xu, Dongwei Gai, Xinwen Chen, Jizheng Chen
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors show clinical promise for the treatment of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the effect of HDAC inhibitor treatment on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in Huh7 human liver cells and in a mouse model of HCV infection. Viral replication was markedly suppressed by the HDAC3 inhibitor at concentrations below 1 mmol/L, with no cellular toxicity. This was accompanied by upregulation of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1(LEAP-1) and downregulation of apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), as determined by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses...
October 17, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Marina Gulyaeva, Ivan Sobolev, Kirill Sharshov, Olga Kurskaya, Alexander Alekseev, Lidia Shestopalova, Anna Kovner, Yuhai Bi, Weifeng Shi, Michael Shchelkanov, Alexander Shestopalov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2018: Virologica Sinica
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