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Virologica Sinica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285673/detection-isolation-and-characterization-of-chikungunya-viruses-associated-with-the-pakistan-outbreak-of-2016-2017
#1
Si-Qing Liu, Xiao Li, Ya-Nan Zhang, Ai-Li Gao, Cheng-Lin Deng, Jun-Hua Li, Shoukat Jehan, Nadia Jamil, Fei Deng, Hongping Wei, Bo Zhang
The chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, which has infected millions of people in Africa, Asia, Americas, and Europe since it reemerged in India and Indian Ocean regions in 2005-2006. Starting in the middle of November 2016, CHIKV has been widely spread, and more than 4,000 cases of infections in humans were confirmed in Pakistan. Here, we report the first isolation and characterization of CHIKV from the Pakistan outbreak. Eight CHIKV strains were newly isolated from human serum samples using a cell culture procedure...
December 21, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243070/extensive-evolution-analysis-of-the-global-chikungunya-virus-strains-revealed-the-origination-of-chikv-epidemics-in-pakistan-in-2016
#2
Junming Shi, Zhengyuan Su, Zhaojun Fan, Jun Wang, Siqing Liu, Bo Zhang, Hongping Wei, Shoukat Jehan, Nadia Jamil, Shu Shen, Fei Deng
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes epidemics widely in the world especially in the tropical and subtropical regions. Phylogenetic analysis has found that the CHIKV lineages were associated with the spatial and temporal distributions, which were related to the virus adaption to the major mosquito species and their distributions. In this study, we reported the complete genome sequences of eight CHIKV isolates from the outbreak in Pakistan last year. Then we reviewed the evolutionary history using extensive phylogenetic analysis, analyzed lineagespecific substitutions in viral proteins, and characterized the spreading pathway of CHIKV strains including the Pakistani strains...
December 11, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188427/recent-progress-on-chikungunya-virus-research
#3
REVIEW
Wenxi An, Ningning Ge, Yilin Cao, Jin Sun, Xia Jin
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos in tropical and subtropical regions across the world. After decades of sporadic outbreaks, it re-emerged in Africa, Asia, India Ocean and America suddenly, causing major regional epidemics recently and becoming a notable global health problem. Infection by CHIKV results in a spectrum of clinical diseases including an acute self-limiting febrile illness in most individuals, a chronic phase of recurrent join pain in a proportion of patients, and long-term arthralgia for months to years for the unfortunate few...
November 28, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164396/crystal-structure-of-the-coxsackievirus-a16-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-elongation-complex-reveals-novel-features-in-motif-a-dynamics
#4
LETTER
Peng Bi, Bo Shu, Peng Gong
The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) encoded by RNA viruses represent a unique class of nucleic acid polymerases. Unlike other classes of single-subunit polymerases, viral RdRPs have evolved a unique conformational change in their palm domain to close the active site during catalysis. The hallmark of this conformational change is the backbone shift of the polymerase motif A from an "open" state to a "closed" state, allowing two universally conserved aspartic acid residues to orient toward each other for divalent metal binding and catalysis...
November 20, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168148/developing-a-bacteriophage-cocktail-for-biocontrol-of-potato-bacterial-wilt
#5
Cuihua Wei, Junli Liu, Alice Nyambura Maina, Francis B Mwaura, Junping Yu, Chenghui Yan, Ruofang Zhang, Hongping Wei
Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of potato and can cause an 80% production loss. To control wilt using bacteriophage therapy, we isolated and characterized twelve lytic bacteriophages from different water sources in Kenya and China. Based on the lytic curves of the phages with the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, one optimal bacteriophage cocktail, P1, containing six phage isolations was formulated and used for studying wilt prevention and treatment efficiency in potato plants growing in pots. The preliminary tests showed that the phage cocktail was very effective in preventing potato bacterial wilt by injection of the phages into the plants or decontamination of sterilized soil spiked with R...
November 16, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076011/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-prion-protein-expression-facilitates-hepatitis-c-virus-replication
#6
Huixia Zhang, Shanshan Gao, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen, Chaoyang Li
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 180 million people worldwide. Significant progress has been made since the establishment of in vitro HCV infection models in cells. However, the replication of HCV is complex and not completely understood. Here, we found that the expression of host prion protein (PrP) was induced in an HCV replication cell model. We then showed that increased PrP expression facilitated HCV genomic replication. Finally, we demonstrated that the KKRPK motif on the N-terminus of PrP bound nucleic acids and facilitated HCV genomic replication...
October 25, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280054/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-hepatitis-b-virus-covalently-closed-circular-dna
#7
REVIEW
Mengying Ji, Kanghong Hu
Chronic hepatitis B infection is caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and a total cure is yet to be achieved. The viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) is the key to establish a persistent infection within hepatocytes. Current antiviral strategies have no effect on the pre-existing cccDNA reservoir. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanism of cccDNA formation is becoming a major focus of HBV research. This review summarizes the current advances in cccDNA molecular biology and the latest studies on the elimination or inactivation of cccDNA, including three major areas: (1) epigenetic regulation of cccDNA by HBV X protein, (2) immune-mediated degradation, and (3) genome-editing nucleases...
December 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047018/identification-of-a-novel-torque-teno-mini-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-a-child-with-encephalitis
#8
LETTER
Yan-Jun Kang, Mei-Fang Zhou, Wei Huang, Chao Deng, Gen Yan, Zhong-Hua Lu
Anelloviruses are single-strand circular DNA viruses and ubiquitous within the human population. Although there is no direct evidence, many studies have suggested the anelloviruses may be associated with a variety of diseases. In this study, a novel torque teno mini virus (TTMV) was detected in a child with unexplained encephalitis. The detected virus had a circular genome of 2943 nt in length and 3 open reading frames. It shared 45.4% - 35.9% nucleotide identities with known TTMV species and < 35% with the other species of anellovirus, which suggested it might belong to a new species within the genus Betatorquevirus...
October 17, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116595/herpesviruses-epidemiology-pathogenesis-and-interventions
#9
EDITORIAL
Ke Lan, Min-Hua Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116594/elevated-expression-of-ebv-and-tlrs-in-the-brain-is-associated-with-rasmussen-s-encephalitis
#10
Xin Wang, Yisong Wang, Dong Liu, Peigang Wang, Dongying Fan, Yuguang Guan, Tianfu Li, Guoming Luan, Jing An
Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) is a rare pediatric neurological disorder, the etiology of which remains unclear. It has been speculated that the immunopathogenesis of RE involves damage to neurons, which eventually leads to the occurrence of RE. Viral infection may be a critical factor in triggering RE immunopathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antigens as well as of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR9, and downstream adapter TIRdomain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) in the brain tissues of 26 patients with RE and 16 control individuals using immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116593/human-cytomegalovirus-mir-us5-1-inhibits-viral-replication-by-targeting-geminin-mrna
#11
Shujuan Jiang, Yujing Huang, Ying Qi, Rong He, Zhongyang Liu, Yanping Ma, Xin Guo, Yaozhong Shao, Zhengrong Sun, Qiang Ruan
Viruses commonly create favorable cellular conditions for their survival through multiple mechanisms. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which function as post-transcriptional regulators, are utilized by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in its infection and pathogenesis. In the present study, the DNA replication inhibitor Geminin (GMNN) was identified to be a direct target of hcmv-miR-US5-1. Overexpression of hcmv-miR-US5-1 could block the accumulation of GMNN during HCMV infection, and the decrease of GMNN expression caused by hcmv-miR-US5-1 or GMNN specific siRNA reduced HCMV DNA copies in U373 cells...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116592/varicella-zoster-virus-orf7-interacts-with-orf53-and-plays-a-role-in-its-trans-golgi-network-localization
#12
Wei Wang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Jianghui Ye, Jian Liu, Che Liu, Yuqiong Que, Ningshao Xia, Hua Zhu, Tong Cheng
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox and shingles. ORF7 is an important virulence determinant of VZV in both human skin and nerve tissues, however, its specific function and involved molecular mechanism in VZV pathogenesis remain largely elusive. Previous yeast two-hybrid studies on intraviral protein-protein interaction network in herpesviruses have revealed that VZV ORF7 may interact with ORF53, which is a virtually unstudied but essential viral protein. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize VZV ORF53, and to investigate its relationship with ORF7...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116591/prevalence-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-in-uygur-and-han-populations-from-the-urumqi-and-kashgar-regions-of-xinjiang-china
#13
Jun Zheng, Yang Yang, Meng Cui, Zhan-Jun Shu, Li-Li Han, Zhen-Qiu Liu, Charles Wood, Tiejun Zhang, Yan Zeng
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the infectious etiologic agent associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. It has been shown that high KSHV prevalence and high incidence of both classic KS and AIDSassociated KS are found mostly among people of Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang, while people of Han ethnicity in Xinjiang have a higher KSHV seroprevalence than those of other Han populations in mainland China. However, it is still unclear why there is such geographical and population variation in KSHV distribution in China...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116590/detection-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-in-newborns-using-nucleic-acid-amplification-techniques-and-its-public-health-implications
#14
REVIEW
Guoyu Liu, Rong Hai, Fenyong Liu
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a herpesvirus, is an important human pathogen that causes asymptomatic infections in healthy or immunocompetent individuals but can lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications in immune-immature individuals such as neonates or immune-compromised patients such as organ-transplant recipients and HIV-positive individuals. Congenital HCMV infection represents a significant public health issue and poses substantial healthcare and economic burden to society. This virus causes the most common viral congenital infection worldwide, and is the leading non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in children in developed countries...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116589/extracellular-vesicles-novel-vehicles-in-herpesvirus-infection
#15
REVIEW
Lingzhi Liu, Quan Zhou, Yan Xie, Lielian Zuo, Fanxiu Zhu, Jianhong Lu
Herpesviruses are remarkable pathogens that have evolved multiple mechanisms to evade host immunity, ensuring their proliferation and egress. Among these mechanisms, herpesviruses utilize elaborate extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, for the intricate interplay between infected host and recipient cells. Herpesviruses incorporate genome expression products and direct cellular products into exosomal cargoes. These components alter the content and function of exosomes released from donor cells, thus affecting the downstream signalings of recipient cells...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116588/the-regulatory-role-of-protein-phosphorylation-in-human-gammaherpesvirus-associated-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Yuyan Wang, Shuvomoy Banerjee, Ling Ding, Cankun Cai, Fang Wei, Qiliang Cai
Activation of specific sets of protein kinases by intracellular signal molecules has become more and more apparent in the past decade. Phosphorylation, one of key posttranslational modification events, is activated by kinase or regulatory protein and is vital for controlling many physiological functions of eukaryotic cells such as cell proliferation, differentiation, malignant transformation, and signal transduction mediated by external stimuli. Moreovers, the reversible modification of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation can result in different features of the target substrate molecules including DNA binding, protein-protein interaction, subcellular location and enzymatic activity, and is often hijacked by viral infection...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038977/prevalence-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-among-intravenous-drug-users-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Qiwen Fang, Zhenqiu Liu, Zhijie Zhang, Yan Zeng, Tiejun Zhang
Intravenous drug users (IDUs) have been demonstrated to be highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, the prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), an important co-infected agent with HIV, among this population remained obscure. We conducted a systematic review on the epidemiological features of KSHV among IDUs worldwide. Eligible studies were retrieved from 6 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI and Wanfang). We calculated the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) overall and among subgroups using either random-effects model or fixed-effects model depending on between-study heterogeneity...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019168/lipids-lipid-metabolism-and-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-pathogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Lu Dai, Zhen Lin, Wei Jiang, Erik K Flemington, Zhiqiang Qin
Lipids are essential for mammalian cells to maintain many physiological functions. Emerging evidence has shown that cancer cells can develop specific alterations in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism to facilitate their survival and various malignant behaviors. To date, the precise role of cellular lipids and lipid metabolism in viral oncogenesis is still largely unclear with only a handful of literature covering this topic to implicate lipid metabolism in oncogenic virus associated pathogenesis. In this review, we focus on the role of lipid biosynthesis and metabolism in the pathogenesis of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, a common causative factor for cancers arising in the immunocompromised settings...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971351/attenuated-phenotypes-and-analysis-of-a-herpes-simplex-virus-1-strain-with-partial-deletion-of-the-ul7-ul41-and-lat-genes
#19
Xingli Xu, Yingqiu Guo, Shengtao Fan, Pingfang Cui, Min Feng, Lichun Wang, Ying Zhang, Yun Liao, Xiaolong Zhang, Qihan Li
We previously constructed a herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL7 mutant virus (M1) and showed that a partial deletion mutation of the UL7 gene led to a lower proliferative rate and an attenuated phenotype. Using the M1 mutant, we further modified the UL41 gene, which encodes another tegument protein, and the latency-associated transcript (LAT) gene. Observations of the resulting mutants with modified UL7 and UL41 (M2) or UL7, UL41 and LAT (M3) genes indicated attenuated phenotypes, with lower proliferative ratios in various cells, non-lethal infections in mice and lower viral loads in nervous tissues compared with the wild-type strain...
October 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971350/productive-hbv-infection-of-well-differentiated-hntcp-expressing-human-hepatoma-derived-huh7-cells
#20
Ming Zhou, Kaitao Zhao, Yongxuan Yao, Yifei Yuan, Rongjuan Pei, Yun Wang, Jizheng Chen, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Xinwen Chen, Chunchen Wu
Feasible and effective cell models for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are required for investigating the complete lifecycle of this virus, including the early steps of viral entry. Resistance to dimethyl sulfoxide/polyethylene glycol (DMSO/PEG), hNTCP expression, and a differentiated state are the limiting factors for successful HBV infection models. In the present study, we used a hepatoma cell line (Huh7D(hNTCP)) to overcome these limiting factors so that it exhibits excellent susceptibility to HBV infection...
September 29, 2017: Virologica Sinica
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