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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213466/mechanisms-of-cell-polarity-controlled-epithelial-homeostasis-and-immunity-in-the-intestine
#1
Leon J Klunder, Klaas Nico Faber, Gerard Dijkstra, Sven C D van IJzendoorn
Intestinal epithelial cell polarity is instrumental to maintain epithelial homeostasis and balance communications between the gut lumen and bodily tissue, thereby controlling the defense against gastrointestinal pathogens and maintenance of immune tolerance to commensal bacteria. In this review, we highlight recent advances with regard to the molecular mechanisms of cell polarity-controlled epithelial homeostasis and immunity in the human intestine.
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213465/epithelial-morphogenesis-during-liver-development
#2
Naoki Tanimizu, Toshihiro Mitaka
Tissue stem/progenitor cells supply multiple types of epithelial cells that eventually acquire specialized functions during organ development. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) tissue structures need to be established for organs to perform their physiological functions. The liver contains two types of epithelial cells, namely, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, which are derived from hepatoblasts, fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs), in mid-gestation. Hepatocytes performing many metabolic reactions form cord-like structures, whereas cholangiocytes, biliary epithelial cells, form tubular structures called intrahepatic bile ducts...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213464/cilia-in-left-right-symmetry-breaking
#3
Kyosuke Shinohara, Hiroshi Hamada
Visceral organs of vertebrates show left-right (L-R) asymmetry with regard to their position and morphology. Cilia play essential role in generating L-R asymmetry. A number of genes required for L-R asymmetry have now been identified in vertebrates, including human, many of which contribute to the formation and motility of cilia. In the mouse embryo, breaking of L-R symmetry occurs in the ventral node, where two types of cilia (motile and immotile) are present. Motile cilia are located at the central region of the node, and generate a leftward fluid flow...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213463/membrane-transport-across-polarized-epithelia
#4
Maria Daniela Garcia-Castillo, Daniel J-F Chinnapen, Wayne I Lencer
Polarized epithelial cells line diverse surfaces throughout the body forming selective barriers between the external environment and the internal milieu. To cross these epithelial barriers, large solutes and other cargoes must undergo transcytosis, an endocytic pathway unique to polarized cell types, and significant for the development of cell polarity, uptake of viral and bacterial pathogens, transepithelial signaling, and immunoglobulin transport. Here, we review recent advances in our knowledge of the transcytotic pathway for proteins and lipids...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213462/discovery-diagnosis-and-etiology-of-craniofacial-ciliopathies
#5
Elizabeth N Schock, Samantha A Brugmann
Seventy-five percent of congenital disorders present with some form of craniofacial malformation. The frequency and severity of these malformations makes understanding the etiological basis crucial for diagnosis and treatment. A significant link between craniofacial malformations and primary cilia arose several years ago with the determination that ∼30% of ciliopathies could be primarily defined by their craniofacial phenotype. The link between the cilium and the face has proven significant, as several new "craniofacial ciliopathies" have recently been diagnosed...
February 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193725/the-tgf-%C3%AE-family-in-the-reproductive-tract
#6
Diana Monsivais, Martin M Matzuk, Stephanie A Pangas
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family has a profound impact on the reproductive function of various organisms. In this review, we discuss how highly conserved members of the TGF-β family influence the reproductive function across several species. We briefly discuss how TGF-β-related proteins balance germ-cell proliferation and differentiation as well as dauer entry and exit in Caenorhabditis elegans. In Drosophila melanogaster, TGF-β-related proteins maintain germ stem-cell identity and eggshell patterning...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193724/neurodegenerative-disease-transmission-and-transgenesis-in-mice
#7
Brittany N Dugger, Daniel P Perl, George A Carlson
Although the discovery of the prion protein (PrP) resulted from its co-purification with scrapie infectivity in Syrian hamsters, work with genetically defined and genetically modified mice proved crucial for understanding the fundamental processes involved not only in prion diseases caused by PrP misfolding, aggregation, and spread but also in other, much more common, neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this review, we focus on methodological and conceptual approaches used to study scrapie and related PrP misfolding diseases in mice and how these approaches have advanced our understanding of related disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193723/regulation-of-hematopoiesis-and-hematological-disease-by-tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-molecules
#8
Kazuhito Naka, Atsushi Hirao
Throughout the lifetime of an individual, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain the homeostasis of normal hematopoiesis through the precise generation of mature blood cells. Numerous genetic studies in mice have shown that stem-cell quiescence is critical for sustaining primitive long-term HSCs in vivo. In this review, we first examine the crucial roles of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and related signaling molecules in not only regulating the well-known cytostatic effects of these molecules but also governing the self-renewal capacity of HSCs in their in vivo microenvironmental niche...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193722/targeting-the-mucosal-barrier-how-pathogens-modulate-the-cellular-polarity-network
#9
Travis R Ruch, Joanne N Engel
The mucosal barrier is composed of polarized epithelial cells with distinct apical and basolateral surfaces separated by tight junctions and serves as both a physical and immunological barrier to incoming pathogens. Specialized polarity proteins are critical for establishment and maintenance of polarity. Many human pathogens have evolved virulence mechanisms that target the polarity network to enhance binding, create replication niches, move through the barrier by transcytosis, or bypass the barrier by disrupting cell-cell junctions...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159878/laminins-in-epithelial-cell-polarization-old-questions-in-search-of-new-answers
#10
Karl S Matlin, Satu-Marja Myllymäki, Aki Manninen
Laminin, a basement membrane protein discovered in 1979, was shortly thereafter implicated in the polarization of epithelial cells in both mammals and a variety of lower organisms. To transduce a spatial cue to the intrinsic polarization machinery, laminin must polymerize into a dense network that forms the foundation of the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that activation of the small GTPase Rac1 by β1-integrins mobilizes laminin-binding integrins and dystroglycan to consolidate formation of the laminin network and initiate rearrangements of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton to help establish the apicobasal axis...
February 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159877/g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling-in-cilia
#11
Kirk Mykytyn, Candice Askwith
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest and most versatile family of signaling receptors in humans. They respond to diverse external signals, such as photons, proteins, peptides, chemicals, hormones, lipids, and sugars, and mediate a myriad of functions in the human body. Signaling through GPCRs can be optimized by enriching receptors and downstream effectors in discrete cellular domains. Many GPCRs have been found to be selectively targeted to cilia on numerous mammalian cell types. Moreover, investigations into the pathophysiology of human ciliopathies have implicated GPCR ciliary signaling in a number of developmental and cellular pathways...
February 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159876/what-are-the-most-powerful-immunogen-design-vaccine-strategies-a-structural-biologist-s-perspective
#12
Peter D Kwong
The ability of structure-based design to control the shape and reactivity-the atomic-level chemistry-of an immunogen argues for it being one of the "most powerful" immunogen-design strategies. But antigenic reactivity is only one of the properties required to induce a protective immune response. Here, a multidimensional approach is used to exemplify the enabling role atomic-level information can play in the development of immunogens against three viral pathogens, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A virus, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which have resisted standard approaches to vaccine development...
February 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159875/what-are-the-most-powerful-immunogen-design-vaccine-strategies-reverse-vaccinology-2-0-shows-great-promise
#13
Dennis R Burton
Functional antibodies, i.e., those with antipathogen activity in in vitro assays, are generally the best correlate of vaccine protection. Mimics of natural infection, including live attenuated and killed pathogens, which induce such antibodies in vivo, have generated highly successful vaccines. However, pathogens that induce functional antibodies at lower levels or more sporadically have been more refractory to vaccine design. Such pathogens are being tackled by more systematic approaches involving identifying functional antibodies, templating immunogens from the antibodies, and then evaluating the immunogens iteratively...
February 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159874/cilia-and-ciliopathies-in-congenital-heart-disease
#14
Nikolai T Klena, Brian C Gibbs, Cecilia W Lo
A central role for cilia in congenital heart disease (CHD) was recently identified in a large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen. Although the screen was phenotype-driven, the majority of genes recovered were cilia-related, suggesting that cilia play a central role in CHD pathogenesis. This partly reflects the role of cilia as a hub for cell signaling pathways regulating cardiovascular development. Consistent with this, many cilia-transduced cell signaling genes were also recovered, and genes regulating vesicular trafficking, a pathway essential for ciliogenesis and cell signaling...
February 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130363/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-neural-and-neuronal-differentiation-development-and-function
#15
Emily A Meyers, John A Kessler
Signaling by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family is necessary for proper neural development and function throughout life. Sequential waves of activation, inhibition, and reactivation of TGF-β family members regulate numerous elements of the nervous system from the earliest stages of embryogenesis through adulthood. This review discusses the expression, regulation, and function of TGF-β family members in the central nervous system at various developmental stages, beginning with induction and patterning of the nervous system to their importance in the adult as modulators of inflammatory response and involvement in degenerative diseases...
January 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130362/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-drosophila
#16
Ambuj Upadhyay, Lindsay Moss-Taylor, Myung-Jun Kim, Arpan C Ghosh, Michael B O'Connor
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family signaling pathway is conserved and ubiquitous in animals. In Drosophila, fewer representatives of each signaling component are present compared with vertebrates, simplifying mechanistic study of the pathway. Although there are fewer family members, the TGF-β family pathway still regulates multiple and diverse functions in Drosophila. In this review, we focus our attention on several of the classic and best-studied functions for TGF-β family signaling in regulating Drosophila developmental processes such as embryonic and imaginal disc patterning, but we also describe several recently discovered roles in regulating hormonal, physiological, neuronal, innate immunity, and tissue homeostatic processes...
January 27, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108487/transition-zone-migration-a-mechanism-for-cytoplasmic-ciliogenesis-and-postaxonemal-centriole-elongation
#17
Tomer Avidor-Reiss, Andrew Ha, Marcus L Basiri
The cilium is an elongated and continuous structure that spans two major subcellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain contains a short centriole, which serves to nucleate the main projection of the cilium. This projection, known as the axoneme, remains separated from the cytoplasm by a specialized gatekeeping complex within a ciliary subdomain called the transition zone. In this way, the axoneme is compartmentalized. Intriguingly, however, this general principle of cilium biology is altered in the sperm cells of many animals, which instead contain a cytoplasmic axoneme domain...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108486/regulation-of-the-immune-response-by-tgf-%C3%AE-from-conception-to-autoimmunity-and-infection
#18
Shomyseh Sanjabi, Soyoung A Oh, Ming O Li
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both suppressive and inflammatory immune responses. After 30 years of intense study, we have only begun to elucidate how TGF-β alters immunity under various conditions. Under steady-state conditions, TGF-β regulates thymic T-cell selection and maintains homeostasis of the naïve T-cell pool. TGF-β inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), Th1-, and Th2-cell differentiation while promoting peripheral (p)Treg-, Th17-, Th9-, and Tfh-cell generation, and T-cell tissue residence in response to immune challenges...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108485/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-embryonic-and-somatic-stem-cell-renewal-and-differentiation
#19
Alan C Mullen, Jeffrey L Wrana
Soon after the discovery of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), seminal work in vertebrate and invertebrate models revealed the TGF-β family to be central regulators of tissue morphogenesis. Members of the TGF-β family direct some of the earliest cell-fate decisions in animal development, coordinate complex organogenesis, and contribute to tissue homeostasis in the adult. Here, we focus on the role of the TGF-β family in mammalian stem-cell biology and discuss its wide and varied activities both in the regulation of pluripotency and in cell-fate commitment...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096268/the-tgf-%C3%AE-family-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#20
Cathy Savage-Dunn, Richard W Padgett
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and related ligands have potent effects on an enormous diversity of biological functions in all animals examined. Because of the strong conservation of TGF-β family ligand functions and signaling mechanisms, studies from multiple animal systems have yielded complementary and synergistic insights. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, early studies were instrumental in the elucidation of TGF-β family signaling mechanisms. Current studies in C. elegans continue to identify new functions for the TGF-β family in this organism as well as new conserved mechanisms of regulation...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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