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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893860/coordination-between-differentially-regulated-circadian-clocks-generates-rhythmic-behavior
#1
Deniz Top, Michael W Young
Specialized groups of neurons in the brain are key mediators of circadian rhythms, receiving daily environmental cues and communicating those signals to other tissues in the organism for entrainment and to organize circadian physiology. In Drosophila, the "circadian clock" is housed in seven neuronal clusters, which are defined by their expression of the main circadian proteins, Period, Timeless, Clock, and Cycle. These clusters are distributed across the fly brain and are thereby subject to the respective environments associated with their anatomical locations...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893859/adherens-junctions-and-desmosomes-coordinate-mechanics-and-signaling-to-orchestrate-tissue-morphogenesis-and-function-an-evolutionary-perspective
#2
Matthias Rübsam, Joshua A Broussard, Sara A Wickström, Oxana Nekrasova, Kathleen J Green, Carien M Niessen
Cadherin-based adherens junctions (AJs) and desmosomes are crucial to couple intercellular adhesion to the actin or intermediate filament cytoskeletons, respectively. As such, these intercellular junctions are essential to provide not only integrity to epithelia and other tissues but also the mechanical machinery necessary to execute complex morphogenetic and homeostatic intercellular rearrangements. Moreover, these spatially defined junctions serve as signaling hubs that integrate mechanical and chemical pathways to coordinate tissue architecture with behavior...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893858/signaling-by-small-gtpases-at-cell-cell-junctions-protein-interactions-building-control-and-networks
#3
Vania Braga
A number of interesting reports highlight the intricate network of signaling proteins that coordinate formation and maintenance of cell-cell contacts. We have much yet to learn about how the in vitro binding data is translated into protein association inside the cells and whether such interaction modulates the signaling properties of the protein. What emerges from recent studies is the importance to carefully consider small GTPase activation in the context of where its activation occurs, which upstream regulators are involved in the activation/inactivation cycle and the GTPase interacting partners that determine the intracellular niche and extent of signaling...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851748/hold-me-but-not-too-tight-endothelial-cell-cell-junctions-in-angiogenesis
#4
Anna Szymborska, Holger Gerhardt
Endothelial cell-cell junctions must perform seemingly incompatible tasks during vascular development-providing stable connections that prevent leakage, while allowing dynamic cellular rearrangements during sprouting, anastomosis, lumen formation, and functional remodeling of the vascular network. This review aims to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms governing endothelial cell-cell adhesion in the context of vascular development.
August 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851747/vascular-endothelial-ve-cadherin-endothelial-adherens-junctions-and-vascular-disease
#5
Maria Grazia Lampugnani, Elisabetta Dejana, Costanza Giampietro
Endothelial cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs) supervise fundamental vascular functions, such as the control of permeability and transmigration of circulating leukocytes, and the maintenance of existing vessels and formation of new ones. These processes are often dysregulated in pathologies. However, the evidence that links dysfunction of endothelial AJs to human pathologies is mostly correlative. In this review, we present an update of the molecular organization of AJ complexes in endothelial cells (ECs) that is mainly based on observations from experimental models...
August 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847903/t-helper-cell-differentiation-heterogeneity-and-plasticity
#6
Jinfang Zhu
Naïve CD4 T cells, on activation, differentiate into distinct T helper (Th) subsets that produce lineage-specific cytokines. By producing unique sets of cytokines, effector Th subsets play critical roles in orchestrating immune responses to a variety of infections and are involved in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases including autoimmunity, allergy, and asthma. The differentiation of Th cells relies on the strength of T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling and signals triggered by polarizing cytokines that activate and/or up-regulate particular transcription factors...
August 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847902/beyond-cell-cell-adhesion-sensational-cadherins-for-hearing-and-balance
#7
Avinash Jaiganesh, Yoshie Narui, Raul Araya-Secchi, Marcos Sotomayor
Cadherins form a large family of proteins often involved in calcium-dependent cellular adhesion. Although classical members of the family can provide a physical bond between cells, a subset of special cadherins use their extracellular domains to interlink apical specializations of single epithelial sensory cells. Two of these cadherins, cadherin-23 (CDH23) and protocadherin-15 (PCDH15), form extracellular "tip link" filaments that connect apical bundles of stereocilia on hair cells essential for inner-ear mechanotransduction...
August 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847901/the-future-of-the-cytokine-discipline
#8
Joost J Oppenheim
The study of cytokines has evolved from the detection of functional activities present in tissue culture supernatants to the characterization of the three-dimensional molecular structures of the cytokines and their receptors. Investigators studying cytokines need to have specialized expertise in using cytokine assays, assessing their receptor interactions, signal transduction, gene activation, and biological effects, and in the therapeutic utilization of agonists and antagonists. Cytokinology can therefore be considered a discipline...
August 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847900/making-connections-guidance-cues-and-receptors-at-nonneural-cell-cell-junctions
#9
Ian V Beamish, Lindsay Hinck, Timothy E Kennedy
The field of axon guidance was revolutionized over the past three decades by the identification of highly conserved families of guidance cues and receptors. These proteins are essential for normal neural development and function, directing cell and axon migration, neuron-glial interactions, and synapse formation and plasticity. Many of these genes are also expressed outside the nervous system in which they influence cell migration, adhesion and proliferation. Because the nervous system develops from neural epithelium, it is perhaps not surprising that these guidance cues have significant nonneural roles in governing the specialized junctional connections between cells in polarized epithelia...
August 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847899/the-tumor-necrosis-factor-family-family-conventions-and-private-idiosyncrasies
#10
David Wallach
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine family and the TNF/nerve growth factor (NGF) family of their cognate receptors together control numerous immune functions, as well as tissue-homeostatic and embryonic-development processes. These diverse functions are dictated by both shared and distinct features of family members, and by interactions of some members with nonfamily ligands and coreceptors. The spectra of their activities are further expanded by the occurrence of the ligands and receptors in both membrane-anchored and soluble forms, by "re-anchoring" of soluble forms to extracellular matrix components, and by signaling initiation via intracellular domains (IDs) of both receptors and ligands...
August 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778874/mechanosensing-and-mechanotransduction-at-cell-cell-junctions
#11
Alpha S Yap, Kinga Duszyc, Virgile Viasnoff
Cell adhesion systems are defined by their ability to resist detachment force. Our understanding of the biology of cell-cell adhesions has recently been transformed by the realization that many of the forces that act on those adhesions are generated by the cells that they couple together; and that force at adhesive junctions can be sensed to regulate cell behavior. Here, we consider the mechanisms responsible for applying force to cell-cell junctions and the mechanosensory pathways that detect those forces...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778873/genetic-prp-prion-diseases
#12
Mee-Ohk Kim, Leonel T Takada, Katherine Wong, Sven A Forner, Michael D Geschwind
Genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) caused by mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP) have been classified as genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, or fatal familial insomnia. Mutations in PRNP can be missense, nonsense, and/or octapeptide repeat insertions or, possibly, deletions. These mutations can produce diverse clinical features. They may also show varying ancillary testing results and neuropathological findings. Although the majority of gPrDs have a rapid progression with a short survival time of a few months, many also present as ataxic or parkinsonian disorders, which have a slower decline over a few to several years...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778872/connexins-and-disease
#13
Mario Delmar, Dale W Laird, Christian C Naus, Morten S Nielsen, Vytautas K Verselis, Thomas W White
Inherited or acquired alterations in the structure and function of connexin proteins have long been associated with disease. In the present work, we review current knowledge on the role of connexins in diseases associated with the heart, nervous system, cochlea, and skin, as well as cancer and pleiotropic syndromes such as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). Although incomplete by virtue of space and the extent of the topic, this review emphasizes the fact that connexin function is not only associated with gap junction channel formation...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778871/cancer-inflammation-and-cytokines
#14
Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gianni Marone, Alberto Mantovani
Chronic inflammation is a well-recognized tumor-enabling capability, which allows nascent tumors to escape immunosurveillance. A number of soluble and cellular inflammatory mediators take part in the various phases of cancer initiation and progression, giving rise to a fatal conspiracy, which is difficult to efficiently overcome. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are pivotal players of the tumor microenvironment and, because of their characteristic plasticity, can acquire a number of distinct phenotypes and contribute in different ways to the various phases of cancerogenesis...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778870/interleukin-il-6-immunotherapy
#15
Toshio Tanaka, Masashi Narazaki, Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a prototypical cytokine for maintaining homeostasis. When homeostasis is disrupted by infections or tissue injuries, IL-6 is produced immediately and contributes to host defense against such emergent stress through activation of acute-phase and immune responses. However, dysregulated excessive and persistent synthesis of IL-6 has a pathological effect on, respectively, acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome and chronic immune-mediated diseases. The IL-6 inhibitor, tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, is currently being used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and Castleman disease...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778869/circadian-posttranscriptional-regulatory-mechanisms-in-mammals
#16
Carla B Green
The circadian clock drives rhythms in the levels of thousands of proteins in the mammalian cell, arising in part from rhythmic transcriptional regulation of the genes that encode them. However, recent evidence has shown that posttranscriptional processes also play a major role in generating the rhythmic protein makeup and ultimately the rhythmic physiology of the cell. Regulation of steps throughout the life of the messenger RNA (mRNA), ranging from initial mRNA processing and export from the nucleus to extensive control of translation and degradation in the cytosol have been shown to be important for producing the final rhythms in protein levels critical for proper circadian rhythmicity...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778868/the-cadherin-superfamily-in-neural-circuit-assembly
#17
James D Jontes
The cadherin superfamily comprises a large, diverse collection of cell surface receptors that are expressed in the nervous system throughout development and have been shown to be essential for the proper assembly of the vertebrate nervous system. As our knowledge of each family member has grown, it has become increasingly clear that the functions of various cadherin subfamilies are intertwined: they can be present in the same protein complexes, impinge on the same developmental processes, and influence the same signaling pathways...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778867/cellular-timekeeping-it-s-redox-o-clock
#18
Nikolay B Milev, Sue-Goo Rhee, Akhilesh B Reddy
Mounting evidence in recent years supports the extensive interaction between the circadian and redox systems. The existence of such a relationship is not surprising because most organisms, be they diurnal or nocturnal, display daily oscillations in energy intake, locomotor activity, and exposure to exogenous and internally generated oxidants. The transcriptional clock controls the levels of many antioxidant proteins and redox-active cofactors, and, conversely, the cellular redox poise has been shown to feed back to the transcriptional oscillator via redox-sensitive transcription factors and enzymes...
August 4, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716894/which-dengue-vaccine-approach-is-the-most-promising-and-should-we-be-concerned-about-enhanced-disease-after-vaccination-the-risks-of-incomplete-immunity-to-dengue-virus-revealed-by-vaccination
#19
Stephen S Whitehead, Kanta Subbarao
Immune enhancement of dengue disease continues to be a concern for those with incomplete immunity in endemic areas. Advanced testing and follow-up of a newly available live attenuated dengue vaccine has recently shown the ability of vaccination to predispose some recipients for a severe outcome on subsequent infection. To improve safety, recommendations have been made to restrict use of the vaccine to those who are likely to have had prior exposure to dengue virus (DENV). Researchers continue to investigate dengue immunity and seek evidence that dengue vaccines can be safely administered to all populations needing protection...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716893/which-dengue-vaccine-approach-is-the-most-promising-and-should-we-be-concerned-about-enhanced-disease-after-vaccination-there-is-only-one-true-winner
#20
Scott B Halstead
The scientific community now possesses information obtained directly from human beings that makes it possible to understand why breakthrough-enhanced dengue virus (DENV) infections occurred in children receiving Sanofi Pasteur's Dengvaxia tetravalent live attenuated vaccine and to predict the possibility of breakthrough-enhanced DENV infections following immunization with two other tetravalent live attenuated vaccines now in phase III testing. Based upon recent research, Dengvaxia, lacking DENV nonstructural protein antigens, did not protect seronegatives because it failed to raise a competent T-cell response and/or antibodies to NS1...
July 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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