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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

Thomas A Waldmann
Cytokines that control the immune response were shown to have efficacy in preclinical murine cancer models. Interferon (IFN)-α is approved for treatment of hairy cell leukemia, and interleukin (IL)-2 for the treatment of advanced melanoma and metastatic renal cancer. In addition, IL-12, IL-15, IL-21, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been evaluated in clinical trials. However, the cytokines as monotherapy have not fulfilled their early promise because cytokines administered parenterally do not achieve sufficient concentrations in the tumor, are often associated with severe toxicities, and induce humoral or cellular checkpoints...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Ajithkumar Vasanthakumar, Axel Kallies
Cytokines play an integral role in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. Members of the interleukin (IL)-1 family regulate a plethora of immune-cell-mediated processes, which include pathogen defense and tissue homeostasis. Notably, the IL-1 family cytokine IL-33 promotes adaptive and innate type 2 immune responses, confers viral protection and facilitates glucose metabolism and tissue repair. At the cellular level, IL-33 stimulates differentiation, maintenance, and function of various immune cell types, including regulatory T cells, effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s)...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Masao Hashimoto, Se Jin Im, Koichi Araki, Rafi Ahmed
The common γ-chain cytokines, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, and IL-15, regulate critical aspects of antiviral CD8 T-cell responses. During acute infections, IL-2 controls expansion and differentiation of antiviral CD8 T cells, whereas IL-7 and IL-15 are key cytokines to maintain memory CD8 T cells long term in an antigen-independent manner. On the other hand, during chronic infections, in which T-cell exhaustion is established, precise roles of these cytokines in regulation of antiviral CD8 T-cell responses are not well defined...
November 3, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Xiaoting Wang, Kit Wong, Wenjun Ouyang, Sascha Rutz
Members of the interleukin (IL)-10 family of cytokines play important roles in regulating immune responses during host defense but also in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Although IL-10 itself primarily acts on leukocytes and has potent immunosuppressive functions, other family members preferentially target nonimmune compartments, such as tissue epithelial cells, where they elicit innate defense mechanisms to control viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, protect tissue integrity, and promote tissue repair and regeneration...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Ronald N Germain
A dichotomy exists in the field of vaccinology about the promise versus the hype associated with application of "systems biology" approaches to rational vaccine design. Some feel it is the only way to efficiently uncover currently unknown parameters controlling desired immune responses or discover what elements actually mediate these responses. Others feel that traditional experimental, often reductionist, methods for incrementally unraveling complex biology provide a more solid way forward, and that "systems" approaches are costly ways to collect data without gaining true insight...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Mark M Davis, Cristina M Tato
Preventing morbidity and mortality from infectious disease through the development and use of effective vaccines is one of medicine's greatest achievements and greatest frustrations. We are struggling with improving vaccine efficacy for some of the most globally widespread diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis. In an effort to gain an edge, systems biology approaches have begun to be employed to more broadly investigate the pathways leading to protective vaccine responses. As such, we are now at a critical juncture, needing to evaluate how fruitful these approaches have been...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Sandra J Kuhlman, L Michon Craig, Jeanne F Duffy
A diverse range of species, from cyanobacteria to humans, evolved endogenous biological clocks that allow for the anticipation of daily variations in light and temperature. The ability to anticipate regular environmental rhythms promotes optimal performance and survival. Herein we present a brief historical timeline of how circadian concepts and terminology have emerged since the early observation of daily leaf movement in plants made by an astronomer in the 1700s.
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Rino Rappuoli, Emilio Siena, Oretta Finco
During the last decade, several high-throughput technologies have been applied to gather deeper understanding on the biological events elicited by vaccination. The main goal of systems biology is to integrate different sources of data and extract biologically meaningful information. This holistic approach has provided new insights on the impact that the innate immune status has on vaccine responsiveness. Other factors like chronic infections, age, microbiome, and metabolism can influence the outcome of vaccination, and systems biology offers unique opportunities to expand our understanding of their role on the immune response...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Koji L Ode, Hiroki R Ueda
The circadian clock in cyanobacteria employs a posttranslational oscillator composed of a sequential phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle of KaiC protein, in which the dynamics of protein structural changes driven by temperature-compensated KaiC's ATPase activity are critical for determining the period. On the other hand, circadian clocks in eukaryotes employ transcriptional feedback loops as a core mechanism. In this system, the dynamics of protein accumulation and degradation affect the circadian period...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Jian-Xin Lin, Warren J Leonard
Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15, and IL-21 form a family of cytokines based on their sharing the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc), which was originally discovered as the third receptor component of the IL-2 receptor, IL-2Rγ. The IL2RG gene is located on the X chromosome and is mutated in humans with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). The breadth of the defects in XSCID could not be explained solely by defects in IL-2 signaling, and it is now clear that γc is a shared receptor component of the six cytokines noted above, making XSCID a disease of defective cytokine signaling...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Hanne Van Gorp, Nina Van Opdenbosch, Mohamed Lamkanfi
As key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity, it is unsurprising that the activity of interleukin (IL)-1 cytokine family members is tightly controlled by decoy receptors, antagonists, and a variety of other mechanisms. Additionally, inflammasome-mediated proteolytic maturation is a prominent and distinguishing feature of two important members of this cytokine family, IL-1β and IL-18, because their full-length gene products are biologically inert. Although vital in antimicrobial host defense, deregulated inflammasome signaling is linked with a growing number of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Thomas Hagan, Bali Pulendran
The advent of high-throughput "omics" technologies, combined with the computational and statistical methods necessary to analyze such data, have revolutionized biology, enabling a global view of the complex molecular processes and interactions that occur within a biological system. Such systems-based approaches have begun to be used in the evaluation of immune responses to vaccination, with the promise of identifying predictive biomarkers capable of rapidly evaluating vaccine efficacy, transforming our understanding of the immune mechanisms responsible for protective responses to vaccination and contributing to a new generation of rationally designed vaccines...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Paola Tognini, Mari Murakami, Paolo Sassone-Corsi
Circadian rhythms influence virtually all life forms on our planet, a notion that opens the question on how the circadian cycles of individual organisms may interplay with each other. In mammals, a potentially dangerous environmental stress is represented by encounters with infectious agents. Microbial attack is a major risk for organismal homeostasis and therefore needs to be efficiently counteracted by mechanisms implemented by the host immune system. Accumulating evidence shows that the immune system may anticipate an emerging pathogenic exposure through an enhanced inflammatory state...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
David A Anderson, Kenneth M Murphy, Carlos G Briseño
The study of murine dendritic cell (DC) development has been integral to the identification of specialized DC subsets that have unique requirements for their form and function. Advances in the field have also provided a framework for the identification of human DC counterparts, which appear to have conserved mechanisms of development and function. Multiple transcription factors are expressed in unique combinations that direct the development of classical DCs (cDCs), which include two major subsets known as cDC1s and cDC2s, and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs)...
September 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Hideo Negishi, Tadatsugu Taniguchi, Hideyuki Yanai
Interferons (IFNs) are a broad class of cytokines elicited on challenge to the host defense and are essential for mobilizing immune responses to pathogens. Divided into three classes, type I, type II, and type III, all IFNs share in common the ability to evoke antiviral activities initiated by the interaction with their cognate receptors. The nine-member IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family, first discovered in the context of transcriptional regulation of type I IFN genes following viral infection, are pivotal for the regulation of the IFN responses...
September 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Maria Grazia Lampugnani, Elisabetta Dejana, Costanza Giampietro
Endothelial cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs) supervise fundamental vascular functions, such as the control of permeability and transmigration of circulating leukocytes, and the maintenance of existing vessels and formation of new ones. These processes are often dysregulated in pathologies. However, the evidence that links dysfunction of endothelial AJs to human pathologies is mostly correlative. In this review, we present an update of the molecular organization of AJ complexes in endothelial cells (ECs) that is mainly based on observations from experimental models...
September 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Deniz Top, Michael W Young
Specialized groups of neurons in the brain are key mediators of circadian rhythms, receiving daily environmental cues and communicating those signals to other tissues in the organism for entrainment and to organize circadian physiology. In Drosophila, the "circadian clock" is housed in seven neuronal clusters, which are defined by their expression of the main circadian proteins, Period, Timeless, Clock, and Cycle. These clusters are distributed across the fly brain and are thereby subject to the respective environments associated with their anatomical locations...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Matthias Rübsam, Joshua A Broussard, Sara A Wickström, Oxana Nekrasova, Kathleen J Green, Carien M Niessen
Cadherin-based adherens junctions (AJs) and desmosomes are crucial to couple intercellular adhesion to the actin or intermediate filament cytoskeletons, respectively. As such, these intercellular junctions are essential to provide not only integrity to epithelia and other tissues but also the mechanical machinery necessary to execute complex morphogenetic and homeostatic intercellular rearrangements. Moreover, these spatially defined junctions serve as signaling hubs that integrate mechanical and chemical pathways to coordinate tissue architecture with behavior...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Vania Braga
A number of interesting reports highlight the intricate network of signaling proteins that coordinate formation and maintenance of cell-cell contacts. We have much yet to learn about how the in vitro binding data is translated into protein association inside the cells and whether such interaction modulates the signaling properties of the protein. What emerges from recent studies is the importance to carefully consider small GTPase activation in the context of where its activation occurs, which upstream regulators are involved in the activation/inactivation cycle and the GTPase interacting partners that determine the intracellular niche and extent of signaling...
September 11, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Anna Szymborska, Holger Gerhardt
Endothelial cell-cell junctions must perform seemingly incompatible tasks during vascular development-providing stable connections that prevent leakage, while allowing dynamic cellular rearrangements during sprouting, anastomosis, lumen formation, and functional remodeling of the vascular network. This review aims to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms governing endothelial cell-cell adhesion in the context of vascular development.
August 29, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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