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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735640/translation-termination-and-ribosome-recycling-in-eukaryotes
#1
Christopher U T Hellen
Termination of mRNA translation occurs when a stop codon enters the A site of the ribosome, and in eukaryotes is mediated by release factors eRF1 and eRF3, which form a ternary eRF1/eRF3-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) complex. eRF1 recognizes the stop codon, and after hydrolysis of GTP by eRF3, mediates release of the nascent peptide. The post-termination complex is then disassembled, enabling its constituents to participate in further rounds of translation. Ribosome recycling involves splitting of the 80S ribosome by the ATP-binding cassette protein ABCE1 to release the 60S subunit...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735639/protein-synthesis-initiation-in-eukaryotic-cells
#2
William C Merrick, Graham D Pavitt
This review summarizes our current understanding of the major pathway for the initiation phase of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, with a focus on recent advances. We describe the major scanning or messenger RNA (mRNA) m7 G cap-dependent mechanism, which is a highly coordinated and stepwise regulated process that requires the combined action of at least 12 distinct translation factors with initiator transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomes, and mRNAs. We limit our review to studies involving either mammalian or budding yeast cells and factors, as these represent the two best-studied experimental systems, and only include a reference to other organisms where particular insight has been gained...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661791/interferon-%C3%AE-and-its-important-roles-in-promoting-and-inhibiting-spontaneous-and-therapeutic-cancer-immunity
#3
Elise Alspach, Danielle M Lussier, Robert D Schreiber
Originally identified in studies of cellular resistance to viral infection, interferon (IFN)-γ is now known to represent a distinct member of the IFN family and plays critical roles not only in orchestrating both innate and adaptive immune responses against viruses, bacteria, and tumors, but also in promoting pathologic inflammatory processes. IFN-γ production is largely restricted to T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells and can ultimately lead to the generation of a polarized immune response composed of T helper (Th)1 CD4+ T cells and CD8+ cytolytic T cells...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661790/translation-in-prokaryotes
#4
Marina V Rodnina
This review summarizes our current understanding of translation in prokaryotes, focusing on the mechanistic and structural aspects of each phase of translation: initiation, elongation, termination, and ribosome recycling. The assembly of the initiation complex provides multiple checkpoints for messenger RNA (mRNA) and start-site selection. Correct codon-anticodon interaction during the decoding phase of elongation results in major conformational changes of the small ribosomal subunit and shapes the reaction pathway of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis...
April 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610120/translation-elongation-and-recoding-in-eukaryotes
#5
Thomas E Dever, Jonathan D Dinman, Rachel Green
In this review, we highlight the current understanding of translation elongation and recoding in eukaryotes. In addition to providing an overview of the process, recent advances in our understanding of the role of the factor eIF5A in both translation elongation and termination are discussed. We also highlight mechanisms of translation recoding with a focus on ribosomal frameshifting during elongation. We see that the balance between the basic steps in elongation and the less common recoding events is determined by the kinetics of the different processes as well as by specific sequence determinants...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716949/motor-proteins
#6
REVIEW
H Lee Sweeney, Erika L F Holzbaur
SUMMARYMyosin motors power movements on actin filaments, whereas dynein and kinesin motors power movements on microtubules. The mechanisms of these motor proteins differ, but, in all cases, ATP hydrolysis and subsequent release of the hydrolysis products drives a cycle of interactions with the track (either an actin filament or a microtubule), resulting in force generation and directed movement.
May 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610398/types-i-and-ii-keratin-intermediate-filaments
#7
REVIEW
Justin T Jacob, Pierre A Coulombe, Raymond Kwan, M Bishr Omary
SummaryKeratins-types I and II-are the intermediate-filament-forming proteins expressed in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Here, we review how keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-triggered mechanical and nonmechanical functions, including maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716886/clinical-neurology-and-epidemiology-of-the-major-neurodegenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Michael G Erkkinen, Mee-Ohk Kim, Michael D Geschwind
Neurodegenerative diseases are a common cause of morbidity and cognitive impairment in older adults. Most clinicians who care for the elderly are not trained to diagnose these conditions, perhaps other than typical Alzheimer's disease (AD). Each of these disorders has varied epidemiology, clinical symptomatology, laboratory and neuroimaging features, neuropathology, and management. Thus, it is important that clinicians be able to differentiate and diagnose these conditions accurately. This review summarizes and highlights clinical aspects of several of the most commonly encountered neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and its variants, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Huntington's disease (HD)...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600395/cell-cell-junctions-organize-structural-and-signaling-networks
#9
REVIEW
Miguel A Garcia, W James Nelson, Natalie Chavez
Cell-cell junctions link cells to each other in tissues, and regulate tissue homeostasis in critical cell processes that include tissue barrier function, cell proliferation, and migration. Defects in cell-cell junctions give rise to a wide range of tissue abnormalities that disrupt homeostasis and are common in genetic abnormalities and cancers. Here, we discuss the organization and function of cell-cell junctions primarily involved in adhesion (tight junction, adherens junction, and desmosomes) in two different epithelial tissues: a simple epithelium (intestine) and a stratified epithelium (epidermis)...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432134/tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling-and-tissue-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Kevin K Kim, Dean Sheppard, Harold A Chapman
Activation of TGF-β1 initiates a program of temporary collagen accumulation important to wound repair in many organs. However, the outcome of temporary extracellular matrix strengthening all too frequently morphs into progressive fibrosis, contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide. To avoid this maladaptive outcome, TGF-β1 signaling is regulated at numerous levels and intimately connected to feedback signals that limit accumulation. Here, we examine the current understanding of the core functions of TGF-β1 in promoting collagen accumulation, parallel pathways that promote physiological repair, and pathological triggers that tip the balance toward progressive fibrosis...
April 2, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496823/myosin-driven-intracellular-transport
#11
REVIEW
Margaret A Titus
SummaryThe delivery of intracellular material within cells is crucial for maintaining normal function. Myosins transport a wide variety of cargo, ranging from vesicles to ribonuclear protein particles (RNPs), in plants, fungi, and metazoa. The properties of a given myosin transporter are adapted to move on different actin filament tracks, either on the disordered actin networks at the cell cortex or along highly organized actin bundles to distribute their cargo in a localized manner or move it across long distances in the cell...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620098/cytokine-signaling-in-the-development-and-homeostasis-of-regulatory-t-cells
#12
REVIEW
Kevin H Toomer, Thomas R Malek
Cytokine signaling is indispensable for regulatory T-cell (Treg) development in the thymus, and also influences the homeostasis, phenotypic diversity, and function of Tregs in the periphery. Because Tregs are required for establishment and maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, investigating the role of cytokines in Treg biology carries therapeutic potential in the context of autoimmune disease. This review discusses the potent and diverse influences of interleukin (IL)-2 signaling on the Treg compartment, an area of knowledge that has led to the use of low-dose IL-2 as a therapy to reregulate autoaggressive immune responses...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507022/loss-of-e-cadherin-dependent-cell-cell-adhesion-and-the-development-and-progression-of-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Heather C Bruner, Patrick W B Derksen
Classical cadherins are the key molecules that control cell-cell adhesion. Notwithstanding this function, it is also clear that classical cadherins are more than just the "glue" that keeps the cells together. Cadherins are essential regulators of tissue homeostasis that govern multiple facets of cellular function and development, by transducing adhesive signals to a complex network of signaling effectors and transcriptional programs. In cancer, cadherins are often inactivated or functionally inhibited, resulting in disease development and/or progression...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432133/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-t-cell-heterogeneity-plasticity-and-selection-in-humans
#14
REVIEW
Federica Sallusto, Antonino Cassotta, Daniel Hoces, Mathilde Foglierini, Antonio Lanzavecchia
The wide range of effector and memory T cells is instrumental for immune regulation and tailored mechanisms of protection against pathogens. Here, we will focus on human CD4 T cells and discuss T-cell plasticity and intraclonal diversification in the context of a progressive and selective model of CD4 T-cell differentiation.
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432132/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-epigenome-a-dynamic-vehicle-for-transmitting-and-recording-cytokine-signaling
#15
REVIEW
John L Johnson, Golnaz Vahedi
CD4+ T cells are critical for the elimination of an immense array of microbial pathogens. Although there are aspects of helper T-cell differentiation that can be modeled as a classic cell-fate commitment, CD4+ T cells also maintain considerable flexibility in their transcriptional program. Here, we present an overview of chromatin biology during cellular reprogramming and, within this context, envision how the scope of cellular reprogramming may be expanded to further our understanding of the controversy surrounding CD4+ T lymphocyte plasticity or determinism...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432129/do-memory-cd4-t-cells-keep-their-cell-type-programming-plasticity-versus-fate-commitment-complexities-of-interpretation-due-to-the-heterogeneity-of-memory-cd4-t-cells-including-t-follicular-helper-cells
#16
REVIEW
Shane Crotty
Plasticity is the ability of a cell type to convert to another cell type. There are multiple effector CD4 T-cell subtypes, including TH 1, TH 2, TH 17, TH 1*, CD4 CTL, TH 9, and TFH cells. It is commonly thought that a CD4 T cell can readily show full plasticity-full conversion from one differentiated cell-and this propensity to plasticity is possessed by memory CD4 T cells. However, there remains no direct demonstration of in vivo-generated resting memory CD4 T-cell conversion to a different subtype on secondary antigen challenge in vivo in an intact animal at the single-cell level...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289061/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-ductal-differentiation-and-branching-morphogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Kaoru Kahata, Varun Maturi, Aristidis Moustakas
Epithelial cells contribute to the development of various vital organs by generating tubular and/or glandular architectures. The fully developed forms of ductal organs depend on processes of branching morphogenesis, whereby frequency, total number, and complexity of the branching tissue define the final architecture in the organ. Some ductal tissues, like the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation, disintegrate and regenerate through periodic cycles. Differentiation of branched epithelia is driven by antagonistic actions of parallel growth factor systems that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal communication...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289060/the-crumbs3-polarity-protein
#18
REVIEW
Ben Margolis
The Crumbs proteins are evolutionarily conserved apical transmembrane proteins. Drosophila Crumbs was discovered via its crucial role in epithelial polarity during fly embryogenesis. Crumbs proteins have variable extracellular domains but a highly conserved intracellular domain that can bind FERM and PDZ domain proteins. Mammals have three Crumbs genes and this review focuses on Crumbs3 , the major Crumbs isoform expressed in mammalian epithelial cells. Although initial work has highlighted the role of Crumbs3 in polarity, more recent studies have found it has an important role in tissue morphogenesis functioning as a linker between the apical membrane and the actin cytoskeleton...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264817/regulation-of-cell-polarity-by-exocyst-mediated-trafficking
#19
REVIEW
Noemi Polgar, Ben Fogelgren
One requirement for establishing polarity within a cell is the asymmetric trafficking of intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. This tightly regulated process creates spatial and temporal differences in both plasma membrane composition and the membrane-associated proteome. Asymmetric membrane trafficking is also a critical mechanism to regulate cell differentiation, signaling, and physiology. Many eukaryotic cell types use the eight-protein exocyst complex to orchestrate polarized vesicle trafficking to certain membrane locales...
March 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440070/role-of-eif2%C3%AE-kinases-in-translational-control-and-adaptation-to-cellular-stress
#20
Ronald C Wek
A central mechanism regulating translation initiation in response to environmental stress involves phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α causes inhibition of global translation, which conserves energy and facilitates reprogramming of gene expression and signaling pathways that help to restore protein homeostasis. Coincident with repression of protein synthesis, many gene transcripts involved in the stress response are not affected or are even preferentially translated in response to increased eIF2α phosphorylation by mechanisms involving upstream open reading frames (uORFs)...
February 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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