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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

Kathryn A Pape, Marc K Jenkins
The memory B-cell pool in an immune individual is more heterogeneous than previously recognized. The different types of memory B cells likely play distinct roles in tuning the secondary immune response because they differ in their potential to generate plasmablasts, which secrete antibodies, or germinal center (GC) cells, which generate new and higher affinity memory cells. We propose that the production of plasmablasts or GC cells by a memory B cell is controlled by its state of differentiation and the amount and affinity of antigen-specific antibodies present in the individual in which it resides...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Ming Ma, Anna-Rachel Gallagher, Stefan Somlo
Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a disease of defective tissue homeostasis resulting in active remodeling of nephrons and bile ducts to form fluid-filled sacs called cysts. The causal genes PKD1 and PKD2 encode transmembrane proteins polycystin 1 (PC1) and polycystin 2 (PC2), respectively. Together, the polycystins localize to the solitary primary cilium that protrudes from the apical surface of most kidney tubule cells and is thought to function as a privileged compartment that the cell uses for signal integration of sensory inputs...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Mark J Shlomchik
Memory is the defining feature of the adaptive immune system. Humoral immune memory is largely though not exclusively generated in the germinal center (GC), which spawns long-lived plasma cells that support ongoing serum antibody titers as well as "memory B cells" (MBCs) that persist in the immune host at expanded frequencies. Upon reencounter with antigen, these MBCs are reactivated and potentially can contribute to protection by further expansion, rapid differentiation to antibody-forming cells, and/or reseeding of a new round of GCs along with somatic V region mutation and selection...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Louise J McHeyzer-Williams, Chad Dufaud, Michael G McHeyzer-Williams
Antigen recall can clearly induce a germinal center (GC) reaction. What has become an issue for debate are the origins of the antigen-specific B cells that form memory-response GCs (mGCs). Using antigen labeling and adoptive transfer, memory B cells expressing different antibody class can give rise to mGCs with differing efficiency. Here, we will argue that the range of class-specific memory responses reported across multiple systems represents the spectrum of memory B-cell fate and function. While the formulation of recall immunogen and location of mGCs have an important role, we propose that effective cognate regulation is the key variable influencing recall outcome...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Nicolas Burdin, L K Handy, S A Plotkin
Pertussis is resurgent in some countries, particularly those in which children receive acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in early infancy and boosters later in life. Immunologic studies show that, whereas whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines orient the immune system toward Th1/Th17 responses, acellular pertussis vaccines orient toward Th1/Th2 responses. Although aP vaccines do provide protection during the first years of life, the change in T-cell priming results in waning effectiveness of aP as early as 2-3 years post-boosters...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Kinga M Bujakowska, Qin Liu, Eric A Pierce
Photoreceptors are sensory neurons designed to convert light stimuli into neurological responses. This process, called phototransduction, takes place in the outer segments (OS) of rod and cone photoreceptors. OS are specialized sensory cilia, with analogous structures to those present in other nonmotile cilia. Deficient morphogenesis and/or dysfunction of photoreceptor sensory cilia (PSC) caused by mutations in a variety of photoreceptor-specific and common cilia genes can lead to inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs)...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
William W Seeley
Brain networks have been of long-standing interest to neurodegeneration researchers, including but not limited to investigators focusing on conventional prion diseases, which are known to propagate along neural pathways. Tools for human network mapping, however, remained inadequate, limiting our understanding of human brain network architecture and preventing clinical research applications. Until recently, neuropathological studies were the only viable approach to mapping disease onset and progression in humans but required large autopsy cohorts and laborious methods for whole-brain sectioning and staining...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Kaoru Kahata, Varun Maturi, Aristidis Moustakas
Epithelial cells contribute to the development of various vital organs by generating tubular and/or glandular architectures. The fully developed forms of ductal organs depend on processes of branching morphogenesis, whereby frequency, total number, and complexity of the branching tissue define the final architecture in the organ. Some ductal tissues, like the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation, disintegrate and regenerate through periodic cycles. Differentiation of branched epithelia is driven by antagonistic actions of parallel growth factor systems that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal communication...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Ben Margolis
The Crumbs proteins are evolutionarily conserved apical transmembrane proteins. Drosophila Crumbs was discovered via its crucial role in epithelial polarity during fly embryogenesis. Crumbs proteins have variable extracellular domains but a highly conserved intracellular domain that can bind FERM and PDZ domain proteins. Mammals have three Crumbs genes and this review focuses on Crumbs3, the major Crumbs isoform expressed in mammalian epithelial cells. Although initial work has highlighted the role of Crumbs3 in polarity, more recent studies have found it has an important role in tissue morphogenesis functioning as a linker between the apical membrane and the actin cytoskeleton...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Kathryn Margaret Edwards
Memory responses seen after whole-cell pertussis (wP) and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine priming are different and reflect better long-term protection against pertussis disease seen with the whole-cell vaccines. Although acellular vaccines generate higher levels of antigen-specific IgG to the antigens included in the aP vaccines, there are many more pertussis antigens included in whole-cell vaccines. Acellular vaccine priming is associated with skewing of the immune response to a more Th2-like response, whereas whole-cell priming is associated with a Th1/Th17 response...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Christiane S Eberhardt, Claire-Anne Siegrist
The high incidence of pertussis in vaccinated adolescents suggests the failing of immune memory. We argue that acellular pertussis vaccines generate memory cells that are effectively reactivated by boosters better than by Bordetella pertussis exposure. We propose that there are two main causes. One is the induction of vaccine-specific immunity rather than pathogen-specific immunity. The second is that strictly mucosal infections such as B. pertussis poorly reactivate memory B and T cells residing deep in lymph nodes or tissues...
March 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Gerard Apodaca
Protruding from the apical surfaces of epithelial cells are specialized structures, including cilia, microplicae, microvilli, and stereocilia. These contribute to epithelial function by cushioning the apical surface, by amplifying its surface area to facilitate nutrient absorption, and by promoting sensory transduction and barrier function. Despite these important roles, and the diseases that result when their formation is perturbed, there remain significant gaps in our understanding of the biogenesis of apical protrusions, or the pathways that promote their organization and orientation once at the apical surface...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Geri Kreitzer, Monn Monn Myat
Epithelial cells play a key role in insuring physiological homeostasis by acting as a barrier between the outside environment and internal organs. They are also responsible for the vectorial transport of ions and fluid essential to the function of many organs. To accomplish these tasks, epithelial cells must generate an asymmetrically organized plasma membrane comprised of structurally and functionally distinct apical and basolateral membranes. Adherent and occluding junctions, respectively, anchor cells within a layer and prevent lateral diffusion of proteins in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and restrict passage of proteins and solutes through intercellular spaces...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Gerald R Hammond, Yang Hong
Selective enrichment of the polyphosphoinositides (PPIn), such as PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns4P, helps to determine the identity of the plasma membrane (PM) and regulates many aspects of cell biology through a vast number of protein effectors. Polarity proteins had long been assumed to be non-PPIn-binding proteins that mainly associate with PM/cell cortex through their extensive protein-protein interaction network. However, recent studies began to reveal that several key polarity proteins electrostatically bind to PPIn through their positively charged protein domains or structures and such PPIn-binding property is essential for their direct and specific attachment to PM...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Amy Christine Engevik, James R Goldenring
Epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract require distinct apical and basolateral domains to function properly. Trafficking and insertion of enzymes and transporters into the apical brush border of intestinal epithelial cells is essential for effective digestion and absorption of nutrients. Specific critical ion transporters are delivered to the apical brush border to facilitate fluid and electrolyte uptake. Maintenance of these apical transporters requires both targeted delivery and regulated membrane recycling...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Noemi Polgar, Ben Fogelgren
One requirement for establishing polarity within a cell is the asymmetric trafficking of intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane. This tightly regulated process creates spatial and temporal differences in both plasma membrane composition and the membrane-associated proteome. Asymmetric membrane trafficking is also a critical mechanism to regulate cell differentiation, signaling, and physiology. Many eukaryotic cell types use the eight-protein exocyst complex to orchestrate polarized vesicle trafficking to certain membrane locales...
March 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Evan Appleton, Curtis Madsen, Nicholas Roehner, Douglas Densmore
Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Elena Gallo MacFarlane, Julia Haupt, Harry C Dietz, Eileen M Shore
The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of signaling molecules, which includes TGF-βs, activins, inhibins, and numerous bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), has important functions in all cells and tissues, including soft connective tissues and the skeleton. Specific TGF-β family members play different roles in these tissues, and their activities are often balanced with those of other TGF-β family members and by interactions with other signaling pathways...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Curtis T Okamoto
The vectorial secretion and absorption of fluid and solutes by epithelial cells is dependent on the polarized expression of membrane solute transporters and channels at the apical and basolateral membranes. The establishment and maintenance of this polarized expression of transporters and channels are affected by divers protein-trafficking complexes. Moreover, regulation of the magnitude of transport is often under control of physiological stimuli, again through the interaction of transporters and channels with protein-trafficking complexes...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Jingwen Zeng, Shanshan Feng, Bin Wu, Wei Guo
Polarized exocytosis is generally considered as the multistep vesicular trafficking process in which membrane-bounded carriers are transported from the Golgi or endosomal compartments to specific sites of the plasma membrane. Polarized exocytosis in cells is achieved through the coordinated actions of membrane trafficking machinery and cytoskeleton orchestrated by signaling molecules such as the Rho family of small GTPases. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of polarized exocytosis is essential to our understanding of a wide range of pathophysiological processes from neuronal development to tumor invasion...
February 28, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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