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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108487/transition-zone-migration-a-mechanism-for-cytoplasmic-ciliogenesis-and-postaxonemal-centriole-elongation
#1
Tomer Avidor-Reiss, Andrew Ha, Marcus L Basiri
The cilium is an elongated and continuous structure that spans two major subcellular domains. The cytoplasmic domain contains a short centriole, which serves to nucleate the main projection of the cilium. This projection, known as the axoneme, remains separated from the cytoplasm by a specialized gatekeeping complex within a ciliary subdomain called the transition zone. In this way, the axoneme is compartmentalized. Intriguingly, however, this general principle of cilium biology is altered in the sperm cells of many animals, which instead contain a cytoplasmic axoneme domain...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108486/regulation-of-the-immune-response-by-tgf-%C3%AE-from-conception-to-autoimmunity-and-infection
#2
Shomyseh Sanjabi, Soyoung A Oh, Ming O Li
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in both suppressive and inflammatory immune responses. After 30 years of intense study, we have only begun to elucidate how TGF-β alters immunity under various conditions. Under steady-state conditions, TGF-β regulates thymic T-cell selection and maintains homeostasis of the naïve T-cell pool. TGF-β inhibits cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), Th1-, and Th2-cell differentiation while promoting peripheral (p)Treg-, Th17-, Th9-, and Tfh-cell generation, and T-cell tissue residence in response to immune challenges...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108485/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-embryonic-and-somatic-stem-cell-renewal-and-differentiation
#3
Alan C Mullen, Jeffrey L Wrana
Soon after the discovery of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), seminal work in vertebrate and invertebrate models revealed the TGF-β family to be central regulators of tissue morphogenesis. Members of the TGF-β family direct some of the earliest cell-fate decisions in animal development, coordinate complex organogenesis, and contribute to tissue homeostasis in the adult. Here, we focus on the role of the TGF-β family in mammalian stem-cell biology and discuss its wide and varied activities both in the regulation of pluripotency and in cell-fate commitment...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096268/the-tgf-%C3%AE-family-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#4
Cathy Savage-Dunn, Richard W Padgett
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and related ligands have potent effects on an enormous diversity of biological functions in all animals examined. Because of the strong conservation of TGF-β family ligand functions and signaling mechanisms, studies from multiple animal systems have yielded complementary and synergistic insights. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, early studies were instrumental in the elucidation of TGF-β family signaling mechanisms. Current studies in C. elegans continue to identify new functions for the TGF-β family in this organism as well as new conserved mechanisms of regulation...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096267/toward-the-atomic-structure-of-prpsc
#5
Jose A Rodriguez, Lin Jiang, David S Eisenberg
In this review, we detail our current knowledge of PrP(Sc) structure on the basis of structural and computational studies. We discuss the progress toward an atomic resolution description of PrP(Sc) and results from the broader field of amyloid studies that may further inform our knowledge of this structure. Moreover, we summarize work that investigates the role of PrP(Sc) structure in its toxicity, transmissibility, and species specificity. We look forward to an atomic model of PrP(Sc), which is expected to bring diagnostics and/or therapeutics to the field of prion disease...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096266/desmosomes-and-intermediate-filaments-their-consequences-for-tissue-mechanics
#6
Mechthild Hatzfeld, René Keil, Thomas M Magin
Adherens junctions (AJs) and desmosomes connect the actin and keratin filament networks of adjacent cells into a mechanical unit. Whereas AJs function in mechanosensing and in transducing mechanical forces between the plasma membrane and the actomyosin cytoskeleton, desmosomes and intermediate filaments (IFs) provide mechanical stability required to maintain tissue architecture and integrity when the tissues are exposed to mechanical stress. Desmosomes are essential for stable intercellular cohesion, whereas keratins determine cell mechanics but are not involved in generating tension...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096265/prion-properties-of-sod1-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-potential-therapy
#7
Caroline Sibilla, Anne Bertolotti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by the deterioration of motor neurons. The first symptoms of ALS always begin at a focal but variable site and consistently spread to neighboring regions, suggesting that neurodegeneration in ALS is an orderly and propagating process. Like other neurodegenerative diseases, misfolding of a specific protein is central to ALS. SOD1, the major constituent of the protein deposits in some familial and sporadic forms of ALS, propagates its misfolded conformation like prions, providing a plausible molecular basis for the focality and spreading of muscle weakness in ALS...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096264/adherens-junctions-on-the-move-membrane-trafficking-of-e-cadherin
#8
Lena Brüser, Sven Bogdan
Cadherin-based adherens junctions are conserved structures that mediate epithelial cell-cell adhesion in invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite their pivotal function in epithelial integrity, adherens junctions show a remarkable plasticity that is a prerequisite for tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is continuously turned over and undergoes cycles of endocytosis, sorting and recycling back to the plasma membrane. Mammalian cell culture and genetically tractable model systems such as Drosophila have revealed conserved, but also distinct, mechanisms in the regulation of E-cadherin membrane trafficking...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096263/integration-of-cadherin-adhesion-and-cytoskeleton-at-adherens-junctions
#9
René Marc Mège, Noboru Ishiyama
The cadherin-catenin adhesion complex is the key component of the intercellular adherens junction (AJ) that contributes both to tissue stability and dynamic cell movements in epithelial and nonepithelial tissues. The cadherin adhesion complex bridges neighboring cells and the actin-myosin cytoskeleton, and thereby contributes to mechanical coupling between cells which drives many morphogenetic events and tissue repair. Mechanotransduction at cadherin adhesions enables cells to sense, signal, and respond to physical changes in their environment...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096262/cilia-and-obesity
#10
Christian Vaisse, Jeremy F Reiter, Nicolas F Berbari
The ciliopathies Bardet-Biedl syndrome and Alström syndrome cause obesity. How ciliary dysfunction leads to obesity has remained mysterious, partly because of a lack of understanding of the physiological roles of primary cilia in the organs and pathways involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Historically, the study of rare monogenetic disorders that present with obesity has informed our molecular understanding of the mechanisms involved in nonsyndromic forms of obesity. Here, we present a framework, based on genetic studies in mice and humans, of the molecular and cellular pathways underlying long-term regulation of energy homeostasis...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096261/tuning-collective-cell-migration-by-cell-cell-junction-regulation
#11
Peter Friedl, Roberto Mayor
Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptors, Slit/Robo, connexins and integrins, and an adaptive array of intracellular adapter and signaling proteins. Depending on molecular composition and signaling context, cell-cell junctions adapt their shape and stability, and this gradual junction plasticity enables different types of collective cell movements such as epithelial sheet and cluster migration, branching morphogenesis and sprouting, collective network migration, as well as coordinated individual-cell migration and streaming...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062565/the-biology-of-ciliary-dynamics
#12
Kuo-Shun Hsu, Jen-Zen Chuang, Ching-Hwa Sung
The cilium is an evolutionally conserved apical membrane protrusion that senses and transduces diverse signals to regulate a wide range of cellular activities. The cilium is dynamic in length, structure, and protein composition. Dysregulation of ciliary dynamics has been linked with ciliopathies and other human diseases. The cilium undergoes cell-cycle-dependent assembly and disassembly, with ciliary resorption linked with G1-S transition and cell-fate choice. In the resting cell, the cilium remains sensitive to environmental cues for remodeling during tissue homeostasis and repair...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062564/tgf-%C3%AE-bone-morphogenetic-protein-and-activin-signaling-and-the-tumor-microenvironment
#13
Michael W Pickup, Philip Owens, Harold L Moses
The cellular and noncellular components surrounding the tumor cells influence many aspects of tumor progression. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and activins have been shown to regulate the phenotype and functions of the microenvironment and are attractive targets to attenuate protumorigenic microenvironmental changes. Given the pleiotropic nature of the cytokines involved, a full understanding of their effects on numerous cell types in many contexts is necessary for proper clinical intervention...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062563/pathology-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Brittany N Dugger, Dennis W Dickson
Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by progressive loss of selectively vulnerable populations of neurons, which contrasts with select static neuronal loss because of metabolic or toxic disorders. Neurodegenerative diseases can be classified according to primary clinical features (e.g., dementia, parkinsonism, or motor neuron disease), anatomic distribution of neurodegeneration (e.g., frontotemporal degenerations, extrapyramidal disorders, or spinocerebellar degenerations), or principal molecular abnormality...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062562/keep-your-friends-close-cell-cell-contact-and-skeletal-myogenesis
#15
Robert S Krauss, Giselle A Joseph, Aviva J Goel
Development of skeletal muscle is a multistage process that includes lineage commitment of multipotent progenitor cells, differentiation and fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myofibers, and maturation of myofibers into distinct types. Lineage-specific transcriptional regulation lies at the core of this process, but myogenesis is also regulated by extracellular cues. Some of these cues are initiated by direct cell-cell contact between muscle precursor cells themselves or between muscle precursors and cells of other lineages...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062561/sperm-sensory-signaling
#16
Dagmar Wachten, Jan F Jikeli, U Benjamin Kaupp
Fertilization is exceptionally complex and, depending on the species, happens in entirely different environments. External fertilizers in aquatic habitats, like marine invertebrates or fish, release their gametes into the seawater or freshwater, whereas sperm from most internal fertilizers like mammals cross the female genital tract to make their way to the egg. Various chemical and physical cues guide sperm to the egg. Quite generally, these cues enable signaling pathways that ultimately evoke a cellular Ca(2+) response that modulates the waveform of the flagellar beat and, hence, the swimming path...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062560/the-amyloid-phenomenon-and-its-links-with-human-disease
#17
Christopher M Dobson
The ability of normally soluble proteins to convert into amyloid fibrils is now recognized to be a generic phenomenon. The overall cross-β architecture of the core elements of such structures is closely similar for different amino acid sequences, as this architecture is dominated by interactions associated with the common polypeptide main chain. In contrast, the multiplicity of complex and intricate structures of the functional states of proteins is dictated by specific interactions involving the variable side chains, the sequence of which is unique to a given protein...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007751/cytokinesis-in-metazoa-and-fungi
#18
Michael Glotzer
SUMMARYCell division-cytokinesis-involves large-scale rearrangements of the entire cell. Primarily driven by cytoskeletal proteins, cytokinesis also depends on topological rearrangements of the plasma membrane, which are coordinated with nuclear division in both space and time. Despite the fundamental nature of the process, different types of eukaryotic cells show variations in both the structural mechanisms of cytokinesis and the regulatory controls. In animal cells and fungi, a contractile actomyosin-based structure plays a central, albeit flexible, role...
December 22, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003186/posttranslational-modifications-of-tubulin-and-cilia
#19
Dorota Wloga, Ewa Joachimiak, Panagiota Louka, Jacek Gaertig
Tubulin undergoes several highly conserved posttranslational modifications (PTMs) including acetylation, detyrosination, glutamylation, and glycylation. These PTMs accumulate on a subset of microtubules that are long-lived, including those in the basal bodies and axonemes. Tubulin PTMs are distributed nonuniformly. In the outer doublet microtubules of the axoneme, the B-tubules are highly enriched in the detyrosinated, polyglutamylated, and polyglycylated tubulin, whereas the A-tubules contain mostly unmodified tubulin...
December 21, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003185/tia-1-is-a-functional-prion-like-protein
#20
Joseph B Rayman, Eric R Kandel
Prions are self-propagating protein conformations that are traditionally regarded as agents of neurodegenerative disease in animals. However, it has become evident that prion-like aggregation of endogenous proteins can also occur under normal physiological conditions (e.g., during memory storage or activation of the immune response). In this review, we focus on the functional prion-related protein TIA-1, an RNA-binding protein that is involved in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism but is best understood in terms of its role in stress granule assembly during the cellular stress response...
December 21, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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