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Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology

Christine Mayr
SUMMARY3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are best known to regulate mRNA-based processes, such as mRNA localization, mRNA stability, and translation. In addition, 3' UTRs can establish 3' UTR-mediated protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and thus can transmit genetic information encoded in 3' UTRs to proteins. This function has been shown to regulate diverse protein features, including protein complex formation or posttranslational modifications, but is also expected to alter protein conformations...
September 4, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Wayne S Sossin, Mauro Costa-Mattioli
Translational control in neurons is crucially required for long-lasting changes in synaptic function and memory storage. The importance of protein synthesis control to brain processes is underscored by the large number of neurological disorders in which translation rates are perturbed, such as autism and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we review the general principles of neuronal translation, focusing on the particular relevance of several key regulators of nervous system translation, including eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), the mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and the eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2)...
August 6, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Jeetayu Biswas, Yang Liu, Robert H Singer, Bin Wu
Translation is the fundamental biological process that converts the genetic information in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into functional proteins. Translation regulation allows cells to control when, where, and how many proteins are synthesized. Much of what we know about translation comes from ensemble approaches that measure the average of many cells. The cellular and molecular heterogeneity in the regulation of translation remains largely elusive. Fluorescence microscopy allows interrogation of biological problems with single-molecule, single-cell sensitivity...
August 6, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Felipe Karam Teixeira, Ruth Lehmann
The many steps of gene expression, from the transcription of a gene to the production of its protein product, are well understood. Yet, transcriptional regulation has been the focal point for the study of gene expression during development. However, quantitative studies reveal that messenger RNA (mRNA) levels are not necessarily good predictors of the respective proteins' levels in a cell. This discrepancy is, at least in part, the result of developmentally regulated, translational mechanisms that control the spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression...
August 6, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Soroush Tahmasebi, Nahum Sonenberg, John W B Hershey, Michael B Mathews
Protein synthesis and its regulation are central to all known forms of life and impinge on biological arenas as varied as agriculture, biotechnology, and medicine. Otherwise known as translation and translational control, these processes have been investigated with increasing intensity since the middle of the 20th century, and in increasing depth with advances in molecular and cell biology. We review the origins of the field, focusing on the underlying concepts and early studies of the cellular machinery and mechanisms involved...
August 6, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Marina Chekulaeva, Nikolaus Rajewsky
Most of the eukaryotic genome is pervasively transcribed, yielding hundreds to thousands of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs), some of which are well conserved during evolution. Functions have been described for a few lncRNAs and circRNAs but remain elusive for most. Both classes of RNAs play regulatory roles in translation by interacting with messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), or mRNA-binding proteins (RBPs), thereby modulating translation in trans Moreover, although initially defined as noncoding, a number of lncRNAs and circRNAs have recently been reported to contain functional open reading frames (ORFs)...
August 6, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Pavel Ivanov, Nancy Kedersha, Paul Anderson
Stress granules (SGs) and processing bodies (PBs) are non-membrane-enclosed RNA granules that dynamically sequester translationally inactive messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) into compartments that are distinct from the surrounding cytoplasm. mRNP remodeling, silencing, and/or storage involves the dynamic partitioning of closed-loop polyadenylated mRNPs into SGs, or the sequestration of deadenylated, linear mRNPs into PBs. SGs form when stress-activated pathways stall translation initiation but allow elongation and termination to occur normally, resulting in a sudden excess of mRNPs that are spatially condensed into discrete foci by protein:protein, protein:RNA, and RNA:RNA interactions...
August 6, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Nicholas T Ingolia, Jeffrey A Hussmann, Jonathan S Weissman
The translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into protein and the folding of the resulting protein into an active form are prerequisites for virtually every cellular process and represent the single largest investment of energy by cells. Ribosome profiling-based approaches have revolutionized our ability to monitor every step of protein synthesis in vivo, allowing one to measure the rate of protein synthesis across the proteome, annotate the protein coding capacity of genomes, monitor localized protein synthesis, and explore cotranslational folding and targeting...
July 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Eyal Peer, Sharon Moshitch-Moshkovitz, Gideon Rechavi, Dan Dominissini
The cellular proteome reflects the total outcome of many regulatory mechanisms that affect the metabolism of messenger RNA (mRNA) along its pathway from synthesis to degradation. Accumulating evidence in recent years has uncovered the roles of a growing number of mRNA modifications in every step along this pathway, shaping translational output. mRNA modifications affect the translation machinery directly, by influencing translation initiation, elongation and termination, or by altering mRNA levels and subcellular localization...
July 23, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
John W B Hershey, Nahum Sonenberg, Michael B Mathews
Protein synthesis involves a complex machinery comprising numerous proteins and RNAs joined by noncovalent interactions. Its function is to link long chains of amino acids into proteins with precise sequences as encoded by the genome. Regulation of protein synthesis, called translational control, occurs both at a global level and at specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs). To understand how translation is regulated, knowledge of the molecular structures and kinetic interactions of its components is needed. This review focuses on the targets of translational control and the mechanisms employed...
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Thomas F Duchaine, Marc R Fabian
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression by repressing protein synthesis and exert a broad influence over development, physiology, adaptation, and disease. Over the past two decades, great strides have been made toward elucidating how miRNAs go about shutting down messenger RNA (mRNA) translation and promoting mRNA decay.
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Nathaniel Robichaud, Nahum Sonenberg, Davide Ruggero, Robert J Schneider
The translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) into proteins is a key event in the regulation of gene expression. This is especially true in the cancer setting, as many oncogenes and transforming events are regulated at this level. Cancer-promoting factors that are translationally regulated include cyclins, antiapoptotic factors, proangiogenic factors, regulators of cell metabolism, prometastatic factors, immune modulators, and proteins involved in DNA repair. This review discusses the diverse means by which cancer cells deregulate and reprogram translation, and the resulting oncogenic impacts, providing insights into the complexity of translational control in cancer and its targeting for cancer therapy...
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Masaaki Sokabe, Christopher S Fraser
The eukaryotic translation pathway has been studied for more than four decades, but the molecular mechanisms that regulate each stage of the pathway are not completely defined. This is in part because we have very little understanding of the kinetic framework for the assembly and disassembly of pathway intermediates. Steps of the pathway are thought to occur in the subsecond to second time frame, but most assays to monitor these events require minutes to hours to complete. Understanding translational control in sufficient detail will therefore require the development of assays that can precisely monitor the kinetics of the translation pathway in real time...
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Christopher G Proud
Protein synthesis, including the translation of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs), is regulated by extracellular stimuli such as hormones and by the levels of certain nutrients within cells. This control involves several well-understood signaling pathways and protein kinases, which regulate the phosphorylation of proteins that control the translational machinery. These pathways include the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), its downstream effectors, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (extracellular ligand-regulated kinase [ERK]) signaling pathway...
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Thaddaeus Kwan, Sunnie R Thompson
The vast majority of eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) initiate translation through a canonical, cap-dependent mechanism requiring a free 5' end and 5' cap and several initiation factors to form a translationally active ribosome. Stresses such as hypoxia, apoptosis, starvation, and viral infection down-regulate cap-dependent translation during which alternative mechanisms of translation initiation prevail to express proteins required to cope with the stress, or to produce viral proteins. The diversity of noncanonical initiation mechanisms encompasses a broad range of strategies and cellular cofactors...
June 29, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Gerald F Joyce, Jack W Szostak
SUMMARYThe general notion of an "RNA world" is that, in the early development of life on the Earth, genetic continuity was assured by the replication of RNA, and RNA molecules were the chief agents of catalytic function. Assuming that all of the components of RNA were available in some prebiotic locale, these components could have assembled into activated nucleotides that condensed to form RNA polymers, setting the stage for the chemical replication of polynucleotides through RNA-templated RNA polymerization...
September 4, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Marion Zatz, Sherry Dupere
Scientist administrators at the National Institutes of Health fall into two categories: program officers and scientific review officers. Program officers provide advice to applicants and grantees, make funding recommendations, oversee grantees' research progress, and facilitate research opportunities in emerging areas of science. Scientific review officers oversee all aspects of the initial (peer) review of grant applications.
September 4, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Marina V Rodnina
This review summarizes our current understanding of translation in prokaryotes, focusing on the mechanistic and structural aspects of each phase of translation: initiation, elongation, termination, and ribosome recycling. The assembly of the initiation complex provides multiple checkpoints for messenger RNA (mRNA) and start-site selection. Correct codon-anticodon interaction during the decoding phase of elongation results in major conformational changes of the small ribosomal subunit and shapes the reaction pathway of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis...
September 4, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Marcelo B Sztein
Although induction of CD8+ responses is widely accepted as critical in clearing viral infections and necessary for effective vaccines against viruses, much less is known regarding the role of these cells in bacterial and other infections, particularly those that enter the host via the gastrointestinal tract. In this commentary, I discuss the likelihood that CD8+ responses are also important in protection from intestinal Gram-negative bacteria, as well as the many factors that should be taken into consideration during the development of vaccines, based on eliciting long-term protection predominantly mediated by CD8+ responses against these organisms...
September 4, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Lalit K Beura, Stephen C Jameson, David Masopust
Although CD8 T-cell vaccines do not have the record of success of humoral-mediated vaccines, they do not receive the same degree of effort. Many diseases, including malaria, tuberculosis, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have not yielded to vaccines, and intrinsic barriers may impede approaches limited solely to generating antibodies. Moreover, population growth and modernization are driving an increased pace of new emerging global health threats (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] is a recent example), which will create unpredictable challenges for vaccinologists...
September 4, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
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