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International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659716/aspects-of-tryptophan-and-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-in-immunity-a-new-twist-in-an-old-tale
#1
REVIEW
Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Anju Vasudevan, Abdallah Elkhal
Increasing evidence underscores the interesting ability of tryptophan to regulate immune responses. However, the exact mechanisms of tryptophan's immune regulation remain to be determined. Tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway is known to play an important role in tryptophan's involvement in immune responses. Interestingly, quinolinic acid, which is a neurotoxic catabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is the major pathway for the de novo synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). Recent studies have shown that NAD+, a natural coenzyme found in all living cells, regulates immune responses and creates homeostasis via a novel signaling pathway...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607543/modulation-of-tryptophan-serotonin-pathway-by-probiotic-supplementation-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-preliminary-results-of-a-new-study-approach
#2
Giuseppe Corano Scheri, Saeid Najafi Fard, Ivan Schietroma, Andrea Mastrangelo, Claudia Pinacchio, Noemi Giustini, Sara Serafino, Gabriella De Girolamo, Eugenio Nelson Cavallari, Maura Statzu, Luca Laghi, Annamaria Vullo, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Vincenzo Vullo, Gabriella d'Ettorre
BACKGROUND: To date, no data are available regarding the effects of probiotics on the pathway of tryptophan/serotonin metabolism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1-infected individuals. Because a condition of dysbiosis might be responsible for the altered use of tryptophan described in this population, the aim of this study was to investigate the link between probiotic supplementation and serotonin levels in combined antiretroviral therapy-treated patients and the subsistence of an interplay with inflammation...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579801/meat-intake-and-the-dose-of-vitamin-b3-nicotinamide-cause-of-the-causes-of-disease-transitions-health-divides-and-health-futures
#3
REVIEW
Lisa J Hill, Adrian C Williams
Meat and vitamin B3 - nicotinamide - intake was high during hunter-gatherer times. Intake then fell and variances increased during and after the Neolithic agricultural revolution. Health, height, and IQ deteriorated. Low dietary doses are buffered by 'welcoming' gut symbionts and tuberculosis that can supply nicotinamide, but this co-evolved homeostatic metagenomic strategy risks dysbioses and impaired resistance to pathogens. Vitamin B3 deficiency may now be common among the poor billions on a low-meat diet...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579800/meat-and-nicotinamide-a-causal-role-in-human-evolution-history-and-demographics
#4
REVIEW
Adrian C Williams, Lisa J Hill
Hunting for meat was a critical step in all animal and human evolution. A key brain-trophic element in meat is vitamin B3 / nicotinamide. The supply of meat and nicotinamide steadily increased from the Cambrian origin of animal predators ratcheting ever larger brains. This culminated in the 3-million-year evolution of Homo sapiens and our overall demographic success. We view human evolution, recent history, and agricultural and demographic transitions in the light of meat and nicotinamide intake. A biochemical and immunological switch is highlighted that affects fertility in the 'de novo' tryptophan-to-kynurenine-nicotinamide 'immune tolerance' pathway...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469469/tryptophan-metabolism-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-secondary-to-type-2-diabetes-relationship-to-inflammatory-markers
#5
Subrata Debnath, Chakradhar Velagapudi, Laney Redus, Farook Thameem, Balakuntalam Kasinath, Claudia E Hura, Carlos Lorenzo, Hanna E Abboud, Jason C O'Connor
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the primary case of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Inflammation is associated with metabolic dysregulation in patients with T2D and CKD. Tryptophan (TRP) metabolism may have relevance to the CKD outcomes and associated symptoms. We investigated the relationships of TRP metabolism with inflammatory markers in patients with T2D and CKD. METHODS: Data were collected from a well-characterized cohort of type 2 diabetic individuals with all stages of CKD, including patients on hemodialysis...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469468/kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-metabolism-regulatory-and-functional-aspects
#6
REVIEW
Abdulla A-B Badawy
Regulatory and functional aspects of the kynurenine (K) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (Trp) degradation are reviewed. The KP accounts for ~95% of dietary Trp degradation, of which 90% is attributed to the hepatic KP. During immune activation, the minor extrahepatic KP plays a more active role. The KP is rate-limited by its first enzyme, Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), in liver and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) elsewhere. TDO is regulated by glucocorticoid induction, substrate activation and stabilization by Trp, cofactor activation by heme, and end-product inhibition by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469467/interactions-of-tryptophan-and-its-catabolites-with-melatonin-and-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptor-in-central-nervous-system-and-psychiatric-disorders-role-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-direct-mitochondria-regulation
#7
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
Recent work indicates an intimate interaction of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathways with the melatonergic pathways, primarily via TRYCAT pathway induction taking tryptophan away from the production of serotonin, which is a necessary precursor for the melatonergic pathways. The alpha 7 nicotinic receptor may be significantly modulated by this interaction, given its inactivation by the TRYCAT, kynurenic acid, and its induction by melatonin. Similarly, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is activated by both kynurenic acid and kynurenine, leading to CYP1A2 and melatonin metabolism, whereas melatonin may act to inhibit the aryl hydrocarbon receptor...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980422/progesterone-alters-kynurenine-pathway-activation-in-ifn-%C3%AE-activated-macrophages-relevance-for-neuroinflammatory-diseases
#8
J de Bie, C K Lim, G J Guillemin
We have previously demonstrated that the kynurenine pathway (KP), the major biochemical pathway for tryptophan metabolism, is dysregulated in many inflammatory disorders that are often associated with sexual dimorphisms. We aimed to identify a potential functional interaction between the KP and gonadal hormones. We have treated primary human macrophages with progesterone in the presence and absence of inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (interferon-γ) that is known to be a potent inducer of regulating the KP enzyme...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812290/tryptophan-metabolism-and-its-relationship-with-depression-and-cognitive-impairment-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#9
Michael R Keegan, Seetharamaiah Chittiprol, Scott L Letendre, Alan Winston, Dietmar Fuchs, Adriano Boasso, Jennifer Iudicello, Ronald J Ellis
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment (CI) and major depressive disorder (MDD) remain prevalent in treated HIV-1 disease; however, the pathogenesis remains elusive. A possible contributing mechanism is immune-mediated degradation of tryptophan (TRP) via the kynurenine (KYN) pathway, resulting in decreased production of serotonin and accumulation of TRP degradation products. We explored the association of these biochemical pathways and their relationship with CI and MDD in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773992/the-kynurenine-pathway-is-a-double-edged-sword-in-immune-privileged-sites-and-in-cancer-implications-for-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Bertrand Routy, Gina M Graziani, Vikram Mehraj
The term "immune privilege" was originally coined to describe the suppression of inflammatory responses within organs protected by anatomic barriers, ie, the eyes, brain, placenta, and testes. However, cellular and metabolic processes, which orchestrate immune responses, also control inflammation within these sites. Our current understanding of tolerogenic mechanisms has extended the definition of immune privilege to include hair follicles, the colon, and cancer. By catabolizing tryptophan, cells expressing the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase produce kynurenine metabolites, which orchestrate local and systemic responses to control inflammation, thus maintaining immune privilege...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547037/tryptophan-metabolism-in-rat-liver-after-administration-of-tryptophan-kynurenine-metabolites-and-kynureninase-inhibitors
#11
Abdulla A-B Badawy, Samina Bano
Rat liver tryptophan (Trp), kynurenine pathway metabolites, and enzymes deduced from product/substrate ratios were assessed following acute and/or chronic administration of kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), Trp, and the kynureni-nase inhibitors benserazide (BSZ) and carbidopa (CBD). KA activated Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), possibly by increasing liver 3-HAA, but inhibited kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and kynureninase activities with 3-HK as substrate. 3-HK inhibited kynureninase activity from 3-HK...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547036/assessment-of-the-human-kynurenine-pathway-comparisons-and-clinical-implications-of-ethnic-and-gender-differences-in-plasma-tryptophan-kynurenine-metabolites-and-enzyme-expressions-at-baseline-and-after-acute-tryptophan-loading-and-depletion
#12
Abdulla A-B Badawy, Donald M Dougherty
Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) was assessed in normal healthy US volunteers at baseline and after acute Trp depletion (ATD) and acute Trp loading (ATL) using amino acid formulations. The hepatic KP accounts for ~90% of overall Trp degradation. Liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) contributes ~70% toward Trp oxidation, with the remainder achieved by subsequent rate-limiting enzymes in the KP. TDO is not influenced by a 1.15 g Trp load, but is maximally activated by a 5.15 g dose. We recommend a 30 mg/kg dose for future ATL studies...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226722/effects-of-various-kynurenine-metabolites-on-respiratory-parameters-of-rat-brain-liver-and-heart-mitochondria
#13
Halina Baran, Katrin Staniek, Melanie Bertignol-Spörr, Martin Attam, Carina Kronsteiner, Berthold Kepplinger
Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3), respiratory control index (RC) and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM) or succinate (10 mM) and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM) or in the absence, as control...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199566/diet-versus-exercise-in-weight-loss-and-maintenance-focus-on-tryptophan
#14
REVIEW
Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs
An association between mood disturbance, the inability to lose or to stop gaining weight, and a craving for carbohydrates is manifested by many people who are overweight or are becoming so. In a recent study, we observed that low-calorie weight loss diet lowered not only levels of leptin but also levels of essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) significantly. The disturbed metabolism of TRP might affect biosynthesis of serotonin and could thereby increase the susceptibility for mood disturbances and carbohydrate craving, increasing the cessation probability of weight reduction programs...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147825/organ-correlation-with-tryptophan-metabolism-obtained-by-analyses-of-tdo-ko-and-qprt-ko-mice
#15
REVIEW
Katsumi Shibata, Tsutomu Fukuwatari
The aim of this article is to report the organ-specific correlation with tryptophan (Trp) metabolism obtained by analyses of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase knockout (TDO-KO) and quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase knockout (QPRT-KO) mice models. We found that TDO-KO mice could biosynthesize the necessary amount of nicotinamide (Nam) from Trp, resulting in the production of key intermediate, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Upstream metabolites, such as kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid, in the urine were originated from nonhepatic tissues, and not from the liver...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448689/chronic-antipsychotic-treatment-in-the-rat-effects-on-brain-interleukin-8-and-kynurenic-acid
#16
Markus K Larsson, Lilly Schwieler, Michel Goiny, Sophie Erhardt, Göran Engberg
Schizophrenia is associated with activation of the brain immune system as reflected by increased brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and proinflammatory cytokines. Although antipsychotic drugs have been used for decades in the treatment of the disease, potential effects of these drugs on brain immune signaling are not fully known. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs on brain levels of cytokines and KYNA. Rats were treated daily by intraperitoneally administered haloperidol (1...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309411/tryptophan-catabolism-in-chronic-viral-infections-handling-uninvited-guests
#17
REVIEW
Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy
l-Tryptophan (l-Trp) is an essential amino acid that possesses diverse metabolic, neurological, and immunological roles spanning from the synthesis of proteins, neurotransmitter serotonin, and neurohormone melatonin, to its degradation into immunosuppressive catabolites by indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the kynurenine pathway (KP). Trp catabolites, by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), play an important role in antimicrobial defense and immune regulation. IDO/AhR acts as a double-edged sword by both depleting l-Trp to starve the invaders and by contributing to the state of immunosuppression with microorganisms that were not cleared during acute infection...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25987848/method-for-evaluation-of-the-requirements-of-b-group-vitamins-using-tryptophan-metabolites-in-human-urine
#18
Katsumi Shibata, Junko Hirose, Tsutomu Fukuwatari
Tryptophan metabolism is directly involved with B-group vitamins such as vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin B6, and indirectly with vitamin B1 and pantothenic acid. We evaluated the validity of requirements of B-group vitamins set by the Dietary Reference Intakes for the Japanese (DRI-J). We investigated the fate of dietary tryptophan in 10 Japanese adult men who ate the same diet based on DRI-J during a 4-week study. Vitamin mixtures were administered based on the amounts in the basal diet during weeks 2, 3, and 4...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25922582/tryptophan-ethylester-the-false-unveiled-melatonin-isomer-in-red-wine
#19
Marcello Iriti, Ileana Vigentini
Among the food plants, the presence of melatonin in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) deserves particular attention because of the production of wine, an alcoholic beverage of economic relevance and with putative healthy effects. Furthermore, melatonin isomers have been detected in wine too. Recently, one of these isomers has been identified as tryptophan-ethylester, a compound with the same molecular weight of melatonin. In this Commentary, we briefly comment the source(s) of tryptophan-ethylester in wine and the putative nutritional role(s)...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25788834/conversion-percentage-of-tryptophan-to-nicotinamide-is-higher-in-rice-protein-diet-than-in-wheat-protein-diet-in-rats
#20
Katsumi Shibata, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Tomoyo Kawamura
We reported previously that the pellagragenic property of corn protein is not only low l-tryptophan concentration but also the lower conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide; the amino acid composition greatly affected the conversion percentage. The amino acid value of wheat protein is lower than that of rice protein. In the present study, we compare the conversion percentages of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide between wheat protein and rice protein diets in growing rats. The body weight gain for 28 days in rats fed with a 10% amino acid mixture diet with wheat protein was lower than that of rats fed with a 10% amino acid diet with rice protein (68...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
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