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International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR

Jean-Pierre Routy, Bertrand Routy, Gina M Graziani, Vikram Mehraj
The term "immune privilege" was originally coined to describe the suppression of inflammatory responses within organs protected by anatomic barriers, ie, the eyes, brain, placenta, and testes. However, cellular and metabolic processes, which orchestrate immune responses, also control inflammation within these sites. Our current understanding of tolerogenic mechanisms has extended the definition of immune privilege to include hair follicles, the colon, and cancer. By catabolizing tryptophan, cells expressing the enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase produce kynurenine metabolites, which orchestrate local and systemic responses to control inflammation, thus maintaining immune privilege...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Abdulla A-B Badawy, Samina Bano
Rat liver tryptophan (Trp), kynurenine pathway metabolites, and enzymes deduced from product/substrate ratios were assessed following acute and/or chronic administration of kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), Trp, and the kynureni-nase inhibitors benserazide (BSZ) and carbidopa (CBD). KA activated Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), possibly by increasing liver 3-HAA, but inhibited kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and kynureninase activities with 3-HK as substrate. 3-HK inhibited kynureninase activity from 3-HK...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Abdulla A-B Badawy, Donald M Dougherty
Tryptophan (Trp) metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) was assessed in normal healthy US volunteers at baseline and after acute Trp depletion (ATD) and acute Trp loading (ATL) using amino acid formulations. The hepatic KP accounts for ~90% of overall Trp degradation. Liver Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) contributes ~70% toward Trp oxidation, with the remainder achieved by subsequent rate-limiting enzymes in the KP. TDO is not influenced by a 1.15 g Trp load, but is maximally activated by a 5.15 g dose. We recommend a 30 mg/kg dose for future ATL studies...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Halina Baran, Katrin Staniek, Melanie Bertignol-Spörr, Martin Attam, Carina Kronsteiner, Berthold Kepplinger
Previously, we demonstrated that the endogenous glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid dose-dependently and significantly affected rat heart mitochondria. Now we have investigated the effects of L-tryptophan, L-kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine and kynurenic, anthranilic, 3-hydroxyanthranilic, xanthurenic and quinolinic acids on respiratory parameters (ie, state 2, state 3), respiratory control index (RC) and ADP/oxygen ratio in brain, liver and heart mitochondria of adult rats. Mitochondria were incubated with glutamate/malate (5 mM) or succinate (10 mM) and in the presence of L-tryptophan metabolites (1 mM) or in the absence, as control...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs
An association between mood disturbance, the inability to lose or to stop gaining weight, and a craving for carbohydrates is manifested by many people who are overweight or are becoming so. In a recent study, we observed that low-calorie weight loss diet lowered not only levels of leptin but also levels of essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) significantly. The disturbed metabolism of TRP might affect biosynthesis of serotonin and could thereby increase the susceptibility for mood disturbances and carbohydrate craving, increasing the cessation probability of weight reduction programs...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Katsumi Shibata, Tsutomu Fukuwatari
The aim of this article is to report the organ-specific correlation with tryptophan (Trp) metabolism obtained by analyses of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase knockout (TDO-KO) and quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase knockout (QPRT-KO) mice models. We found that TDO-KO mice could biosynthesize the necessary amount of nicotinamide (Nam) from Trp, resulting in the production of key intermediate, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Upstream metabolites, such as kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid, in the urine were originated from nonhepatic tissues, and not from the liver...
2016: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Markus K Larsson, Lilly Schwieler, Michel Goiny, Sophie Erhardt, Göran Engberg
Schizophrenia is associated with activation of the brain immune system as reflected by increased brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and proinflammatory cytokines. Although antipsychotic drugs have been used for decades in the treatment of the disease, potential effects of these drugs on brain immune signaling are not fully known. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs on brain levels of cytokines and KYNA. Rats were treated daily by intraperitoneally administered haloperidol (1...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Vikram Mehraj, Jean-Pierre Routy
l-Tryptophan (l-Trp) is an essential amino acid that possesses diverse metabolic, neurological, and immunological roles spanning from the synthesis of proteins, neurotransmitter serotonin, and neurohormone melatonin, to its degradation into immunosuppressive catabolites by indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the kynurenine pathway (KP). Trp catabolites, by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), play an important role in antimicrobial defense and immune regulation. IDO/AhR acts as a double-edged sword by both depleting l-Trp to starve the invaders and by contributing to the state of immunosuppression with microorganisms that were not cleared during acute infection...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Katsumi Shibata, Junko Hirose, Tsutomu Fukuwatari
Tryptophan metabolism is directly involved with B-group vitamins such as vitamin B2, niacin, and vitamin B6, and indirectly with vitamin B1 and pantothenic acid. We evaluated the validity of requirements of B-group vitamins set by the Dietary Reference Intakes for the Japanese (DRI-J). We investigated the fate of dietary tryptophan in 10 Japanese adult men who ate the same diet based on DRI-J during a 4-week study. Vitamin mixtures were administered based on the amounts in the basal diet during weeks 2, 3, and 4...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Marcello Iriti, Ileana Vigentini
Among the food plants, the presence of melatonin in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) deserves particular attention because of the production of wine, an alcoholic beverage of economic relevance and with putative healthy effects. Furthermore, melatonin isomers have been detected in wine too. Recently, one of these isomers has been identified as tryptophan-ethylester, a compound with the same molecular weight of melatonin. In this Commentary, we briefly comment the source(s) of tryptophan-ethylester in wine and the putative nutritional role(s)...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Katsumi Shibata, Tsutomu Fukuwatari, Tomoyo Kawamura
We reported previously that the pellagragenic property of corn protein is not only low l-tryptophan concentration but also the lower conversion percentage of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide; the amino acid composition greatly affected the conversion percentage. The amino acid value of wheat protein is lower than that of rice protein. In the present study, we compare the conversion percentages of l-tryptophan to nicotinamide between wheat protein and rice protein diets in growing rats. The body weight gain for 28 days in rats fed with a 10% amino acid mixture diet with wheat protein was lower than that of rats fed with a 10% amino acid diet with rice protein (68...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Rowland Noakes
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Takeshi Fukushima, Anna Sugiura, Ippei Furuta, Sumiko Iwasa, Hideaki Iizuka, Hideaki Ichiba, Mayu Onozato, Hidemasa Hikawa, Yuusaku Yokoyama
6-Chlorotryptophan possesses unique bioactivity and can be used as a precursor for several bioactive compounds in medicinal chemistry. It was enantioselectively synthesized by condensing 6-chloroindole with racemic N-acetylserine, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis with l-aminoacylase (EC The optical purity was examined by conducting high-performance liquid chromatography with a Cinchona alkaloid-based zwitterionic chiral stationary phase (CSP) [CHIRALPAK(®) ZWIX(+)], which bears a chiral trans-2-aminocyclohexanesulfonic acid moiety tagged at C-9 of the Cinchona alka-loid...
2015: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Abdulla A-B Badawy, Sarah L Lake, Donald M Dougherty
The pellagragenic effect of leucine (Leu) has been proposed to involve modulation of L-tryptophan (Trp) metabolism along the hepatic kynurenine pathway. Here, we discuss some of the mechanisms suggested and report the effects in healthy volunteers of single doses of Leu (4.05-6.75 g) administered in a 16-amino acid mixture on concentrations of plasma Trp and its kynurenine metabolites. Flux of Trp through Trp 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) is dose-dependently enhanced most probably by Leu and can be attributed to TDO activation...
2014: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Magdalena E Kegel, Maria Bhat, Elisabeth Skogh, Martin Samuelsson, Kristina Lundberg, Marja-Liisa Dahl, Carl Sellgren, Lilly Schwieler, Göran Engberg, Ina Schuppe-Koistinen, Sophie Erhardt
Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN). Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals...
2014: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Masatoshi Yamashita, Takanobu Yamamoto
Tryptophan (TRP) and its neuroactive metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), are thought to play key roles in central fatigue, but the specifics are still unknown. To clarify their roles in the brain, we developed a rat model of central fatigue induced by chronic sleep disorder (CFSD) by disturbing the sleep-wake cycle. Results showed that while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration did not differ between control and CFSD groups, levels of TRP and KYNA in the CFSD group were about 2 and 5 times higher in the hypothalamus, and 2 and 3...
2014: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Malin Wennström, Henrietta M Nielsen, Funda Orhan, Elisabet Londos, Lennart Minthon, Sophie Erhardt
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is implicated in cognitive functions. Altered concentrations of the compound are found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Further studies to determine whether KYNA serves as a biomarker for cognitive decline and dementia progression are required. In this study, we measured CSF KYNA levels in AD patients (n = 19), patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) (n = 18), and healthy age-matched controls (Ctrls)) (n = 20) to further explore possible correlations between KYNA levels, cognitive decline, and well-established AD and inflammatory markers...
2014: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Odile Poulain-Godefroy, Elodie Eury, Audrey Leloire, Benjamin Hennart, Gilles J Guillemin, Delphine Allorge, Philippe Froguel
Low-grade and chronic inflammation is elicited in white adipose tissue in human obesity. The presence of inflammatory molecules leads to an increased tryptophan catabolism through the induction of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1). In order to characterize the mechanisms underlying this dysregulation, we have studied 2 mouse models of obesity. Unexpectedly, we did not detect any IDO1 expression in obese or lean mice adipose tissue. In a previous study, we did not find any significant difference in the liver for IDO2 and tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2) gene expression between normal weight and obese patients...
2013: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Rowland Noakes, Nick Mellick
Cutaneous sclerosis, resembling that seen in subcutaneous morphea, is a feature of eosinophilic fasciitis and eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome, two conditions in which the kynurenine pathway is known to be activated. To investigate the possibility of activation of the kynurenine pathway in morphea, skin biopsies were taken from involved and non-involved sites in a series of three patients with morphea. Immunohistochemical stains for quinolinic acid and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) were performed.
2013: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Ann Atlas, Elisabeth Franzen-Röhl, Johan Söderlund, Erik G Jönsson, Martin Samuelsson, Lilly Schwieler, Birgit Sköldenberg, Göran Engberg
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 encephalitis (HSE) is a viral infectious disease with commonly occurring neurodegeneration and neurological/cognitive long-term sequelae. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive tryptophan metabolite, which is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during viral infection as a result of immune activation. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of endogenous brain KYNA for the long-term outcome of the disease. CSF KYNA concentration was analyzed in 25 HSE patients along the course of the disease and compared with that of 25 age-matched healthy volunteers...
2013: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
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