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Journal of Inflammation Research

Margaretha Sariko, Athanasia Maro, Jean Gratz, Eric Houpt, Riziki Kisonga, Stellah Mpagama, Scott Heysell, Blandina T Mmbaga, Tania A Thomas
Introduction: There is active interest in leveraging host immune responses as biomarkers of tuberculosis (TB) disease activity. We had previously evaluated an immunodiagnostic test called the antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) assay. Here, we aimed to evaluate a panel of inflammatory mediators and associate the responses with the ALS results to identify a biosignature to distinguish TB cases from controls. Methodology: In this case-control study, adults with TB were compared to controls who were hospitalized for non-infectious conditions...
2019: Journal of Inflammation Research
Eleni Stylianou
Chronic, noncommunicable, and inflammation-associated diseases remain the largest cause of morbidity and mortality globally and within the United States. This is mainly due to our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie these complex pathologies. The available evidence indicates that studies of epigenetics (traditionally defined as the heritable changes to gene expression that are independent of changes to DNA) are significantly advancing our knowledge of these inflammatory conditions...
2019: Journal of Inflammation Research
Vijay Kumar
Sepsis was known to ancient Greeks since the time of great physician Hippocrates (460-377 BC) without exact information regarding its pathogenesis. With time and medical advances, it is now considered as a condition associated with organ dysfunction occurring in the presence of systemic infection as a result of dysregulation of the immune response. Still with this advancement, we are struggling for the development of target-based therapeutic approach for the management of sepsis. The advancement in understanding the immune system and its working has led to novel discoveries in the last 50 years, including different pattern recognition receptors...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Mohammad Taheri, Ghazaleh Azimi, Arezou Sayad, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mir Davood Omrani, Soudeh Ghafori-Fard
Objectives: Protein inhibitors of activated STAT (PIAS) are transcription co-regulator of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway as well as nuclear factor-κB family of transcription factors. Both of them are involved in cytokine release during inflammatory response. Patients and methods: Considering the role of cytokine imbalance in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), we compared blood expressions of PIAS1-4 genes in 48 interferon β (IFNβ)-treated MS patients with those of healthy subjects by means of real time PCR...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Katharina Effenberger-Neidnicht, Johannes Jägers, Rabea Verhaegh, Michael Kirsch
Introduction: Usually, physostigmine is used as antidote for anticholinergic poisons in order to improve hemodynamics and cardiac output. In addition, it causes beneficial effects during sepsis when added timely. Here, we studied whether physostigmine improves hemodynamics when treatment during systemic inflammation was delayed. Methods: Two series of randomized studies with overall 44 rats were conducted. Systemic inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion (0...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Ruijian Li, Sumei Cui, Youshun Xu, Junhui Xing, Li Xue, Yuguo Chen
Background: The incidence of recurrent cardiovascular events from the progression of nontarget lesions (NTLs) is high for percutaneous coronary intervention-treated patients. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been thoroughly elucidated. Methods: In this study, ten atherosclerotic rabbits with multiple plaques in the upper and lower segments of abdominal aorta (group A) were randomly divided into two subgroups: group A1 underwent intravascular ultrasound examination and stent implantation in the lower segments of the abdominal aorta (n=5), whereas group A2 was without stenting (n=5)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Anna M Kosyreva, Olga V Makarova, Lev V Kakturskiy, Liliya P Mikhailova, Marina N Boltovskaya, Konstantin A Rogov
Purpose: The aim of our research was to study sex differences and the severity of inflammatory changes in target organs and the peculiarities of immunological disorders when low and high doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were administered to rats. Methods: Male and female 2- to 3-month-old Wistar rats (200-250 g) were injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli LPS in one of two doses: 1.5 or 15 mg/kg. In a day after the LPS injection, we studied endotoxin, corticosterone, sex steroids, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity levels in the serum; morphological disorders in the lung, liver, thymus, and spleen; ex vivo production of IL-2, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interferon γ (IFNγ) by splenic cells activated by ConA; and relative amount of T- and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Fatma H Rizk, Amira A El Saadany, Lamees Dawood, Heba H Elkaliny, Naglaa I Sarhan, Rehab Badawi, Sherief Abd-Elsalam
Methotrexate (MTX) is a drug used in treatment of various malignancies. Unfortunately, it leads to life-threatening complications including hepatorenal toxicity. Previous studies revealed the protective effects of metformin (MET) on hepatorenal toxicity in other models in addition to its anticancer effects. The current study investigates the effect of MET on MTX-induced hepatorenal toxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in this toxicity which can be overwhelmed by MET. Thirty male rats were divided into 3 groups: normal control, MTX treated and MET/MTX treated...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Sivagami Giridharan, Mythily Srinivasan
The transcription factor NF-κB is a critical regulator of immune and inflammatory responses. In mammals, the NF-κB/Rel family comprises five members: p50, p52, p65 (Rel-A), c-Rel, and Rel-B proteins, which form homo- or heterodimers and remain as an inactive complex with the inhibitory molecules called IκB proteins in resting cells. Two distinct NF-κB signaling pathways have been described: 1) the canonical pathway primarily activated by pathogens and inflammatory mediators, and 2) the noncanonical pathway mostly activated by developmental cues...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Ilaria Floris, Kurt Appel, Thorsten Rose, Beatrice Lejeune
Background: Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β are 2 pro-inflammatory cytokines known to be involved in rheumatic diseases. The therapeutic strategy used in micro-immunotherapy (MI) to reduce chronic inflammation and attenuate pain consists in mainly targeting these 2 cytokines. 2LARTH® is a sublingually administered medicine consisting of lactose-saccharose globules impregnated with ethanolic preparations of immune mediators and nucleic acids at ultra-low doses. Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore the effect of the MI medicine on TNF-α and IL-1β secretion in human primary enriched monocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Salwa Aldahlawi, Abdel-Rahman Youssef, Syed Shahabuddin
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate CXCL10 as a biomarker for periodontitis by determining the CXCL10 levels in saliva, serum, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from periodontally healthy control subjects and adult subjects with chronic periodontitis. Patients and methods: Adult patients seeking dental treatment at Umm Al-Qura University dental clinic underwent a complete periodontal examination, and saliva, serum, and GCF samples were collected...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Chaman Saini, Praveen Kumar, Mohd Tarique, Alpana Sharma, Venkatesh Ramesh
Background: The clinical forms of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) consist of a spectrum that reflects the host's immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; it provides an ideal model to study the immunological dysregulation in humans. IL-17 plays an important role in initial immune response and is involved in both immune-mediated protection and pathology during M. tuberculosis infection. TGF-β producing regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are high in leprosy patients and responsible for immune suppression...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 329 in vol. 11, PMID: 30233227.].
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Marine Groslambert, Bénédicte F Py
Inflammation is triggered by a repertoire of receptors detecting infections and damages. Some of these receptors directly bind microbial ligands, while others recognize endogenous molecules exposed under stress conditions, including infections. Most of these receptors can be engaged by a relatively limited number of stimuli. Differently, NLRP3 acts as a broad sensor of cell homeostasis rupture and can be activated downstream of a plethora of stimuli. NLRP3 then assembles a multiprotein platform resulting in caspase-1 activation, which controls, by direct cleavage, the maturation of cytosolic pro-cytokines including pro-interleukin-1β...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Reem Abdullah Alamro, Mohammad Mustafa, Abdulrahman K Al-Asmari
Objective: The present study planned to investigate the changes in the mRNA expression of inflammatory genes and their association with colorectal cancer (CRC). Our findings could be useful for noninvasive early screening of CRC patients. Patients and methods: Venous blood of 20 CRC cases and 15 healthy controls was collected. The mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, NF-κB and IL-6 genes was carried out by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Relative quantification was done to find out the fold change of these genes...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Qin Xiang Ng, Alex Yu Sen Soh, Wayren Loke, Donovan Yutong Lim, Wee-Song Yeo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a complex, functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by chronic abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. Despite the global prevalence and disease burden of IBS, its underlying pathophysiology remains unclear. Inflammation may play a pathogenic role in IBS. Studies have highlighted the persistence of mucosal inflammation at the microscopic and molecular level in IBS, with increased recruitment of enteroendocrine cells. Substantial overlaps between IBS and inflammatory bowel disease have also been reported...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Gleb Slobodin, Haya Hussein, Itzhak Rosner, Iris Eshed
Sacroiliitis, inflammation of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ), may be associated with many rheumatic and nonrheumatic disorders. The diagnosis of sacroiliitis may be difficult in many patients, and awareness of its typical manifestations along with recognition of its diverse presentations and cognizance of the limitations of today's imaging modalities are critical to good clinical practice. This review presents the didactic approach to the early diagnosis of sacroiliitis in patients with suspected axial spondyloarthritis and other nosologic entities, discussing also differential interpretation of information acquired from patients' histories, physical examination, and imaging...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Muhamad Abu Bakar, Judy McKimm, Seraj Zohurul Haque, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder, Mainul Haque
Recurrent tonsillitis is described as when an individual suffers from several attacks of tonsillitis per year. Chronic and recurrent tonsillitis both cause repeated occurrences of inflamed tonsils which have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. Numerous children suffer from recurrent tonsillitis and sore throats, and these illnesses become part of their life. Antimicrobials can provide temporary relief, but in many cases, tonsillitis recurs. The cause of such recurrent infections have been identified as microorganisms which often create biofilms and a repository of infection in the wet and warm folds of the tonsils...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Tagore Sunkara, Prashanth Rawla, Andrew Ofosu, Vinaya Gaduputi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic multifactorial disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract and results from an aberrant immune response toward luminal antigens in genetically susceptible people. Most of the current therapies for IBD focus on the management of the inflammation by using corticosteroids, immune modulators, and more recently, monoclonal antibodies (biological therapy). Although these therapies provide benefit in most cases, there are still a significant number of patients who do not respond or become refractory over time, suggesting the need for alternative therapeutic options...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Maurizio Zizzo, Antonio Manenti, Lara Ugoletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
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