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Magnetic Resonance Insights

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891048/metabolic-signatures-of-lung-cancer-in-sputum-and-exhaled-breath-condensate-detected-by-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-feasibility-study
#1
Naseer Ahmed, Tedros Bezabeh, Omkar B Ijare, Renelle Myers, Reem Alomran, Michel Aliani, Zoann Nugent, Shantanu Banerji, Julian Kim, Gefei Qing, Zoheir Bshouty
OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (n = 10) and patients with benign respiratory conditions (n = 10)...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478381/safety-and-efficacy-of-gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced-liver-mri-in-pediatric-patients-aged-2-months-to-18-years-results-of-a-retrospective-multicenter-study
#2
James Geller, Mureo Kasahara, Mercedes Martinez, Annarosa Soresina, Fran Kashanian, Jan Endrikat
PURPOSE: To assess the safety and efficacy of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective, multicenter study including pediatric patients aged >2 months to <18 years who underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI due to focal liver lesions. A single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025 to 0.05 mmol/kg body weight of gadoxetate disodium was administered. Adverse events (AEs) up to 24 hours after injection were recorded and a one-year follow-up was conducted for all serious and unexpected AEs...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279747/age-related-differences-in-white-matter-integrity-in-healthy-human-brain-evidence-from-structural-mri-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#3
Rishu Rathee, V P Subramanyam Rallabandi, Prasun K Roy
The aim is to investigate the relationship between microstructural white matter (WM) diffusivity indices and macrostructural WM volume (WMV) among healthy individuals (20-85 years). Whole-brain diffusion measures were calculated from diffusion tensor imaging using FMRIB software library while WMV was estimated through voxel-based morphometry, and voxel-based analysis was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics. Our results revealed that mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity had shown good correlation with WMV but not for fractional anisotropy (FA)...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147822/hitchhiker-s-guide-to-voxel-segmentation-for-partial-volume-correction-of-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#4
Scott Quadrelli, Carolyn Mountford, Saadallah Ramadan
Partial volume effects have the potential to cause inaccuracies when quantifying metabolites using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In order to correct for cerebrospinal fluid content, a spectroscopic voxel needs to be segmented according to different tissue contents. This article aims to detail how automated partial volume segmentation can be undertaken and provides a software framework for researchers to develop their own tools. While many studies have detailed the impact of partial volume correction on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy quantification, there is a paucity of literature explaining how voxel segmentation can be achieved using freely available neuroimaging packages...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279746/heads-in-the-cloud-a-primer-on-neuroimaging-applications-of-high-performance-computing
#5
REVIEW
Anwar S Shatil, Sohail Younas, Hossein Pourreza, Chase R Figley
With larger data sets and more sophisticated analyses, it is becoming increasingly common for neuroimaging researchers to push (or exceed) the limitations of standalone computer workstations. Nonetheless, although high-performance computing platforms such as clusters, grids and clouds are already in routine use by a small handful of neuroimaging researchers to increase their storage and/or computational power, the adoption of such resources by the broader neuroimaging community remains relatively uncommon. Therefore, the goal of the current manuscript is to: 1) inform prospective users about the similarities and differences between computing clusters, grids and clouds; 2) highlight their main advantages; 3) discuss when it may (and may not) be advisable to use them; 4) review some of their potential problems and barriers to access; and finally 5) give a few practical suggestions for how interested new users can start analyzing their neuroimaging data using cloud resources...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042089/fluorine-19-mri-contrast-agents-for-cell-tracking-and-lung-imaging
#6
REVIEW
Matthew S Fox, Jeffrey M Gaudet, Paula J Foster
Fluorine-19 ((19)F)-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging stand to revolutionize imaging-based research and clinical trials in several fields of medical intervention. First, their use in characterizing in vivo cell behavior may help bring cellular therapy closer to clinical acceptance. Second, their use in lung imaging provides novel noninvasive interrogation of the ventilated airspaces without the need for complicated, hard-to-distribute hardware. This article reviews the current state of (19)F-based cell tracking and lung imaging using magnetic resonance imaging and describes the link between the methods across these fields and how they may mutually benefit from solutions to mutual problems encountered when imaging (19)F-containing compounds, as well as hardware and software advancements...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26688664/new-concepts-in-magnetic-resonance-as-applied-to-cellular-and-in-vivo-applications
#7
Melanie Martin, Benedict Albensi, Albert Cross, Rachel Katz-Brull, Jonathan Thiessen, Scott King, Alexander Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26560856/application-of-the-steady-state-variable-nutation-angle-method-for-faster-determinations-of-long-t-1s-an-approach-useful-for-the-design-of-hyperpolarized-mr-molecular-probes
#8
Marc Jupin, Ayelet Gamliel, Yonatan Hovav, Jacob Sosna, J Moshe Gomori, Rachel Katz-Brull
In the dissolution-dynamic nuclear polarization technique, molecular probes with long T 1s are preferred. 13C nuclei of small molecules with no directly bonded protons or sp(3 13)C nuclei with proton positions substituted by deuterons may fulfill this requirement. The T 1 determination of such new molecular probes is crucial for the success of the hyperpolarized observation. Although the inversion-recovery approach remained by and large the standard for T 1 measurements, we show here that the steady-state variable nutation angle approach is faster and may be better suited for the determination of relatively long T 1s in thermal equilibrium...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26543372/assessing-nociception-by-fmri-of-the-human-spinal-cord-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Tiffany A Kolesar, Kirsten M Fiest, Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of fMRI of the spinal cord in measuring noxious stimulation. METHODS: The Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched, along with the reference lists of included articles. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, full-text articles, and extracted data. Original research was included if fMRI of the human spinal cord was used to measure responses to noxious stimulation. RESULTS: Of the 192 abstracts screened, 19 met the search criteria and were divided according to their focus: investigating pain responses (n = 6), methodology (n = 6), spinal cord injury (n = 2), or cognition-pain interactions (n = 5)...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26483609/iron-oxide-as-an-mri-contrast-agent-for-cell-tracking
#10
REVIEW
Daniel J Korchinski, May Taha, Runze Yang, Nabeela Nathoo, Jeff F Dunn
Iron oxide contrast agents have been combined with magnetic resonance imaging for cell tracking. In this review, we discuss coating properties and provide an overview of ex vivo and in vivo labeling of different cell types, including stem cells, red blood cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, we provide examples of applications of cell tracking with iron contrast agents in stroke, multiple sclerosis, cancer, arteriovenous malformations, and aortic and cerebral aneurysms. Attempts at quantifying iron oxide concentrations and other vascular properties are examined...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26483608/the-interface-between-iron-metabolism-and-gene-based-iron-contrast-for-mri
#11
Donna E Goldhawk, Neil Gelman, Anindita Sengupta, Frank S Prato
Using a gene-based approach to track cellular and molecular activity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has many advantages. The strong correlation between transverse relaxation rates and total cellular iron content provides a basis for developing sensitive and quantitative detection of MRI reporter gene expression. In addition to biophysical concepts, general features of mammalian iron regulation add valuable context for interpreting molecular MRI predicated on gene-based iron labeling. With particular reference to the potential of magnetotactic bacterial gene expression as a magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for mammalian cell tracking, studies in different cell culture models highlight the influence of intrinsic iron regulation on the MRI signal...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279622/correction-to-safety-and-efficacy-of-gadobutrol-for-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-central-nervous-system-results-from-a-multicenter-double-blind-randomized-comparator-study
#12
Juan E Gutierrez, Martin Rosenberg, Jörg Seemann, Josy Breuer, Daniel Haverstock, Jacob Agris, Thomas Balzer, Nicoletta Anzalone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26106263/accuracies-and-contrasts-of-models-of-the-diffusion-weighted-dependent-attenuation-of-the-mri-signal-at-intermediate-b-values
#13
Renaud Nicolas, Igor Sibon, Bassem Hiba
The diffusion-weighted-dependent attenuation of the MRI signal E(b) is extremely sensitive to microstructural features. The aim of this study was to determine which mathematical model of the E(b) signal most accurately describes it in the brain. The models compared were the monoexponential model, the stretched exponential model, the truncated cumulant expansion (TCE) model, the biexponential model, and the triexponential model. Acquisition was performed with nine b-values up to 2500 s/mm(2) in 12 healthy volunteers...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26056469/correlation-of-carotid-intraplaque-hemorrhage-and-stroke-using-1-5-t-and-3-t-mri
#14
REVIEW
Gerald S Treiman, J Scott McNally, Seong-Eun Kim, Dennis L Parker
Carotid therosclerotic disease causes approximately 25% of the nearly 690,000 ischemic strokes each year in the United States. Current risk stratification based on percent stenosis does not provide specific information on the actual risk of stroke for most individuals. Prospective randomized studies have found only 10 to 12% of asymptomatic patients will have a symptomatic stroke within 5 years. Measurements of percent stenosis do not determine plaque stability or composition. Reports have concluded that cerebral ischemic events associated with carotid plaque are intimately associated with plaque instability...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25922578/safety-and-efficacy-of-gadobutrol-for-contrast-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-central-nervous-system-results-from-a-multicenter-double-blind-randomized-comparator-study
#15
Juan E Gutierrez, Martin Rosenberg, Jörg Seemann, Josy Breuer, Daniel Haverstock, Jacob Agris, Thomas Balzer, Nicoletta Anzalone
PURPOSE: Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the central nervous system (CNS) with gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is standard of care for CNS imaging and diagnosis because of the visualization of lesions that cause blood-brain barrier breakdown. Gadobutrol is a macrocyclic GBCA with high concentration and high relaxivity. The objective of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of gadobutrol 1.0 M vs unenhanced imaging and vs the approved macrocyclic agent gadoteridol 0...
2015: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25574137/investigation-of-fat-metabolism-during-antiobesity-interventions-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy
#16
Arunima Pola, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Venkatesh Gopalan, Min-Li Sandra Tan, Terry Yew Keong, Zhihong Zhou, Seigo Ishino, Yoshihide Nakano, Masanori Watanabe, Takashi Horiguchi, Tomoyuki Nishimoto, Bin Zhu, S Sendhil Velan
The focus of current treatments for obesity is to reduce the body weight or visceral fat, which requires longer duration to show effect. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes in fat metabolism in liver, abdomen, and skeletal muscle during antiobesity interventions including Sibutra mine treatment and diet restriction in obese rats using magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and blood chemistry. Sibutramine is an antiobesity drug that results in weight loss by increasing satiety and energy expenditure...
2014: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25520558/damage-to-the-optic-chiasm-in-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-mice
#17
Sheryl L Herrera, Vanessa L Palmer, Heather Whittaker, Blair Cardigan Smith, Annie Kim, Angela E Schellenberg, Jonathan D Thiessen, Richard Buist, Marc R Del Bigio, Melanie Martin
Optic chiasm lesions in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice were characterized using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and validated using electron microscopy (EM). MR images were collected from 3 days after induction to remission, approximately 20 days after induction. Hematoxylin and eosin, solochrome cyanin-stained sections, and EM images were obtained from the optic chiasms of some mice approximately 4 days after disease onset when their scores were thought to be the highest...
2014: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25114550/in-vivo-monitoring-of-natural-killer-cell-trafficking-during-tumor-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Naomi S Sta Maria, Samuel R Barnes, Russell E Jacobs
Natural killer (NK) cells are a crucial part of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host anti-viral, anti-microbial, and antitumor responses. The elucidation of NK cell biology and their therapeutic use are actively being pursued with 200 clinical trials currently underway. In this review, we outline the role of NK cells in cancer immunotherapies and summarize current noninvasive imaging technologies used to track NK cells in vivo to investigate mechanisms of action, develop new therapies, and evaluate efficacy of adoptive transfer...
2014: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25114549/mrs-based-metabolomics-in-cancer-research
#19
REVIEW
Tedros Bezabeh, Omkar B Ijare, Alexander E Nikulin, Rajmund L Somorjai, Ian Cp Smith
Metabolomics is a relatively new technique that is gaining importance very rapidly. MRS-based metabolomics, in particular, is becoming a useful tool in the study of body fluids, tissue biopsies and whole organisms. Advances in analytical techniques and data analysis methods have opened a new opportunity for such technology to contribute in the field of diagnostics. In the MRS approach to the diagnosis of disease, it is important that the analysis utilizes all the essential information in the spectra, is robust, and is non-subjective...
2014: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25114548/measuring-restriction-sizes-using-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Melanie Martin
This article reviews a new concept in magnetic resonance as applied to cellular and biological systems. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be used to infer information about restriction sizes of samples being measured. The measurements rely on the apparent diffusion coefficient changing with diffusion times as measurements move from restricted to free diffusion regimes. Pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) measurements are limited in the ability to shorten diffusion times and thus are limited in restriction sizes which can be probed...
2013: Magnetic Resonance Insights
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