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Alzheimer's Research & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412978/the-need-for-harmonisation-and-innovation-of-neuropsychological-assessment-in-neurodegenerative-dementias-in-europe-consensus-document-of-the-joint-program-for-neurodegenerative-diseases-working-group
#1
REVIEW
Alberto Costa, Thomas Bak, Paolo Caffarra, Carlo Caltagirone, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Fabienne Collette, Sebastian Crutch, Sergio Della Sala, Jean François Démonet, Bruno Dubois, Emrah Duzel, Peter Nestor, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Eric Salmon, Sietske Sikkes, Pietro Tiraboschi, Wiesje M van der Flier, Pieter Jelle Visser, Stefano F Cappa
Cognitive, behavioural, and functional assessment is crucial in longitudinal studies of neurodegenerative dementias (NDD). Central issues, such as the definition of the study population (asymptomatic, at risk, or individuals with dementia), the detection of change/decline, and the assessment of relevant outcomes depend on quantitative measures of cognitive, behavioural, and functional status.Currently, we are far from having available reliable protocols and tools for the assessment of dementias in Europe. The main problems are the heterogeneity of the tools used across different European countries, the lack of standardisation of administration and scoring methods across centres, and the limited information available about the psychometric properties of many tests currently in widespread use...
April 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412965/multireceptor-fingerprints-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#2
Wang Zheng Chiu, Laura Donker Kaat, Agnita J W Boon, Wouter Kamphorst, Axel Schleicher, Karl Zilles, John C van Swieten, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) with a frontal presentation, characterized by cognitive deficits and behavioral changes, has been recognized as an early clinical picture, distinct from the classical so-called Richardson and parkinsonism presentations. The midcingulate cortex is associated with executive and attention tasks and has consistently been found to be impaired in imaging studies of patients with PSP. The aim of the present study was to determine alterations in neurotransmission underlying the pathophysiology of PSP, as well as their significance for clinically identifiable PSP subgroups...
April 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372581/perseverance-time-of-informal-caregivers-for-people-with-dementia-construct-validity-responsiveness-and-predictive-validity
#3
Anke Richters, René J F Melis, N Job van Exel, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Marjolein A van der Marck
BACKGROUND: Informal care is essential for many people with dementia (PwD), but it often results in a considerable burden for the caregiver. The perseverance time instrument integrates the aspect of perceived burden with the caregiver's capacity to cope with the burden, in contrast to most available instruments, which measure solely the burden of caregiving. The aim of this study was to extend insight into psychometric properties of the perseverance time instrument, specifically the construct validity, responsiveness, and predictive validity, within the population of informal caregivers for PwD...
April 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359327/monoamine-oxidase-b-inhibitor-selegiline-reduces-18-f-thk5351-uptake-in-the-human-brain
#4
Kok Pin Ng, Tharick A Pascoal, Sulantha Mathotaarachchi, Joseph Therriault, Min Su Kang, Monica Shin, Marie-Christine Guiot, Qi Guo, Ryuichi Harada, Robert A Comley, Gassan Massarweh, Jean-Paul Soucy, Nobuyuki Okamura, Serge Gauthier, Pedro Rosa-Neto
BACKGROUND: (18)F-THK5351 is a quinoline-derived tau imaging agent with high affinity to paired helical filaments (PHF). However, high levels of (18)F-THK5351 retention in brain regions thought to contain negligible concentrations of PHF raise questions about the interpretation of the positron emission tomography (PET) signals, particularly given previously described interactions between quinolone derivatives and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Here, we tested the effects of MAO-B inhibition on (18)F-THK5351 brain uptake using PET and autoradiography...
March 31, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359293/memory-performance-related-dynamic-brain-connectivity-indicates-pathological-burden-and-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Frances C Quevenco, Maria G Preti, Jiri M G van Bergen, Jun Hua, Michael Wyss, Xu Li, Simon J Schreiner, Stefanie C Steininger, Rafael Meyer, Irene B Meier, Adam M Brickman, Sandra E Leh, Anton F Gietl, Alfred Buck, Roger M Nitsch, Klaas P Pruessmann, Peter C M van Zijl, Christoph Hock, Dimitri Van De Ville, Paul G Unschuld
BACKGROUND: The incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) strongly relates to advanced age and progressive deposition of cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau, and iron. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral dynamic functional connectivity and variability of long-term cognitive performance in healthy, elderly subjects, allowing for local pathology and genetic risk. METHODS: Thirty seven participants (mean (SD) age 74 (6...
March 31, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335828/dha-brain-uptake-and-apoe4-status-a-pet-study-with-1-11-c-dha
#6
Hussein N Yassine, Etienne Croteau, Varun Rawat, Joseph R Hibbeln, Stanley I Rapoport, Stephen C Cunnane, John C Umhau
BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor identified for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among brain lipids, alteration in the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) homeostasis is implicated in AD pathogenesis. APOE4 may influence both brain DHA metabolism and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: Using positron emission tomography, regional incorporation coefficients (k*), rates of DHA incorporation from plasma into the brain using [1-(11)C]-DHA (J in), and regional cerebral blood flow using [(15)O]-water were measured in 22 middle-aged healthy adults (mean age 35 years, range 19-65 years)...
March 23, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335810/structured-relearning-of-activities-of-daily-living-in-dementia-the-randomized-controlled-redali-dem-trial-on-errorless-learning
#7
Sebastian Voigt-Radloff, Maartje M E de Werd, Rainer Leonhart, Danielle H E Boelen, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Klaus Fliessbach, Stefan Klöppel, Bernhard Heimbach, Andreas Fellgiebel, Richard Dodel, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Lucrezia Hausner, Roy P C Kessels, Michael Hüll
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (EL) is a method for optimizing learning, which uses feed-forward instructions in order to prevent people from making mistakes during the learning process. The majority of previous studies on EL taught patients with dementia artificial tasks of little or no relevance for their daily lives. Furthermore, only a few controlled studies on EL have so far been performed and just a handful of studies have examined the long-term effects of EL. Tasks were not always trained in the patients' natural or home environment, limiting the external validity of these studies...
March 23, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335796/predicting-dementia-using-socio-demographic-characteristics-and-the-free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-in-the-general-population
#8
Thibault Mura, Marieta Baramova, Audrey Gabelle, Sylvaine Artero, Jean-François Dartigues, Hélène Amieva, Claudine Berr
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to determine whether the consideration of socio-demographic features improves the prediction of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) at 5 years when using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the general older population. METHODS: Our analyses focused on 2558 subjects from the prospective Three-City Study, a cohort of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, with FCSRT scores. Four "residual scores" and "risk scores" were built that included the FCSRT scores and socio-demographic variables...
March 23, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330509/chemically-treated-plasma-a%C3%AE-is-a-potential-blood-based-biomarker-for-screening-cerebral-amyloid-deposition
#9
Jong-Chan Park, Sun-Ho Han, Hyun Jin Cho, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Young Min Choe, Seokjo Kang, Eun Sun Jung, Su Jin Won, Eun Hye Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Dong Young Lee, Inhee Mook-Jung
BACKGROUND: Plasma β-amyloid (Aβ) is a potential candidate for an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker because blood is an easily accessible bio-fluid, which can be collected routinely, and Aβ is one of the major hallmarks of AD pathogenesis in the brain. However, the association between plasma Aβ levels and AD diagnosis is still unclear due to the instability and inaccurate measurements of plasma Aβ levels in the blood of patients with AD. If a consistent value of plasma Aβ from the blood can be obtained, this might help determine whether plasma Aβ is a potential biomarker for AD diagnosis...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302164/cost-effectiveness-of-cerebrospinal-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Spencer A W Lee, Luciano A Sposato, Vladimir Hachinski, Lauren E Cipriano
BACKGROUND: Accurate and timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for prompt initiation of treatment in patients with AD and to avoid inappropriate treatment of patients with false-positive diagnoses. METHODS: Using a Markov model, we estimated the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis in a cohort of patients referred to a neurologist or memory clinic with suspected AD who remained without a definitive diagnosis of AD or another condition after neuroimaging...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#11
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274265/reduced-cgmp-levels-in-csf-of-ad-patients-correlate-with-severity-of-dementia-and-current-depression
#12
Raphael Hesse, Ludwig Lausser, Pauline Gummert, Florian Schmid, Anke Wahler, Cathrin Schnack, Katja S Kroker, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Hans A Kestler, Holger Rosenbrock, Christine A F von Arnim
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting memory. That disorder is thought to be a consequence of neuronal network disturbances and synapse loss. Decline in cognitive function is associated with a high burden of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) such as depression. The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are essential second messengers that play a crucial role in memory processing as well as synaptic plasticity and are potential therapeutic targets...
March 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259179/evaluation-of-a-research-diagnostic-algorithm-for-dsm-5-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-older-adults
#13
Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Moyra E Mortby, Perminder Sachdev, Chantal Meslin, Rajeev Kumar, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: There is little information on the application and impact of revised criteria for diagnosing dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), now termed major and mild neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) in the DSM-5. We evaluate a psychometric algorithm for diagnosing DSM-5 NCDs in a community-dwelling sample, and characterize the neuropsychological and functional profile of expert-diagnosed DSM-5 NCDs relative to DSM-IV dementia and International Working Group criteria for MCI...
March 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259169/role-of-neuroinflammation-in-neurodegeneration-new-insights
#14
REVIEW
Róisín M McManus, Michael T Heneka
Previously, the contribution of peripheral infection to cognitive decline was largely overlooked however, the past 15 years have established a key role for infectious pathogens in the progression of age-related neurodegeneration. It is now accepted that the immune privilege of the brain is not absolute, and that cells of the central nervous system are sensitive to both the inflammatory events occurring in the periphery and to the infiltration of peripheral immune cells. This is particularly relevant for the progression of Alzheimer's disease, in which it has been demonstrated that patients are more vulnerable to infection-related cognitive changes...
March 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259165/validating-the-role-of-the-australian-national-university-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-index-anu-adri-and-a-genetic-risk-score-in-progression-to-cognitive-impairment-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-older-adults-followed-for-12-years
#15
Shea J Andrews, Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Jorge I Velez, Nicolas Cherbuin, Simon Easteal, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: The number of people living with dementia is expected to exceed 130 million by 2050, which will have serious personal, social and economic implications. Employing successful intervention and treatment strategies focused on disease prevention is currently the only available approach that can have an impact on the projected rates of dementia, with risk assessment being a key component of population-based risk reduction for identification of at-risk individuals. We evaluated a risk index comprising lifestyle, medical and demographic factors (the Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index [ANU-ADRI]), as well as a genetic risk score (GRS), for assessment of the risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
March 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253913/retinal-vascular-and-structural-changes-are-associated-with-amyloid-burden-in-the-elderly-ophthalmic-biomarkers-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
S Mojtaba Golzan, Kathryn Goozee, Dana Georgevsky, Alberto Avolio, Pratishtha Chatterjee, Kaikai Shen, Vivek Gupta, Roger Chung, Greg Savage, Carolyn F Orr, Ralph N Martins, Stuart L Graham
BACKGROUND: Retinal imaging may serve as an alternative approach to monitor brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the association between retinal vascular and structural changes and cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque load in an elderly cohort. METHODS: We studied a total of 101 participants, including 73 elderly subjects (79 ± 5 years, 22 male) with no clinical diagnosis of AD but reporting some subjective memory change and an additional 28 subjects (70 ± 9 years, 16 male) with clinically established AD...
March 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241856/erratum-to-the-societal-costs-of-dementia-in-sweden-2012-relevance-and-methodological-challenges-in-valuing-informal-care
#17
Anders Wimo, Linus Jönsson, Laura Fratiglioni, Per Olof Sandman, Anders Gustavsson, Anders Sköldunger, John Lennarth Johansson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212683/evidence-for-benefit-of-statins-to-modify-cognitive-decline-and-risk-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Nophar Geifman, Roberta Diaz Brinton, Richard E Kennedy, Lon S Schneider, Atul J Butte
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial research and development investment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), effective therapeutics remain elusive. Significant emerging evidence has linked cholesterol, β-amyloid and AD, and several studies have shown a reduced risk for AD and dementia in populations treated with statins. However, while some clinical trials evaluating statins in general AD populations have been conducted, these resulted in no significant therapeutic benefit. By focusing on subgroups of the AD population, it may be possible to detect endotypes responsive to statin therapy...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212674/proportion-of-dementia-in-australia-explained-by-common-modifiable-risk-factors
#19
Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell, Richard Burns, Jonathan Shaw, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: At present, dementia has no known cure. Interventions to delay onset and reduce prevalence of the disease are therefore focused on risk factor reduction. Previous population attributable risk estimates for western countries may have been underestimated as a result of the relatively low rates of midlife obesity and the lower weighting given to that variable in statistical models. METHODS: Levin's Attributable Risk which assumes independence of risk factors was used to calculate the proportion of dementia attributable to seven modifiable risk factors (midlife obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, low educational attainment, diabetes mellitus, midlife hypertension and depression) in Australia...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209190/the-effects-of-different-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mutations-on-app-processing-in-vivo
#20
Steinunn Thordardottir, Anne Kinhult Ståhlbom, Ove Almkvist, Håkan Thonberg, Maria Eriksdotter, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Caroline Graff
BACKGROUND: Disturbed amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing is considered to be central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The autosomal dominant form of the disease, familial AD (FAD), may serve as a model for the sporadic form of AD. In FAD the diagnosis of AD is reliable and presymptomatic individuals carrying FAD mutations can give valuable insights into the earliest stages of the disease where therapeutic interventions are thought to be the most effective. METHODS: In the current cross-sectional study, products of APP processing (e...
February 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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