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Alzheimer's Research & Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335828/dha-brain-uptake-and-apoe4-status-a-pet-study-with-1-11-c-dha
#1
Hussein N Yassine, Etienne Croteau, Varun Rawat, Joseph R Hibbeln, Stanley I Rapoport, Stephen C Cunnane, John C Umhau
BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor identified for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among brain lipids, alteration in the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) homeostasis is implicated in AD pathogenesis. APOE4 may influence both brain DHA metabolism and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: Using positron emission tomography, regional incorporation coefficients (k*), rates of DHA incorporation from plasma into the brain using [1-(11)C]-DHA (J in), and regional cerebral blood flow using [(15)O]-water were measured in 22 middle-aged healthy adults (mean age 35 years, range 19-65 years)...
March 23, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335810/structured-relearning-of-activities-of-daily-living-in-dementia-the-randomized-controlled-redali-dem-trial-on-errorless-learning
#2
Sebastian Voigt-Radloff, Maartje M E de Werd, Rainer Leonhart, Danielle H E Boelen, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Klaus Fliessbach, Stefan Klöppel, Bernhard Heimbach, Andreas Fellgiebel, Richard Dodel, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Lucrezia Hausner, Roy P C Kessels, Michael Hüll
BACKGROUND: Errorless learning (EL) is a method for optimizing learning, which uses feed-forward instructions in order to prevent people from making mistakes during the learning process. The majority of previous studies on EL taught patients with dementia artificial tasks of little or no relevance for their daily lives. Furthermore, only a few controlled studies on EL have so far been performed and just a handful of studies have examined the long-term effects of EL. Tasks were not always trained in the patients' natural or home environment, limiting the external validity of these studies...
March 23, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335796/predicting-dementia-using-socio-demographic-characteristics-and-the-free-and-cued-selective-reminding-test-in-the-general-population
#3
Thibault Mura, Marieta Baramova, Audrey Gabelle, Sylvaine Artero, Jean-François Dartigues, Hélène Amieva, Claudine Berr
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to determine whether the consideration of socio-demographic features improves the prediction of Alzheimer's dementia (AD) at 5 years when using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in the general older population. METHODS: Our analyses focused on 2558 subjects from the prospective Three-City Study, a cohort of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and over, with FCSRT scores. Four "residual scores" and "risk scores" were built that included the FCSRT scores and socio-demographic variables...
March 23, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330509/chemically-treated-plasma-a%C3%AE-is-a-potential-blood-based-biomarker-for-screening-cerebral-amyloid-deposition
#4
Jong-Chan Park, Sun-Ho Han, Hyun Jin Cho, Min Soo Byun, Dahyun Yi, Young Min Choe, Seokjo Kang, Eun Sun Jung, Su Jin Won, Eun Hye Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Dong Young Lee, Inhee Mook-Jung
BACKGROUND: Plasma β-amyloid (Aβ) is a potential candidate for an Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker because blood is an easily accessible bio-fluid, which can be collected routinely, and Aβ is one of the major hallmarks of AD pathogenesis in the brain. However, the association between plasma Aβ levels and AD diagnosis is still unclear due to the instability and inaccurate measurements of plasma Aβ levels in the blood of patients with AD. If a consistent value of plasma Aβ from the blood can be obtained, this might help determine whether plasma Aβ is a potential biomarker for AD diagnosis...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302164/cost-effectiveness-of-cerebrospinal-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Spencer A W Lee, Luciano A Sposato, Vladimir Hachinski, Lauren E Cipriano
BACKGROUND: Accurate and timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for prompt initiation of treatment in patients with AD and to avoid inappropriate treatment of patients with false-positive diagnoses. METHODS: Using a Markov model, we estimated the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analysis in a cohort of patients referred to a neurologist or memory clinic with suspected AD who remained without a definitive diagnosis of AD or another condition after neuroimaging...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#6
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274265/reduced-cgmp-levels-in-csf-of-ad-patients-correlate-with-severity-of-dementia-and-current-depression
#7
Raphael Hesse, Ludwig Lausser, Pauline Gummert, Florian Schmid, Anke Wahler, Cathrin Schnack, Katja S Kroker, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Hans A Kestler, Holger Rosenbrock, Christine A F von Arnim
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting memory. That disorder is thought to be a consequence of neuronal network disturbances and synapse loss. Decline in cognitive function is associated with a high burden of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) such as depression. The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are essential second messengers that play a crucial role in memory processing as well as synaptic plasticity and are potential therapeutic targets...
March 9, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259179/evaluation-of-a-research-diagnostic-algorithm-for-dsm-5-neurocognitive-disorders-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-older-adults
#8
Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Moyra E Mortby, Perminder Sachdev, Chantal Meslin, Rajeev Kumar, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: There is little information on the application and impact of revised criteria for diagnosing dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), now termed major and mild neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) in the DSM-5. We evaluate a psychometric algorithm for diagnosing DSM-5 NCDs in a community-dwelling sample, and characterize the neuropsychological and functional profile of expert-diagnosed DSM-5 NCDs relative to DSM-IV dementia and International Working Group criteria for MCI...
March 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259169/role-of-neuroinflammation-in-neurodegeneration-new-insights
#9
REVIEW
Róisín M McManus, Michael T Heneka
Previously, the contribution of peripheral infection to cognitive decline was largely overlooked however, the past 15 years have established a key role for infectious pathogens in the progression of age-related neurodegeneration. It is now accepted that the immune privilege of the brain is not absolute, and that cells of the central nervous system are sensitive to both the inflammatory events occurring in the periphery and to the infiltration of peripheral immune cells. This is particularly relevant for the progression of Alzheimer's disease, in which it has been demonstrated that patients are more vulnerable to infection-related cognitive changes...
March 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259165/validating-the-role-of-the-australian-national-university-alzheimer-s-disease-risk-index-anu-adri-and-a-genetic-risk-score-in-progression-to-cognitive-impairment-in-a-population-based-cohort-of-older-adults-followed-for-12-years
#10
Shea J Andrews, Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Jorge I Velez, Nicolas Cherbuin, Simon Easteal, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: The number of people living with dementia is expected to exceed 130 million by 2050, which will have serious personal, social and economic implications. Employing successful intervention and treatment strategies focused on disease prevention is currently the only available approach that can have an impact on the projected rates of dementia, with risk assessment being a key component of population-based risk reduction for identification of at-risk individuals. We evaluated a risk index comprising lifestyle, medical and demographic factors (the Australian National University Alzheimer's Disease Risk Index [ANU-ADRI]), as well as a genetic risk score (GRS), for assessment of the risk of progression to mild cognitive impairment (MCI)...
March 4, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253913/retinal-vascular-and-structural-changes-are-associated-with-amyloid-burden-in-the-elderly-ophthalmic-biomarkers-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
S Mojtaba Golzan, Kathryn Goozee, Dana Georgevsky, Alberto Avolio, Pratishtha Chatterjee, Kaikai Shen, Vivek Gupta, Roger Chung, Greg Savage, Carolyn F Orr, Ralph N Martins, Stuart L Graham
BACKGROUND: Retinal imaging may serve as an alternative approach to monitor brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the association between retinal vascular and structural changes and cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque load in an elderly cohort. METHODS: We studied a total of 101 participants, including 73 elderly subjects (79 ± 5 years, 22 male) with no clinical diagnosis of AD but reporting some subjective memory change and an additional 28 subjects (70 ± 9 years, 16 male) with clinically established AD...
March 1, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241856/erratum-to-the-societal-costs-of-dementia-in-sweden-2012-relevance-and-methodological-challenges-in-valuing-informal-care
#12
Anders Wimo, Linus Jönsson, Laura Fratiglioni, Per Olof Sandman, Anders Gustavsson, Anders Sköldunger, John Lennarth Johansson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212683/evidence-for-benefit-of-statins-to-modify-cognitive-decline-and-risk-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Nophar Geifman, Roberta Diaz Brinton, Richard E Kennedy, Lon S Schneider, Atul J Butte
BACKGROUND: Despite substantial research and development investment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), effective therapeutics remain elusive. Significant emerging evidence has linked cholesterol, β-amyloid and AD, and several studies have shown a reduced risk for AD and dementia in populations treated with statins. However, while some clinical trials evaluating statins in general AD populations have been conducted, these resulted in no significant therapeutic benefit. By focusing on subgroups of the AD population, it may be possible to detect endotypes responsive to statin therapy...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212674/proportion-of-dementia-in-australia-explained-by-common-modifiable-risk-factors
#14
Kimberly Ashby-Mitchell, Richard Burns, Jonathan Shaw, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: At present, dementia has no known cure. Interventions to delay onset and reduce prevalence of the disease are therefore focused on risk factor reduction. Previous population attributable risk estimates for western countries may have been underestimated as a result of the relatively low rates of midlife obesity and the lower weighting given to that variable in statistical models. METHODS: Levin's Attributable Risk which assumes independence of risk factors was used to calculate the proportion of dementia attributable to seven modifiable risk factors (midlife obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, low educational attainment, diabetes mellitus, midlife hypertension and depression) in Australia...
February 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209190/the-effects-of-different-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-mutations-on-app-processing-in-vivo
#15
Steinunn Thordardottir, Anne Kinhult Ståhlbom, Ove Almkvist, Håkan Thonberg, Maria Eriksdotter, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Caroline Graff
BACKGROUND: Disturbed amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing is considered to be central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The autosomal dominant form of the disease, familial AD (FAD), may serve as a model for the sporadic form of AD. In FAD the diagnosis of AD is reliable and presymptomatic individuals carrying FAD mutations can give valuable insights into the earliest stages of the disease where therapeutic interventions are thought to be the most effective. METHODS: In the current cross-sectional study, products of APP processing (e...
February 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193256/unbiased-estimates-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-%C3%AE-amyloid-1-42-cutoffs-in-a-large-memory-clinic-population
#16
Daniela Bertens, Betty M Tijms, Philip Scheltens, Charlotte E Teunissen, Pieter Jelle Visser
BACKGROUND: We sought to define a cutoff for β-amyloid 1-42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a key marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), with data-driven Gaussian mixture modeling in a memory clinic population. METHODS: We performed a combined cross-sectional and prospective cohort study. We selected 2462 subjects with subjective cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, AD-type dementia, and dementia other than AD from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. We defined CSF β-amyloid 1-42 cutoffs by data-driven Gaussian mixture modeling in the total population and in subgroups based on clinical diagnosis, age, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype...
February 14, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162091/increased-dementia-risk-predominantly-in-diabetes-mellitus-rather-than-in-hypertension-or-hyperlipidemia-a-population-based-cohort-study
#17
Yen-Chun Fan, Jung-Lung Hsu, Hong-Yi Tung, Chia-Chi Chou, Chyi-Huey Bai
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of insulin resistance-induced hypertension and hyperlipidemia might entail differences in dementia risk in cases with hypertension and hyperlipidemia without prior diabetes mellitus (DM). This study investigated whether incident hypertension, incident hyperlipidemia, or both, increased the dementia risk in patients with and without DM. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted. The study sample was obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database...
February 6, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153054/interaction-between-personality-traits-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-modulates-cognitive-performance
#18
Domilė Tautvydaitė, Deepti Kukreja, Jean-Philippe Antonietti, Hugues Henry, Armin von Gunten, Julius Popp
BACKGROUND: During adulthood, personality characteristics may contribute to the individual capacity to compensate the impact of developing cerebral Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology on cognitive impairment in later life. In this study we aimed to investigate whether and how premorbid personality traits interact with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of AD pathology to predict cognitive performance in subjects with mild cognitive impairment or mild AD dementia and in participants with normal cognition...
February 2, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137305/peripheral-apoe-isoform-levels-in-cognitively-normal-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B53-%C3%AE%C2%B54-individuals-are-associated-with-regional-gray-matter-volume-and-cerebral-glucose-metabolism
#19
Henrietta M Nielsen, Kewei Chen, Wendy Lee, Yinghua Chen, Robert J Bauer, Eric Reiman, Richard Caselli, Guojun Bu
BACKGROUND: Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), and have been shown to have reduced cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRgl) in the same brain areas frequently affected in AD. These individuals also exhibit reduced plasma levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) attributed to a specific decrease in the apoE4 isoform as determined by quantification of individual apoE isoforms in APOE ε4 heterozygotes. Whether low plasma apoE levels are associated with structural and functional brain measurements and cognitive performance remains to be investigated...
January 30, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109317/sorting-nexin-4-regulates-%C3%AE-amyloid-production-by-modulating-%C3%AE-site-activating-cleavage-enzyme-1
#20
Na-Young Kim, Mi-Hyang Cho, Se-Hoon Won, Hoe-Jin Kang, Seung-Yong Yoon, Dong-Hou Kim
BACKGROUND: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is cleaved by β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) to produce β-amyloid (Aβ), a critical pathogenic peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ generation can be affected by the intracellular trafficking of APP or its related secretases, which is thus important to understanding its pathological alterations. Although sorting nexin (SNX) family proteins regulate this trafficking, the relevance and role of sorting nexin-4 (SNX4) regarding AD has not been studied yet...
January 21, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
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