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Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30344651/durvalumab-in-nsclc-latest-evidence-and-clinical-potential
#1
REVIEW
Nerea Muñoz-Unceta, Isabel Burgueño, Elizabeth Jiménez, Luis Paz-Ares
Advances in immunotherapy have led to radical improvements in outcomes, including overall survival, such as in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with metastatic disease treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. More recently, promising results have been obtained in earlier disease settings, and combinations with other therapies are being actively investigated. Durvalumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the programmed death ligand 1, has demonstrated significant activity in NSCLC, including increased progression-free survival rates after chemoradiation for unresectable stage III disease, with a favourable safety profile...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30344650/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-in-cardiac-tumors-illustrative-clinical-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Maristella Saponara, Valentina Ambrosini, Margherita Nannini, Lidia Gatto, Annalisa Astolfi, Milena Urbini, Valentina Indio, Stefano Fanti, Maria Abbondanza Pantaleo
Cardiac tumors are a very rare condition. Mostly, they are benign tumors (75%), with myxomas being the most frequent. The remaining 25% are malignant; either primary malignant sarcoma or secondary metastases. Given the small number of cases reported and the lack of prospective and randomized clinical trials, the level of evidence for the optimal multimodal treatment of primary cardiac sarcomas is very low and the optimal imaging diagnostic workup is not well established. In particular, 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is not yet included in routine diagnosis of cardiac masses...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305851/salvage-surgery-for-recurrent-or-persistent-tumour-after-radical-chemo-radiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Chris Dickhoff, Rene H J Otten, Martijn W Heymans, Max Dahele
Background: Once recurrent or persistent locoregional tumour after radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is identified, few curative-intent treatment options are available. Selected patients might benefit from surgical salvage. We performed a systematic review of the available literature for this emerging treatment option. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30302130/primary-cilium-and-glioblastoma
#4
REVIEW
María Álvarez-Satta, Ander Matheu
Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common, malignant and lethal primary brain tumour in adults. The primary cilium is a highly conserved and dynamic organelle that protrudes from the apical surface of virtually every type of mammalian cell. There is increasing evidence that abnormal cilia are involved in cancer progression, since primary cilia regulate cell cycle and signalling transduction. In this review, we summarize the role of primary cilium specifically with regard to GBM, where there is evidence postulating it as a critical mediator of GBM tumorigenesis and progression...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263067/corrigendum
#5
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/1758834017741073.].
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263066/preventing-and-treating-brain-metastases-with-three-first-line-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-patients-with-egfr-mutation-positive-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#6
Po-Lan Su, Yi-Lin Wu, Wei-Yuan Chang, Chung-Liang Ho, Yau-Lin Tseng, Wu-Wei Lai, Wu-Chou Su, Chien-Chung Lin, Szu-Chun Yang
Introduction: Brain metastases (BM) are common in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the prognosis is poor with few therapeutic options. This study evaluated the efficacy of three epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in preventing and treating BM in patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC. Methods: Patients with EGFR mutation-positive advanced NSCLC who visited a tertiary referral center from 1 December 2013 to 30 November 2017 were analyzed retrospectively...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202448/updates-on-managing-advanced-breast-cancer-with-palbociclib-combination-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Teresa M McShane, Thomas A Wolfe, Joanne C Ryan
Background: The objective of this study was to review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of palbociclib, a first-in-class cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, for the management of advanced breast cancer (ABC). Methods: Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions associated with palbociclib are described. Recent clinical trial data are reviewed, including patient-reported outcomes and subgroup analyses. Results: Palbociclib is indicated in combination with an aromatase inhibitor as initial endocrine therapy (ET) or with fulvestrant for patients with disease progression following ET for hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative ABC or metastatic breast cancer...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202447/management-of-adverse-events-during-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-6-cdk4-6-inhibitor-based-treatment-in-breast-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Marc Thill, Marcus Schmidt
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors have shown great results in numerous clinical trials and have improved the clinical outcome for patients with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer significantly. To date, three CDK4/6 inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib; the first two compounds are aproved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as well. In combination with endocrine therapy, all of them led to significantly improved progression-free survival compared with endocrine therapy alone...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181785/liquid-biopsy-of-cancer-a-multimodal-diagnostic-tool-in-clinical-oncology
#9
REVIEW
Raffaele Palmirotta, Domenica Lovero, Paola Cafforio, Claudia Felici, Francesco Mannavola, Eleonora Pellè, Davide Quaresmini, Marco Tucci, Franco Silvestris
Over the last decades, the concept of precision medicine has dramatically renewed the field of medical oncology; the introduction of patient-tailored therapies has significantly improved all measurable outcomes. Liquid biopsy is a revolutionary technique that is opening previously unexpected perspectives. It consists of the detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA and exosomes, as a source of genomic and proteomic information in patients with cancer. Many technical hurdles have been resolved thanks to newly developed techniques and next-generation sequencing analyses, allowing a broad application of liquid biopsy in a wide range of settings...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181784/towards-precision-medicine-linking-genetic-and-cellular-heterogeneity-in-gastric-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Estefania Carrasco-Garcia, Mikel García-Puga, Sara Arevalo, Ander Matheu
Molecular and cellular heterogeneity are phenomena that are revolutionizing oncology research and becoming critical to the idea of personalized medicine. Recent comprehensive molecular profiling has identified molecular subtypes of gastric cancer (GC) and linked them to clinical information. Moreover, GC stem cells (gCSCs) have been identified and found to be responsible for GC initiation and progression, Helicobacter pylori oncogenic action and therapy resistance. Addressing molecular heterogeneity is critical for achieving an optimal therapeutic approach against GC as well as targeting gCSCs...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181783/imatinib-rechallenge-in-patients-with-advanced-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-following-progression-with-imatinib-sunitinib-and-regorafenib
#11
Bruno Vincenzi, Margherita Nannini, Giuseppe Badalamenti, Giovanni Grignani, Elena Fumagalli, Silvia Gasperoni, Lorenzo D'Ambrosio, Lorena Incorvaia, Marco Stellato, Mariella Spalato Ceruso, Andrea Napolitano, Sergio Valeri, Daniele Santini, Giuseppe Tonini, Paolo Giovanni Casali, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Maria Abbondanza Pantaleo
Background: Rechallenge with imatinib is an option in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients following progression with standard tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib. We retrospectively collected data from metastatic Italian GIST patients treated with imatinib resumption after progression to conventional TKIs. Methods: A total of 104 eligible advanced GIST patients, previously treated with imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib, were collected from six referral Italian institutions...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181782/activation-of-viral-defense-signaling-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Niki Karachaliou, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Santiago Viteri, Andreas Meyerhans, Rafael Rosell
A coordinated action of innate and adaptive immune responses is required to efficiently combat a microbial infection. It has now become clear that cancer therapies also largely benefit when both arms of the immune response are engaged. In this review, we will briefly describe the current knowledge of innate immunity and how this can be utilized to prime tumors for a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Comments on compounds in development and ongoing clinical trials will be provided.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159048/upregulation-of-lgals1-is-associated-with-oral-cancer-metastasis
#13
Ji-Min Li, Chien-Wei Tseng, Chi-Chen Lin, Ching-Hsuan Law, Yu-An Chien, Wen-Hung Kuo, Hsiu-Chuan Chou, Wen-Ching Wang, Hong-Lin Chan
Background: Oral cancer metastasis is a devastating process that contributes to poor prognosis and high mortality, yet its detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate metastasis-specific markers in oral cancer and to provide comprehensive recognition concerning functional roles of the specific target in oral cancer metastasis. Methods: Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1 (LGALS1) was identified by secretomic analysis. LGALS1 expression of patient samples with oral cancer on the tissue microarray were examined by immunochemical (IHC) staining...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093922/progression-free-survival-as-a-surrogate-endpoint-for-overall-survival-in-modern-ovarian-cancer-trials-a-meta-analysis
#14
Katrin M Sjoquist, Sarah J Lord, Michael L Friedlander, Robert John Simes, Ian C Marschner, Chee Khoon Lee
Background: Progression-free survival (PFS) has been adopted as the primary endpoint in many randomized controlled trials, and can be determined much earlier than overall survival (OS). We investigated whether PFS is a good surrogate endpoint for OS in trials of first-line treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and whether this relationship has changed with the introduction of new treatment types. Methods: In a meta-analysis, we identified summary data [hazard ratio (HR) and median time] from published randomized controlled trials...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093921/synchronous-liver-metastases-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-can-we-establish-which-treatment-first
#15
EDITORIAL
Per Pfeiffer, Thomas Gruenberger, Robert Glynne-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090122/alectinib-in-the-treatment-of-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-update-on-its-properties-efficacy-safety-and-place-in-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Tiziana Vavalà, Silvia Novello
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is identified in 3-7% of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, and ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the management of this subset of NSCLC patients. ALK-TKIs have been proven highly effective in ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC patients, but after initial responses and benefit, a subsequent progression inevitably occurs. Understanding acquired-resistance mechanisms and defining an appropriate algorithm is becoming even more essential, particularly considering the availability of extremely efficacious next-generation ALK inhibitors...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083254/approved-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-bladder-cancer-which-drug-should-be-used-when
#17
REVIEW
Pooja Ghatalia, Matthew Zibelman, Daniel M Geynisman, Elizabeth Plimack
The treatment of advanced metastatic urothelial carcinoma has recently evolved with the approval of five checkpoint inhibitors. In the second-line setting, in patients who have progressed on cisplatin-based chemotherapy, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, nivolumab and avelumab are United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In cisplatin-ineligible patients, atezolizumab and pembrolizumab are the FDA-approved checkpoint inhibitors. Here we describe the updated clinical efficacy of these checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma and then suggest how they can be sequenced in the context of available chemotherapeutic options...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083253/preclinical-and-phase-i-clinical-studies-of-kw-2450-a-dual-igf-1r-ir-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-in-combination-with-lapatinib-and-letrozole
#18
Hiroshi Umehara, Yoshimi Maekawa, Fumito Koizumi, Makiko Shimizu, Toshio Ota, Tamer M Fouad, Jie Willey, Hidekuni Kaito, Norihiko Shiraishi, Daisuke Nakashima, Shiro Akinaga, Naoto T Ueno
Background: KW-2450 is an oral dual insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity of KW-2450 plus lapatinib and letrozole and conducted a phase I trial of the triple-drug combination in one male and 10 postmenopausal female patients with advanced/metastatic hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Methods: A series of in vitro and in vivo animal studies was undertaken of KW-2450 in combination with lapatinib and hormonal agents...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046358/use-of-cold-atmospheric-plasma-in-oncology-a-concise-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Antoine Dubuc, Paul Monsarrat, François Virard, Nofel Merbahi, Jean-Philippe Sarrette, Sara Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sarah Cousty
Background: Cold-atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas produced at an atmospheric pressure. The aim of this systematic review is to map the use of CAP in oncology and the implemented methodologies (cell targets, physical parameters, direct or indirect therapies). Methods: PubMed, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Google Scholar were explored until 31 December 2017 for studies regarding the use of plasma treatment in oncology ( in vitro, in vivo , clinical trials)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046357/the-plasma-epstein-barr-virus-dna-level-guides-precision-treatment-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-in-the-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-era-a-large-population-based-cohort-study-from-an-endemic-area
#20
Hu Liang, Xing Lv, Lin Wang, Yi-Shan Wu, Rui Sun, Yan-Fang Ye, Liang-Ru Ke, Qin Yang, Ya-Hui Yu, Wen-Ze Qiu, Guo-Ying Liu, Xin-Jun Huang, Wang-Zhong Li, Shu-Hui Lv, Xiang Guo, Yan-Qun Xiang, Wei-Xiong Xia
Background: In the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era, the survival benefit of concurrent chemotherapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) remains undetermined. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy compared with IMRT alone for LA-NPC patients with different plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database in an endemic area between November 2002 and December 2013...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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