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Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202448/updates-on-managing-advanced-breast-cancer-with-palbociclib-combination-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Teresa M McShane, Thomas A Wolfe, Joanne C Ryan
Background: The objective of this study was to review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of palbociclib, a first-in-class cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor, for the management of advanced breast cancer (ABC). Methods: Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions associated with palbociclib are described. Recent clinical trial data are reviewed, including patient-reported outcomes and subgroup analyses. Results: Palbociclib is indicated in combination with an aromatase inhibitor as initial endocrine therapy (ET) or with fulvestrant for patients with disease progression following ET for hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative ABC or metastatic breast cancer...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30202447/management-of-adverse-events-during-cyclin-dependent-kinase-4-6-cdk4-6-inhibitor-based-treatment-in-breast-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Marc Thill, Marcus Schmidt
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors have shown great results in numerous clinical trials and have improved the clinical outcome for patients with hormone-receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer significantly. To date, three CDK4/6 inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): palbociclib, ribociclib and abemaciclib; the first two compounds are aproved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as well. In combination with endocrine therapy, all of them led to significantly improved progression-free survival compared with endocrine therapy alone...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181785/liquid-biopsy-of-cancer-a-multimodal-diagnostic-tool-in-clinical-oncology
#3
REVIEW
Raffaele Palmirotta, Domenica Lovero, Paola Cafforio, Claudia Felici, Francesco Mannavola, Eleonora Pellè, Davide Quaresmini, Marco Tucci, Franco Silvestris
Over the last decades, the concept of precision medicine has dramatically renewed the field of medical oncology; the introduction of patient-tailored therapies has significantly improved all measurable outcomes. Liquid biopsy is a revolutionary technique that is opening previously unexpected perspectives. It consists of the detection and isolation of circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA and exosomes, as a source of genomic and proteomic information in patients with cancer. Many technical hurdles have been resolved thanks to newly developed techniques and next-generation sequencing analyses, allowing a broad application of liquid biopsy in a wide range of settings...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181784/towards-precision-medicine-linking-genetic-and-cellular-heterogeneity-in-gastric-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Estefania Carrasco-Garcia, Mikel García-Puga, Sara Arevalo, Ander Matheu
Molecular and cellular heterogeneity are phenomena that are revolutionizing oncology research and becoming critical to the idea of personalized medicine. Recent comprehensive molecular profiling has identified molecular subtypes of gastric cancer (GC) and linked them to clinical information. Moreover, GC stem cells (gCSCs) have been identified and found to be responsible for GC initiation and progression, Helicobacter pylori oncogenic action and therapy resistance. Addressing molecular heterogeneity is critical for achieving an optimal therapeutic approach against GC as well as targeting gCSCs...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181783/imatinib-rechallenge-in-patients-with-advanced-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors-following-progression-with-imatinib-sunitinib-and-regorafenib
#5
Bruno Vincenzi, Margherita Nannini, Giuseppe Badalamenti, Giovanni Grignani, Elena Fumagalli, Silvia Gasperoni, Lorenzo D'Ambrosio, Lorena Incorvaia, Marco Stellato, Mariella Spalato Ceruso, Andrea Napolitano, Sergio Valeri, Daniele Santini, Giuseppe Tonini, Paolo Giovanni Casali, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Maria Abbondanza Pantaleo
Background: Rechallenge with imatinib is an option in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients following progression with standard tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib. We retrospectively collected data from metastatic Italian GIST patients treated with imatinib resumption after progression to conventional TKIs. Methods: A total of 104 eligible advanced GIST patients, previously treated with imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib, were collected from six referral Italian institutions...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30181782/activation-of-viral-defense-signaling-in-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Niki Karachaliou, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Santiago Viteri, Andreas Meyerhans, Rafael Rosell
A coordinated action of innate and adaptive immune responses is required to efficiently combat a microbial infection. It has now become clear that cancer therapies also largely benefit when both arms of the immune response are engaged. In this review, we will briefly describe the current knowledge of innate immunity and how this can be utilized to prime tumors for a better response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Comments on compounds in development and ongoing clinical trials will be provided.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159048/upregulation-of-lgals1-is-associated-with-oral-cancer-metastasis
#7
Ji-Min Li, Chien-Wei Tseng, Chi-Chen Lin, Ching-Hsuan Law, Yu-An Chien, Wen-Hung Kuo, Hsiu-Chuan Chou, Wen-Ching Wang, Hong-Lin Chan
Background: Oral cancer metastasis is a devastating process that contributes to poor prognosis and high mortality, yet its detailed underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate metastasis-specific markers in oral cancer and to provide comprehensive recognition concerning functional roles of the specific target in oral cancer metastasis. Methods: Lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 1 (LGALS1) was identified by secretomic analysis. LGALS1 expression of patient samples with oral cancer on the tissue microarray were examined by immunochemical (IHC) staining...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093922/progression-free-survival-as-a-surrogate-endpoint-for-overall-survival-in-modern-ovarian-cancer-trials-a-meta-analysis
#8
Katrin M Sjoquist, Sarah J Lord, Michael L Friedlander, Robert John Simes, Ian C Marschner, Chee Khoon Lee
Background: Progression-free survival (PFS) has been adopted as the primary endpoint in many randomized controlled trials, and can be determined much earlier than overall survival (OS). We investigated whether PFS is a good surrogate endpoint for OS in trials of first-line treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), and whether this relationship has changed with the introduction of new treatment types. Methods: In a meta-analysis, we identified summary data [hazard ratio (HR) and median time] from published randomized controlled trials...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093921/synchronous-liver-metastases-in-patients-with-rectal-cancer-can-we-establish-which-treatment-first
#9
EDITORIAL
Per Pfeiffer, Thomas Gruenberger, Robert Glynne-Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30090122/alectinib-in-the-treatment-of-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-update-on-its-properties-efficacy-safety-and-place-in-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Tiziana Vavalà, Silvia Novello
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is identified in 3-7% of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, and ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the management of this subset of NSCLC patients. ALK-TKIs have been proven highly effective in ALK-rearranged advanced NSCLC patients, but after initial responses and benefit, a subsequent progression inevitably occurs. Understanding acquired-resistance mechanisms and defining an appropriate algorithm is becoming even more essential, particularly considering the availability of extremely efficacious next-generation ALK inhibitors...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083254/approved-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-bladder-cancer-which-drug-should-be-used-when
#11
REVIEW
Pooja Ghatalia, Matthew Zibelman, Daniel M Geynisman, Elizabeth Plimack
The treatment of advanced metastatic urothelial carcinoma has recently evolved with the approval of five checkpoint inhibitors. In the second-line setting, in patients who have progressed on cisplatin-based chemotherapy, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab, nivolumab and avelumab are United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In cisplatin-ineligible patients, atezolizumab and pembrolizumab are the FDA-approved checkpoint inhibitors. Here we describe the updated clinical efficacy of these checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of advanced urothelial carcinoma and then suggest how they can be sequenced in the context of available chemotherapeutic options...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083253/preclinical-and-phase-i-clinical-studies-of-kw-2450-a-dual-igf-1r-ir-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-in-combination-with-lapatinib-and-letrozole
#12
Hiroshi Umehara, Yoshimi Maekawa, Fumito Koizumi, Makiko Shimizu, Toshio Ota, Tamer M Fouad, Jie Willey, Hidekuni Kaito, Norihiko Shiraishi, Daisuke Nakashima, Shiro Akinaga, Naoto T Ueno
Background: KW-2450 is an oral dual insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor/insulin receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo preclinical activity of KW-2450 plus lapatinib and letrozole and conducted a phase I trial of the triple-drug combination in one male and 10 postmenopausal female patients with advanced/metastatic hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Methods: A series of in vitro and in vivo animal studies was undertaken of KW-2450 in combination with lapatinib and hormonal agents...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046358/use-of-cold-atmospheric-plasma-in-oncology-a-concise-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Antoine Dubuc, Paul Monsarrat, François Virard, Nofel Merbahi, Jean-Philippe Sarrette, Sara Laurencin-Dalicieux, Sarah Cousty
Background: Cold-atmospheric plasma (CAP) is an ionized gas produced at an atmospheric pressure. The aim of this systematic review is to map the use of CAP in oncology and the implemented methodologies (cell targets, physical parameters, direct or indirect therapies). Methods: PubMed, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and Google Scholar were explored until 31 December 2017 for studies regarding the use of plasma treatment in oncology ( in vitro, in vivo , clinical trials)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046357/the-plasma-epstein-barr-virus-dna-level-guides-precision-treatment-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-in-the-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-era-a-large-population-based-cohort-study-from-an-endemic-area
#14
Hu Liang, Xing Lv, Lin Wang, Yi-Shan Wu, Rui Sun, Yan-Fang Ye, Liang-Ru Ke, Qin Yang, Ya-Hui Yu, Wen-Ze Qiu, Guo-Ying Liu, Xin-Jun Huang, Wang-Zhong Li, Shu-Hui Lv, Xiang Guo, Yan-Qun Xiang, Wei-Xiong Xia
Background: In the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era, the survival benefit of concurrent chemotherapy for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC) remains undetermined. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy compared with IMRT alone for LA-NPC patients with different plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively maintained database in an endemic area between November 2002 and December 2013...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30038670/cdk4-6-inhibition-in-breast-cancer-current-practice-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Sonia Pernas, Sara M Tolaney, Eric P Winer, Shom Goel
The cyclin D/cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma protein (RB) pathway plays a key role in the proliferation of both normal breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. A strong rationale for inhibiting CDK4/6 in breast cancers has been present for many years. However, potent and selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have only recently become available. These agents prevent phosphorylation of the RB tumor suppressor, thereby invoking cancer cell cycle arrest in G1. CDK4/6 inhibitors have transited rapidly from preclinical studies to the clinical arena, and three have already been approved for the treatment of advanced, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients on account of striking clinical trial results demonstrating substantial improvements in progression-free survival...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034550/the-evolving-immunotherapeutic-landscape-in-advanced-oesophagogastric-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Michael Flynn, Kate Young, David Cunningham, Naureen Starling
Improvements in median overall survival in the advanced oesophagogastric (OG) setting have plateaued, underlining the need for improved therapeutic approaches in this patient population. Immunotherapeutics are inducing unexpected durable responses in an expanding list of advanced disease indications. Although OG cancers have traditionally been considered to be more challenging to treat with immunotherapy than some other malignancies because of their variable tumour mutational burden and relative scarcity of infiltrating T cells, immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) trials conducted over the last few years suggest there is an important role for these treatments...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034549/hdac3-mediated-silencing-of-mir-451-decreases-chemosensitivity-of-patients-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-by-targeting-nedd9
#17
Dong-Qin Chen, Chen Yu, Xue-Feng Zhang, Zhong-Fang Liu, Rui Wang, Min Jiang, Hao Chen, Feng Yan, Min Tao, Long-Bang Chen, Hong Zhu, Ji-Feng Feng
Background: Treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with docetaxel often fails due to the emergence of chemoresistance. Thus, restoring chemosensitivity to docetaxel-based therapies remains a challenge in mCRPC treatment. Methods: microRNA (miR)-451 expression was measured in docetaxel-treated prostate cancer cells and tumor tissues by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction . Cell-counting kit 8 assay was performed to determine docetaxel chemoresistance...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034548/neoadjuvant-treatment-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-should-therapy-differ-based-on-hormone-receptor-status
#18
EDITORIAL
Nadia Harbeck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30034547/optimizing-neo-adjuvant-treatment-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Reva K Basho, Heather L McArthur
The development of human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-directed therapy has resulted in significant improvement in outcomes for patients with early-stage HER2-overexpressing (HER2+) breast cancer. In recent years, newer HER2-directed agents and novel treatment strategies have been developed with ongoing improvements in overall outcomes. However, with the addition of newer agents, there is an increasing need to risk stratify patients to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity of treatment. De-escalation of therapy with the potential to shorten the duration of adjuvant therapy and minimize chemotherapy administration in patients with favorable disease can be considered...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023008/salvage-surgery-for-local-recurrence-after-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#20
Chris Dickhoff, Pedro M Rodriguez Schaap, Rene H J Otten, Martijn W Heymans, David J Heineman, Max Dahele
Introduction: Stereotactic body (or ablative) radiotherapy (SBRT/SABR) is now a guideline-recommended treatment for medically inoperable patients with peripherally-located, stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and for medically operable patients who decline surgery. The 5-year local failure rate after SBRT is about 10% and in highly selected patients, surgery has been used as a salvage therapy. We performed a systematic review to address the feasibility, safety, and outcome of salvage surgery for locally recurrent early stage NSCLC after SBRT...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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