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Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717401/novel-therapeutic-strategies-in-the-treatment-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Karima Oualla, Heba M El-Zawahry, Banu Arun, James M Reuben, Wendy A Woodward, Heba Gamal El-Din, Bora Lim, Nawfel Mellas, Naoto T Ueno, Tamer M Fouad
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subtype of breast cancer that is defined by negative estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. Treating patients with TNBC remains clinically challenging, as patients are not candidates for endocrine or HER2-directed therapy. As a result, chemotherapy with traditional agents such as anthracyclines and taxanes remains the only available option with moderate success. Recent discoveries have revealed that TNBC is a heterogeneous disease at the clinical, histological and molecular levels...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717400/treatment-of-nras-mutated-advanced-or-metastatic-melanoma-rationale-current-trials-and-evidence-to-date
#2
REVIEW
Amélie Boespflug, Julie Caramel, Stephane Dalle, Luc Thomas
The disease course of BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1)-mutant melanoma has been drastically improved by the arrival of targeted therapies. NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog)-mutated melanoma represents 15-25% of all metastatic melanoma patients. It currently does not have an approved targeted therapy. Metastatic patients receive immune-based therapies as first-line treatments, then cytotoxic chemotherapy like carboplatin/paclitaxel (C/P), dacarbazine (DTIC) or temozolomide (TMZ) as a second-line treatment...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717399/fulvestrant-in-advanced-breast-cancer-evidence-to-date-and-place-in-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Katalin Boér
Breast cancer is a classical hormone-dependent tumour; therefore, endocrine therapy is the mainstay of treatment for hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. Until recently, classical endocrine agents such as tamoxifen, steroidal and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant have been widely used in postmenopausal patients to treat locally advanced or metastatic disease. However, for patients with this subtype of breast cancer, the landscape of endocrine therapy is rapidly changing...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717398/preclinical-evaluation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-triggered-dendritic-cells-expressing-the-viral-oncogenic-driver-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma-for-therapeutic-vaccination
#4
Kerstin F Gerer, Michael Erdmann, Sine R Hadrup, Rikke Lyngaa, Lena-Marie Martin, Reinhard E Voll, Beatrice Schuler-Thurner, Gerold Schuler, Niels Schaft, Stefanie Hoyer, Jan Dörrie
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive skin tumor that develops after integration of a truncated form of the large T-antigen (truncLT) of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) into the host's genome. Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor antigens is an active form of immunotherapy, which intends to direct the immune system towards tumors which express the respective vaccination antigens. METHODS: Cytokine-matured monocyte-derived DCs of healthy donors and MCC patients were electroporated with mRNA encoding the truncLT...
July 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607583/response-to-drs-von-hoff-and-renschler
#5
Daniel H Ahn, Tanios Bekaii-Saab
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607582/letter-to-the-editor-re-ahn-dh-krishna-k-blazer-m-et-al-a-modified-regimen-of-biweekly-gemcitabine-and-nab-paclitaxel-in-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-is-both-tolerable-and-effective-a-retrospective-analysis-ther-adv-med-oncol-https-doi-org-10
#6
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607581/pembrolizumab-in-cervical-cancer-latest-evidence-and-clinical-usefulness
#7
REVIEW
Edith Borcoman, Christophe Le Tourneau
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. With the development of detection of precancerous lesions and preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program, a survival improvement has been observed in these patients in developed countries, although disparities in accessibility to treatments exist across countries. While early-stage cervical cancer can be curable with surgery, prognosis of patients who recur remains poor, with limited treatment options...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607580/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-soft-tissue-sarcomas-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Sandro Pasquali, Alessandro Gronchi
Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare and multifaceted group of solid tumours. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is increasingly used to limit loss of function after wide surgical excision with the ultimate aim of improving patient survival. Recently, advances in the identification of effective treatment strategies and improvements in patient risk stratification have been reached. A randomized trial demonstrated that neoadjuvant epirubicin and ifosfamide improves survival of patients affected by five high-risk soft tissue sarcoma histologies of trunk and extremities, including undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, myxoid liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, and leiomyosarcoma...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607579/review-of-the-use-of-pretest-probability-for-molecular-testing-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-overview-of-new-mutations-that-may-affect-clinical-practice
#9
REVIEW
Petra Martin, Natasha B Leighl
This article considers the use of pretest probability in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and how its use in EGFR testing has helped establish clinical guidelines on selecting patients for EGFR testing. With an ever-increasing number of molecular abnormalities being identified and often limited tissue available for testing, the use of pretest probability will need to be increasingly considered in the future for selecting investigations and treatments in patients. In addition we review new mutations that have the potential to affect clinical practice...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607578/osimertinib-in-patients-with-advanced-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-t790m-mutation-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-rationale-evidence-and-place-in-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Biagio Ricciuti, Sara Baglivo, Luca Paglialunga, Andrea De Giglio, Guido Bellezza, Rita Chiari, Lucio Crinò, Giulio Metro
The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations represented a fundamental step forward in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as they define a subset of patients who benefit from the administration of specifically designed targeted therapies. The inhibition of mutant EGFR through EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), either reversible, first-generation gefitinib and erlotinib, or irreversible, second-generation afatinib, has dramatically improved the prognosis of patients harboring this specific genetic alteration, leading to unexpected clinical benefit...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529552/cancer-induced-muscle-wasting-latest-findings-in-prevention-and-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Zaira Aversa, Paola Costelli, Maurizio Muscaritoli
Cancer cachexia is a severe and disabling clinical condition that frequently accompanies the development of many types of cancer. Muscle wasting is the hallmark of cancer cachexia and is associated with serious clinical consequences such as physical impairment, poor quality of life, reduced tolerance to treatments and shorter survival. Cancer cachexia may evolve through different stages of clinical relevance, namely pre-cachexia, cachexia and refractory cachexia. Given its detrimental clinical consequences, it appears mandatory to prevent and/or delay the progression of cancer cachexia to its refractory stage by implementing the early recognition and treatment of the nutritional and metabolic alterations occurring during cancer...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529551/history-and-current-state-of-immunotherapy-in-glioma-and-brain-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Tresa McGranahan, Gordon Li, Seema Nagpal
Malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma (GBM) and brain metastasis have poor prognosis despite conventional therapies. Successful use of vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors in systemic malignancy has increased the hope that immune therapies could improve survival in patients with brain tumors. Manipulating the immune system to fight malignancy has a long history of both modest breakthroughs and pitfalls that should be considered when applying the current immunotherapy approaches to patients with brain tumors...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529550/hormonoresistance-in-advanced-breast-cancer-a-new-revolution-in-endocrine-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Paule Augereau, Anne Patsouris, Emmanuelle Bourbouloux, Carole Gourmelon, Sophie Abadie Lacourtoisie, Dominique Berton Rigaud, Patrick Soulié, Jean Sebastien Frenel, Mario Campone
Endocrine therapy is the mainstay of treatment of estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer with an overall survival benefit. However, some adaptive mechanisms in the tumor emerge leading to the development of a resistance to this therapy. A better characterization of this process is needed to overcome this resistance and to develop new tailored therapies. Mechanisms of resistance to hormone therapy result in activation of transduction signal pathways, including the cell cycle regulation with cyclin D/CDK4/6/Rb pathway...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529549/abiraterone-acetate-and-prednisone-in-chemotherapy-na%C3%A3-ve-prostate-cancer-patients-rationale-evidence-and-clinical-utility
#14
REVIEW
E David Crawford, Neal D Shore, Daniel P Petrylak, Celestia S Higano, Charles J Ryan
Abiraterone acetate 1000 mg/day, combined with prednisone 5 mg PO twice daily, is indicated for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Abiraterone acetate is the oral prodrug of abiraterone, a specific CYP17 inhibitor that blocks androgen biosynthesis within the adrenal glands, testes and tumor microenvironment. In a phase III trial of men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC, treatment with oral abiraterone acetate plus prednisone led to a statistically significant improvement in the co-primary endpoints of overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival when compared with placebo plus prednisone...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529548/docetaxel-in-prostate-cancer-a-familiar-face-as-the-new-standard-in-a-hormone-sensitive-setting
#15
REVIEW
Javier Puente, Enrique Grande, Ana Medina, Pablo Maroto, Nuria Lainez, Jose Angel Arranz
The increasing knowledge of prostate cancer is leading to many questions about its natural history and to reconsider conventional therapeutic strategies. Androgen ablation therapy has been the standard therapy in the advanced setting. Although docetaxel has demonstrated increased survival in patients with metastatic prostate cancer who had progressed to hormone treatments, due to its potential toxicity the role of chemotherapy has been relegated to patients who were symptomatic or who had high tumor burden...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491149/reviewer-thank-you-list
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491148/moving-beyond-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-targeted-therapy-in-renal-cell-cancer-latest-evidence-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Che-Kai Tsao, Bobby Liaw, Catherine He, Matthew D Galsky, John Sfakianos, William K Oh
Renal cell cancer (RCC) continues to be among the most lethal malignancies in the USA. Introduction of anti-vascular epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors over a decade ago resulted in improvement in disease outcomes, but further development of new therapies largely stagnated for many years. More recently, a better understanding of disease biology and treatment-resistance patterns has led to a second renaissance in drug development, with the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, nivolumab, paving the way for additional therapies entering clinical trial testing in the treatment of RCC...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491147/a-clinical-guide-to-the-management-of-genitourinary-symptoms-in-breast-cancer-survivors-on-endocrine-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Mariana S Sousa, Michelle Peate, Sherin Jarvis, Martha Hickey, Michael Friedlander
There is increasing attention and concern about managing the adverse effects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for women with early breast cancer as the side effects of therapy influence compliance and can impair quality of life (QoL). Most side effects associated with tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are directly related to estrogen deprivation, and the symptoms are similar to those experienced during natural menopause but appear to be more severe than that seen in the general population. Prolonged estrogen deprivation may lead to atrophy of the vulva, vagina, lower urinary tract and supporting pelvic structures, resulting in a range of genitourinary symptoms that can in turn lead to pain, discomfort, impairment of sexual function and negatively impact on multiple domains of QoL...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491146/parp-inhibitors-in-ovarian-cancer-evidence-experience-and-clinical-potential
#19
REVIEW
Tarra Evans, Ursula Matulonis
Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) are considered one of the most active and exciting new therapies for the treatment of ovarian cancer. The anticancer activity of PARP inhibitors is based on the DNA repair vulnerability of many ovarian cancer cells, and multiple mechanisms of action of PARP inhibitors have been identified. As single agents, PARP inhibitors have demonstrated their greatest activity in ovarian cancer cells that harbor mutations in BRCA genes. Additionally, recent phase III studies have shown that single-agent PARP inhibitor activity extends beyond BRCA-related cancers and can benefit patients with ovarian cancers that do not have known BRCA mutations, especially when clinical characteristics such as platinum sensitivity and high-grade serous histology are present...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491145/combination-of-metformin-and-curcumin-targets-breast-cancer-in-mice-by-angiogenesis-inhibition-immune-system-modulation-and-induction-of-p53-independent-apoptosis
#20
Rabah Rashad Falah, Wamidh H Talib, Seba Jamal Shbailat
BACKGROUND: The effects of metformin (MET) and curcumin (CUR) single treatments have been tested against breast cancer; however, their combination has not been explored. Here, we evaluated the antitumor activity of MET and CUR combination against breast cancer in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antiproliferative activity of single and combined treatments against breast cancer cell lines was determined. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Trp53 expression was examined in EMT6/P cells...
April 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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