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Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774061/immunotherapy-in-non-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-can-the-benefits-of-stage-iv-therapy-be-translated-into-earlier-stages
#1
REVIEW
Griet Deslypere, Dorothée Gullentops, Els Wauters, Johan Vansteenkiste
Over the last decade, several steps forward in the treatment of patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NCSLC) were made. Examples are the use of pemetrexed, pemetrexed maintenance therapy, or bevacizumab for patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. A big leap forward was the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients selected on the basis of an activating oncogene, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) translocations. However, all of these achievements could not be translated into survival benefits when studied in randomized controlled trials in patients with nonmetastatic NSCLC...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774060/metformin-prevents-nerve-growth-factor-dependent-proliferative-and-proangiogenic-effects-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-cells-and-endothelial-cells
#2
Maritza P Garrido, Carolina Vera, Margarita Vega, Andrew F G Quest, Carmen Romero
Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is characterized by exacerbated angiogenesis regulated by proangiogenic and growth factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is overexpressed in EOC where it promotes proliferation as well as survival and is considered a proangiogenic factor. Metformin, a drug commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, is attributed to antineoplastic effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Given that current therapies yield modest results in EOC patients, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of metformin on NGF-enhanced proliferation of EOC cells and the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707043/development-and-10-year-history-of-a-biosimilar-the-example-of-binocrit-%C3%A2
#3
REVIEW
Matti Aapro, Andriy Krendyukov, Nadja Höbel, Andreas Seidl, Pere Gascón
Patent expirations for several biological products have prompted the development of alternative versions, termed 'biosimilars', which have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to a licensed biological medicine (also referred to as the 'reference' medicine). The first biosimilars developed in oncology were the supportive-care agents filgrastim and epoetin. Binocrit® (HX575) is a biosimilar version of epoetin alfa, indicated in the oncology setting for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA). The process for development and approval of Binocrit® as a biosimilar included extensive analytical characterization and comparison with the reference epoetin alfa...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664479/corrigendum
#4
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/1758834017753338.].
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662550/radiotherapy-and-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-winning-new-combination
#5
REVIEW
Eric C Ko, Silvia C Formenti
Immune checkpoint blockade has recently emerged as an important therapeutic approach to the management of malignancies across multiple disease settings. Concomitantly, there has been an increasing appreciation for the role of radiotherapy in eliciting and promoting tumor-directed immune responses. In this review, we discuss the clinical evidence to date on combinations of radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors, both from the standpoint of safety and efficacy. We highlight important but yet-unanswered questions for this combination approach, as well as their implications for future prospective studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662549/tumour-necrosis-factor-interferon-gamma-and-interleukins-as-predictive-markers-of-antiprogrammed-cell-death-protein-1-treatment-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-pragmatic-approach-in-clinical-practice
#6
Efimia Boutsikou, Kalliopi Domvri, Georgia Hardavella, Dora Tsiouda, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Theodoros Kontakiotis
Background: The emergence of novel antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of this disease. Although overall survival (OS) has improved in the first- and second-line therapy settings for advanced NSCLC, the benefit is not universal. In a climate of global scrutiny for healthcare costs and potential for toxicities related to immunotherapy, appropriate patient selection is crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and a panel of interleukins (ILs) in the peripheral blood, and assess any correlation with response to anti-PD-1 inhibition, progression-free survival and OS in NSCLC patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662548/first-line-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer-questions-and-controversies-to-address
#7
EDITORIAL
Jonathan A Ledermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662547/pd-l1-expression-testing-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Cristina Teixidó, Noelia Vilariño, Roxana Reyes, Noemí Reguart
In recent years, immunotherapy has revolutionized and changed the standard of care in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, fundamentally those that act by blocking the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have emerged as novel treatment strategies in NSCLC, demonstrating undoubted superiority over chemotherapy in terms of efficacy. Several of these immune checkpoint modulators have recently gained regulatory approval for the treatment of advanced NSCLC, such as nivolumab, atezolizumab and pembrolizumab in first-line (only the latter) and second-line settings, and more recently, durvalumab as maintenance after chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced disease...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662546/combination-of-immunotherapy-with-chemotherapy-and-radiotherapy-in-lung-cancer-is-this-the-beginning-of-the-end-for-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Chiara Lazzari, Niki Karachaliou, Alessandra Bulotta, Mariagrazia Viganó, Aurora Mirabile, Elena Brioschi, Mariacarmela Santarpia, Luca Gianni, Rafael Rosell, Vanesa Gregorc
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved overall survival with an acceptable safety profile in a substantial proportion of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, not all patients are sensitive to immune checkpoint blockade and, in some cases, programmed death 1 (PD-1) or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors accelerate tumor progression. Several combination strategies are under evaluation, including the concomitant or sequential evaluation of chemotherapy or radiotherapy with immunotherapy...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636827/estrogenicity-of-essential-oils-is-not-required-to-relieve-symptoms-of-urogenital-atrophy-in-breast-cancer-survivors
#10
Bruno M Simões, Bertram Kohler, Robert B Clarke, Jacqui Stringer, Lily Novak-Frazer, Keely Young, Riina Rautemaa-Richardson, Giorgia Zucchini, Anne Armstrong, Sacha J Howell
Background: Urogenital atrophy (UA) is a common treatment-limiting side effect of endocrine therapies. Topical estrogen is effective but systemic absorption may counter aromatase inhibitor efficacy. Numerous complementary approaches are marketed for use in UA without rigorous testing of their estrogenicity. We tested multiple essential oils in cancer cell growth and estrogen reporter assays in vitro and assessed clinical outcomes with the essential oil pessaries (EOPs) in breast cancer survivors with UA...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29636826/stat3-as-a-potential-immunotherapy-biomarker-in-oncogene-addicted-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#11
EDITORIAL
Ilaria Attili, Niki Karachaliou, Laura Bonanno, Jordi Berenguer, Jillian Bracht, Jordi Codony-Servat, Carles Codony-Servat, Masaoki Ito, Rafael Rosell
Immune checkpoint blockade has modified the treatment landscape for many types of tumors, including lung cancer. Still our knowledge on the biology of the interaction between tumor cells and the microenvironment is limited, preventing the optimal use of these new compounds and the maximum benefit that the patients can derive from them. We have actively worked on the role of STAT3, a transcriptional factor that causes innate resistance to targeted therapies in oncogene-addicted tumors. In this short review we take the opportunity to express our opinion and review existing knowledge on the immune role of STAT3 and the possible implications that this may have for the discovery of new biomarkers to predict response to immunotherapy, as well as new partners to combine with and increase the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623110/clinical-assessment-of-immune-related-adverse-events
#12
REVIEW
Aaron Sosa, Esther Lopez Cadena, Cristina Simon Olive, Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
Immunotherapy through checkpoint inhibitors is now standard practice for a growing number of cancer types, supported by overall improvement of clinical outcomes and better tolerance. One anti-CTLA-4 antibody (ipilimumab), two anti-PD-1 antibodies (pembrolizumab and nivolumab) and three anti-PD-L1 antibodies (atezolizumab, avelumab and durvalumab) have been approved for clear benefits across diverse trials. Adverse events of an immune nature associated with these agents frequently affect the skin, colon, endocrine glands, lungs and liver...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619092/science-and-biology-drives-the-immune-system-to-cure-lung-cancer-patients-a-revolution-but-not-without-challenges
#13
EDITORIAL
Niki Karachaliou, Rafael Rosell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497459/treatment-of-uveal-melanoma-where-are-we-now
#14
REVIEW
Jessica Yang, Daniel K Manson, Brian P Marr, Richard D Carvajal
Uveal melanoma, a rare subset of melanoma, is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite effective primary therapy, nearly 50% of patients will develop metastatic disease. Outcomes for those with metastatic disease remain dismal due to a lack of effective therapies. The unique biology and immunology of uveal melanoma necessitates the development of dedicated management and treatment approaches. Ongoing efforts seek to optimize the efficacy of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434680/predictors-of-anti-vegf-drug-induced-hypertension-using-different-hypertension-criteria-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-comparz-study
#15
Arduino A Mangoni, Ganessan Kichenadasse, Andrew Rowland, Michael J Sorich
Background: There is inconsistency in the criteria used to define anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drug-induced hypertension (AVEGF-HT) in published studies. It is unknown whether specific patient characteristics similarly predict AVEGF-HT using different criteria. Methods: We assessed the associations between clinical and demographic factors ( n = 22) and AVEGF-HT, using six criteria based on predefined on-treatment blood pressure (BP) thresholds or absolute BP elevations versus baseline, in a post hoc analysis of a phase III trial of 1102 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) randomized to pazopanib or sunitinib (COMPARZ study)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434679/crispr-cas9-a-promising-genetic-engineering-approach-in-cancer-research
#16
REVIEW
Zubair Ahmed Ratan, Young-Jin Son, Mohammad Faisal Haidere, Bhuiyan Mohammad Mahtab Uddin, Md Abdullah Yusuf, Sojib Bin Zaman, Jong-Hoon Kim, Laila Anjuman Banu, Jae Youl Cho
Bacteria and archaea possess adaptive immunity against foreign genetic materials through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems. The discovery of this intriguing bacterial system heralded a revolutionary change in the field of medical science. The CRISPR and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) based molecular mechanism has been applied to genome editing. This CRISPR-Cas9 technique is now able to mediate precise genetic corrections or disruptions in in vitro and in vivo environments...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434678/dynamic-changes-in-quality-of-life-after-three-first-line-therapies-for-egfr-mutation-positive-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Szu-Chun Yang, Chien-Chung Lin, Wu-Wei Lai, Sheng-Mao Chang, Jing-Shiang Hwang, Wu-Chou Su, Jung-Der Wang
Background: Three different tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been approved as first-line therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with similar overall survival. This study determined dynamic changes in quality of life (QoL) for patients using these therapies after controlling for potential confounders. Methods: From 2011 to 2016, we prospectively assessed the utility values and QoL scores of patients using the EuroQol five-dimension and World Health Organization Quality-of-Life - Brief questionnaires...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434677/the-constitutively-active-pkg-ii-mutant-effectively-inhibits-gastric-cancer-development-via-a-blockade-of-egf-egfr-associated-signalling-cascades
#18
Yan Wu, Miaomiao Yuan, Wenbin Su, Miaolin Zhu, Xiaoyuan Yao, Ying Wang, Hai Qian, Lu Jiang, Yan Tao, Min Wu, Ji Pang, Yongchang Chen
Type II cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) is a membrane-anchored enzyme expressed mainly in the intestinal mucosa and the brain, and is associated with various physiological or pathological processes. Upregulation of PKG II is known to induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of PKG II has been shown to be dependent on the inhibition of the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and blockade of EGFR downstream signal transduction in vitro...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399055/refractory-thyroid-carcinoma-which-systemic-treatment-to-use
#19
REVIEW
Laurence Faugeras, Anne-Sophie Pirson, Julian Donckier, Luc Michel, Julien Lemaire, Sebastien Vandervorst, Lionel D'Hondt
The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased markedly in recent decades, but has been stable in terms of mortality rates. For the most part, these cancers are treated with surgery, which may or may not be followed by radioactive iodine depending on the tumor subtype. Still, many of these cancers will recur and may be treated with radioactive iodine or another surgery. It is unclear what treatment is best for cases of locally advanced or metastatic thyroid cancer that are refractory to radioactive iodine. Chemotherapy has a very low response rate...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383041/turning-egfr-mutation-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-into-a-chronic-disease-optimal-sequential-therapy-with-egfr-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors
#20
REVIEW
Vera Hirsh
Four epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib and osimertinib, are currently available for the management of EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with others in development. Although tumors are exquisitely sensitive to these agents, acquired resistance is inevitable. Furthermore, emerging data indicate that first- (erlotinib and gefitinib), second- (afatinib) and third-generation (osimertinib) EGFR TKIs differ in terms of efficacy and tolerability profiles...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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