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Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023008/salvage-surgery-for-local-recurrence-after-stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#1
Chris Dickhoff, Pedro M Rodriguez Schaap, Rene H J Otten, Martijn W Heymans, David J Heineman, Max Dahele
Introduction: Stereotactic body (or ablative) radiotherapy (SBRT/SABR) is now a guideline-recommended treatment for medically inoperable patients with peripherally-located, stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and for medically operable patients who decline surgery. The 5-year local failure rate after SBRT is about 10% and in highly selected patients, surgery has been used as a salvage therapy. We performed a systematic review to address the feasibility, safety, and outcome of salvage surgery for locally recurrent early stage NSCLC after SBRT...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023007/dancing-with-the-dna-damage-response-next-generation-anti-cancer-therapeutic-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Anna Minchom, Caterina Aversa, Juanita Lopez
Maintenance of genomic stability is a critical determinant of cell survival and relies on the coordinated action of the DNA damage response (DDR), which orchestrates a network of cellular processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair and cell-cycle progression. In cancer, the critical balance between the loss of genomic stability in malignant cells and the DDR provides exciting therapeutic opportunities. Drugs targeting DDR pathways taking advantage of clinical synthetic lethality have already shown therapeutic benefit - for example, the PARP inhibitor olaparib has shown benefit in BRCA -mutant ovarian and breast cancer...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023006/frequency-impact-and-a-preclinical-study-of-novel-erbb-gene-family-mutations-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#3
Naomi Elster, Sinead Toomey, Yue Fan, Mattia Cremona, Clare Morgan, Karolina Weiner Gorzel, Una Bhreathnach, Malgorzata Milewska, Madeline Murphy, Stephen Madden, Jarushka Naidoo, Joanna Fay, Elaine Kay, Aoife Carr, Sean Kennedy, Simon Furney, Janusz Mezynski, Oscar Breathhnach, Patrick Morris, Liam Grogan, Arnold Hill, Susan Kennedy, John Crown, William Gallagher, Bryan Hennessy, Alex Eustace
Background: Somatic mutations in the ERBB genes (epidermal growth factor receptor: EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, ERBB4 ) promote oncogenesis and lapatinib resistance in metastatic HER2+ (human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2) breast cancer in vitro . Our study aimed to determine the frequency of mutations in four genes: EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3 and ERBB4 and to investigate whether these mutations affect cellular behaviour and therapy response in vitro and outcomes after adjuvant trastuzumab-based therapy in clinical samples...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977353/therapy-of-breast-cancer-brain-metastases-challenges-emerging-treatments-and-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Nuria Kotecki, Florence Lefranc, Daniel Devriendt, Ahmad Awada
Brain metastases are the most common central nervous system tumors in adults, and incidence of brain metastases is increasing due to both improved diagnostic techniques (e.g. magnetic resonance imaging) and increased cancer patient survival through advanced systemic treatments. Outcomes of patients remain disappointing and treatment options are limited, usually involving multimodality approaches. Brain metastases represent an unmet medical need in solid tumor care, especially in breast cancer, where brain metastases are frequent and result in impaired quality of life and death...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977352/5-fluorouracil-and-cardiotoxicity-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Jaskanwal D Sara, Jasvinder Kaur, Ryan Khodadadi, Muneeb Rehman, Ronstan Lobo, Sakti Chakrabarti, Joerg Herrmann, Amir Lerman, Axel Grothey
Fluoropyrimidines such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) form the foundation of a wide variety of chemotherapy regimens. 5-FU is in fact the third most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of solid malignancies across the world. As with all chemotherapy, balancing the potential benefits of therapy against the risks of drug-related toxicity is crucial when clinicians and patients make shared decisions about treatment. 5-FU is the second most common chemotherapeutic drug associated with cardiotoxicity after anthracyclines, which can manifest as chest pain, acute coronary syndrome/myocardial infarction or death...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977351/rucaparib-in-ovarian-cancer-an-update-on-safety-efficacy-and-place-in-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Graziela Z Dal Molin, Kohei Omatsu, Anil K Sood, Robert L Coleman
Rucaparib is a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor and potent inhibitor of PARP1, PARP2 and PARP3 enzymes. Phase II and III trials have documented that rucaparib has single-agent antitumor activity in patients with high-grade ovarian carcinoma, with both BRCA -mutated (germline and somatic) and with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). Rucaparib as a maintenance treatment showed increased progression-free survival in patients with ovarian carcinoma who achieved a response to platinum-based chemotherapy, with an acceptable safety profile...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977350/optimal-management-of-luminal-breast-cancer-how-much-endocrine-therapy-is-long-enough
#7
REVIEW
Elisabetta Munzone, Marco Colleoni
Patients with early estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer are at continuous risk of relapse even after more than 10 years of follow up. Currently, no biomarker that identifies patients for early versus late recurrence, or one that selects patients or tumors for longer versus shorter durations of endocrine therapy (ET) is available and a crucial question is how to properly select patients who could be spared extended ET or those who require it. In the last 20 years more than 40,000 women were enrolled in randomized trials to answer the question of optimal duration of ET...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977349/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-melanoma-and-kidney-cancer-from-sequencing-to-rational-selection
#8
REVIEW
Michael Flynn, Lisa Pickering, James Larkin, Samra Turajlic
Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs), including antibodies against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1, have been shown to induce durable complete responses in a proportion of patients in the first-line and refractory setting in advanced melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. In fact, there are several lines of both targeted agents and ICPI that are now feasible treatment options. However, survival in the metastatic setting continues to be poor and there remains a need for improved therapeutic approaches...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977348/should-age-impact-breast-cancer-management-in-young-women-fine-tuning-of-treatment-guidelines
#9
REVIEW
Matteo B Suter, Olivia Pagani
Despite breast cancer being uncommon in young women, it is still the most frequent cancer diagnosed in women aged 15-39 years, and the leading cause of death in this age group in high-income countries, after accidents and self-injury. The present review summarizes the most recent guidelines and offers an expert perspective on the many challenges associated with treatment of young women with breast cancer. We will especially focus on early breast cancer, exploring the specificities of the diagnostic process, imaging techniques, locoregional and systemic treatments, and the added value of dedicated multidisciplinary teams...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977347/precision-medicine-applications-in-prostate-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Edel M McCrea, Daniel K Lee, Tristan M Sissung, William D Figg
Aided by developments in diagnostics and therapeutics, healthcare is increasingly moving toward precision medicine, in which treatment is customized to each individual. We discuss the relevance of precision medicine in prostate cancer, including gene targets, therapeutics and resistance mechanisms. We foresee precision medicine becoming an integral component of prostate cancer management to increase response to therapy and prolong survival.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899763/prospective-single-center-implementation-and-response-evaluation-of-pressurized-intraperitoneal-aerosol-chemotherapy-pipac-for-peritoneal-metastasis
#11
Martin Graversen, Sönke Detlefsen, Jon Kroll Bjerregaard, Claus Wilki Fristrup, Per Pfeiffer, Michael Bau Mortensen
Background: Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a laparoscopy-guided administration of aerosolized chemotherapy. PIPAC seems to improve objective tumor response, survival and quality of life in patients with peritoneal metastasis. We assessed feasibility and efficacy of PIPAC in patients with peritoneal metastasis (PM). Methods: Patients were included in a prospective PIPAC protocol. Patients with colorectal PM were treated with oxaliplatin, patients with other primary tumors were treated with cisplatin and doxorubicin...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899762/the-role-of-abemaciclib-in-treatment-of-advanced-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Amelia McCartney, Erica Moretti, Giuseppina Sanna, Marta Pestrin, Emanuela Risi, Luca Malorni, Laura Biganzoli, Angelo Di Leo
Until recently, the mainstay of treatment in the majority of hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC) has consisted of single-agent endocrine therapy (ET). However, as understanding of endocrine resistance has grown, newer targeted agents have come to the fore. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase complexes 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) combined with ET has shown significant activity in HR+ HER2- ABC, with impressive results in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) when compared with ET alone...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899761/precision-diagnostics-of-ewing-s-sarcoma-by-liquid-biopsy-circulating-ews-fli1-fusion-transcripts
#13
Matteo Allegretti, Beatrice Casini, Chiara Mandoj, Stefania Benini, Laurent Alberti, Mariangela Novello, Elisa Melucci, Laura Conti, Renato Covello, Edoardo Pescarmona, Giuseppe Maria Milano, Alessio Annovazzi, Vincenzo Anelli, Virginia Ferraresi, Roberto Biagini, Patrizio Giacomini
Background: Limited information is available on the applicative value of liquid biopsy (LB) in rare tumors, including Ewing's sarcoma (ES). The accepted precision diagnostics standards would greatly benefit from a non-invasive LB test monitoring pathognomonic gene rearrangements in the bloodstream. Methods: Tissue and blood samples were collected from six and four ES patients, respectively. Plasma was cleared by two successive rounds of centrifugation and stored frozen until RNA extraction by the QIAmp CNA kit...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774061/immunotherapy-in-non-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-can-the-benefits-of-stage-iv-therapy-be-translated-into-earlier-stages
#14
REVIEW
Griet Deslypere, Dorothée Gullentops, Els Wauters, Johan Vansteenkiste
Over the last decade, several steps forward in the treatment of patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NCSLC) were made. Examples are the use of pemetrexed, pemetrexed maintenance therapy, or bevacizumab for patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. A big leap forward was the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients selected on the basis of an activating oncogene, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) translocations. However, all of these achievements could not be translated into survival benefits when studied in randomized controlled trials in patients with nonmetastatic NSCLC...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774060/metformin-prevents-nerve-growth-factor-dependent-proliferative-and-proangiogenic-effects-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-cells-and-endothelial-cells
#15
Maritza P Garrido, Carolina Vera, Margarita Vega, Andrew F G Quest, Carmen Romero
Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is characterized by exacerbated angiogenesis regulated by proangiogenic and growth factors. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is overexpressed in EOC where it promotes proliferation as well as survival and is considered a proangiogenic factor. Metformin, a drug commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, is attributed to antineoplastic effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Given that current therapies yield modest results in EOC patients, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of metformin on NGF-enhanced proliferation of EOC cells and the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707043/development-and-10-year-history-of-a-biosimilar-the-example-of-binocrit-%C3%A2
#16
REVIEW
Matti Aapro, Andriy Krendyukov, Nadja Höbel, Andreas Seidl, Pere Gascón
Patent expirations for several biological products have prompted the development of alternative versions, termed 'biosimilars', which have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to a licensed biological medicine (also referred to as the 'reference' medicine). The first biosimilars developed in oncology were the supportive-care agents filgrastim and epoetin. Binocrit® (HX575) is a biosimilar version of epoetin alfa, indicated in the oncology setting for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA). The process for development and approval of Binocrit® as a biosimilar included extensive analytical characterization and comparison with the reference epoetin alfa...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664479/corrigendum
#17
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1177/1758834017753338.].
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662550/radiotherapy-and-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-winning-new-combination
#18
REVIEW
Eric C Ko, Silvia C Formenti
Immune checkpoint blockade has recently emerged as an important therapeutic approach to the management of malignancies across multiple disease settings. Concomitantly, there has been an increasing appreciation for the role of radiotherapy in eliciting and promoting tumor-directed immune responses. In this review, we discuss the clinical evidence to date on combinations of radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors, both from the standpoint of safety and efficacy. We highlight important but yet-unanswered questions for this combination approach, as well as their implications for future prospective studies...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662549/tumour-necrosis-factor-interferon-gamma-and-interleukins-as-predictive-markers-of-antiprogrammed-cell-death-protein-1-treatment-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-pragmatic-approach-in-clinical-practice
#19
Efimia Boutsikou, Kalliopi Domvri, Georgia Hardavella, Dora Tsiouda, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Theodoros Kontakiotis
Background: The emergence of novel antiprogrammed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape of this disease. Although overall survival (OS) has improved in the first- and second-line therapy settings for advanced NSCLC, the benefit is not universal. In a climate of global scrutiny for healthcare costs and potential for toxicities related to immunotherapy, appropriate patient selection is crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and a panel of interleukins (ILs) in the peripheral blood, and assess any correlation with response to anti-PD-1 inhibition, progression-free survival and OS in NSCLC patients...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662548/first-line-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer-questions-and-controversies-to-address
#20
EDITORIAL
Jonathan A Ledermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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