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Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800034/checkpoint-inhibitors-in-lung-cancer-latest-developments-and-clinical-potential
#1
REVIEW
Gustavo Schvartsman, Renata Ferrarotto, Erminia Massarelli
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The vast majority of patients are diagnosed with metastatic disease with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. After first-line chemotherapy or biomarker-matched targeted therapy, only suitable for a small group of patients, further systemic therapy options rendered very limited, if any, benefit until recently. Checkpoint inhibitors have significantly improved outcomes in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and are currently an established second-line therapeutic option...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800033/multimodality-treatment-of-brain-metastases-from-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-targeted-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Bassanelli Maria, Viterbo Antonella, Roberto Michela, Giacinti Silvana, Staddon Anita, Aschelter Anna Maria, D'Antonio Chiara, Marchetti Paolo
In patients with renal cancer, brain metastasis is associated with poor survival and high morbidity. Poor life expectancy is often associated with widespread extracranial metastases. In such patients, a multidisciplinary approach is paramount. Brain metastases-specific therapies may include surgery, radiosurgery, conventional radiation and targeted therapies (TT) or a combination of these treatments. Some factors are important prognostically when choosing the best strategy: performance status, the number, size and location of brain metastases, the extension of systemic metastases and a well-controlled primary tumour...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800032/resistance-to-therapy-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-and-human-epidermal-growth-factor-2-positive-breast-cancers-progress-with-latest-therapeutic-strategies
#3
REVIEW
Laurence Lousberg, Joëlle Collignon, Guy Jerusalem
In this article, we focus on the subtype of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC). Preclinical and clinical data indicate a complex molecular bidirectional crosstalk between the ER and HER2 pathways. This crosstalk probably constitutes one of the key mechanisms of drug resistance in this subclass of BC. Delaying or even reversing drug resistance seems possible by targeting pathways implicated in this crosstalk. High-risk patients currently receive anti-HER2 therapy, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in the adjuvant setting...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800031/long-term-survival-in-a-patient-with-glioblastoma-on-antipsychotic-therapy-for-schizophrenia-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
REVIEW
Shahdabul Faraz, Susan Pannullo, Marc Rosenblum, Andrew Smith, A Gabriella Wernicke
Glioblastoma is not only the most common primary brain tumor, but also the most aggressive. Currently, the most effective treatment of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy allows for a modest median survival of 15 months. Here, we report a case of a 57-year-old male with histologically confirmed glioblastoma with unfavorable prognostic characteristics (poor performance status and persistent neurological symptoms after surgery), whose expected 5-year survival is 0%. Further genetic analysis offered a mixed prognostic picture with positive methylation of 0-6-methylguinine-DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) methyltransferase (MGMT; favorable prognosis) and wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH-1; unfavorable prognosis)...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800030/fertility-preservation-in-males-with-cancer-16-year-monocentric-experience-of-sperm-banking-and-post-thaw-reproductive-outcomes
#5
Raffaella Depalo, Doriana Falagario, Paola Masciandaro, Claudia Nardelli, Margherita Patrizia Vacca, Pasquale Capuano, Giorgina Specchia, Michele Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Anticancer treatments can impair male fertility. Cryopreservation of semen is an efficient procedure for fertility preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate pre-freeze semen parameters among the various types of cancer, post-thaw sperm viability and reproductive outcome of samples used for assisted reproductive treatment (ART). METHODS: This study included 721 men with cancer that had their semen cryopreserved in our bank in 1999-2015. Semen analysis and cryopreservation were performed before the start of antineoplastic treatment, according to the World Health Organization recommendations, European Commission and Italian law...
November 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583032/neurokinin-1-inhibitors-in-the-prevention-of-nausea-and-vomiting-from-highly-emetogenic-chemotherapy-a-network-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Omar Abdel-Rahman
A network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of neurokinin 1 (NK-1) inhibitors in the prophylaxis of highly emetogenic chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting has been conducted. Eligible studies included randomized trials evaluating aprepitant, fosaprepitant, netupitant (NEPA), casopitant and rolapitant containing regimens in the setting of highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Primary outcomes of interest include complete response (CR) and rate of no significant nausea. After preclusion of ineligible studies, 19 studies were included in the final analysis...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583031/targeting-intratumoral-androgens-statins-and-beyond
#7
REVIEW
Michael T Schweizer, Evan Y Yu
While initially effective, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is not curative, and nearly all men with advanced prostate cancer will eventually progress to the more resistant, and ultimately lethal form of the disease, so called castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The maintenance of androgens within the prostate cancer microenvironment likely represents one of the key mechanisms by which this transition from hormone-sensitive to CRPC occurs. This can be accomplished either through intratumoral androgen biosynthesis or the active transport of androgens and androgenic precursors into the tumor microenvironment...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583030/emergency-therapy-for-liver-metastases-from-advanced-vipoma-surgery-or-transarterial-chemoembolization
#8
REVIEW
Johann Dréanic, Céline Lepère, Mostafa El Hajjam, Hervé Gouya, Philippe Rougier, Romain Coriat
VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with a high potential to develop hepatic metastases and poor prognosis. The primitive tumor is nonsymptomatic and usually localized within the pancreas. Liver metastasis drives the prognosis and induces profuse watery diarrhea or renal failure. We herein present severe renal failure or diarrhea in two patients hospitalized in intensive care justifying emergency treatment of liver metastasis. The two patients experienced severe diarrhea due to a hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from liver metastasis released into the blood circulation...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583029/hedgehog-pathway-inhibition-in-advanced-basal-cell-carcinoma-latest-evidence-and-clinical-usefulness
#9
REVIEW
Sirunya Silapunt, Leon Chen, Michael R Migden
Treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinomas (laBCCs) with large, aggressive, destructive, and disfiguring tumors, or metastatic disease is challenging. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified in the vast majority of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). There are two United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA)-approved Hh pathway inhibitors (HPIs) that exhibit antitumor activity in advanced BCC with an acceptable safety profile. Common adverse effects include muscle spasms, dysgeusia, alopecia, fatigue, nausea and weight loss...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583028/strategies-to-modulate-the-immune-system-in-breast-cancer-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Cristina Migali, Monica Milano, Dario Trapani, Carmen Criscitiello, Angela Esposito, Marzia Locatelli, Ida Minchella, Giuseppe Curigliano
Is breast cancer (BC) immunogenic? Many data suggest that it is. Many observations demonstrated the prognostic role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in triple negative (TN) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-positive BC. TNBCs are poorly differentiated tumors with high genetic instability and very high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity enhances the 'danger signals' and select clone variants that could be more antigenic or, in other words, that could more strongly stimulate a host immune antitumor response...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583027/concepts-and-targets-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-recent-results-and-clinical-implications
#11
REVIEW
Poornima Saha, Rita Nanda
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease in which tumors are defined by lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. No targeted therapies are available for the treatment of TNBC, and chemotherapy remains the standard of care. Gene expression profiling has identified six distinct molecular subtypes of TNBC. The identification of novel targets, coupled with the development of therapies for different subsets of TNBC, holds great promise for the future treatment of this aggressive form of breast cancer...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583026/neratinib-in-her-2-positive-breast-cancer-results-to-date-and-clinical-usefulness
#12
REVIEW
Arlene Chan
The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583025/ultrasound-guided-radiofrequency-ablation-for-ct1a-renal-masses-in-poor-surgical-candidates-mid-term-single-center-outcomes
#13
Ioannis Zachos, Konstantinos Dimitropoulos, Anastasios Karatzas, Michael Samarinas, Argiro Petsiti, Vassilios Tassoudis, Vassilios Tzortzis
OBJECTIVES: Surgical management of small renal masses can be challenging in frail patients and thus modalities such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have emerged as valid alternative options. The aim of the current study was to present mid-term oncological and functional results on a series of patients with cT1a renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) who were unfit for surgery and underwent RFA using ultrasound guidance under local anesthesia. METHODS: Data from patients fulfilling the study selection criteria were retrospectively collected...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583024/safety-of-long-term-exposure-to-abiraterone-acetate-in-patients-with-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-and-concomitant-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#14
Elena Verzoni, Paolo Grassi, Raffaele Ratta, Monica Niger, Filippo De Braud, Riccardo Valdagni, Giuseppe Procopio
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the long-term safety profile of abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with controlled cardiovascular comorbidities or risk factors. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed the clinical charts of consecutive mCRPC patients with cardiac disorders/risk factors who had been treated with abiraterone 1000 mg once daily plus prednisone 5 mg twice daily for a median duration of 16 months at an oncology referral centre between April 2011 and July 2015...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583023/exosome-mediated-drug-resistance-in-cancer-the-near-future-is-here
#15
EDITORIAL
Marco Giallombardo, Simona Taverna, Riccardo Alessandro, David Hong, Christian Rolfo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482291/interpretation-of-survival-data-which-graphical-analysis-is-appropriate
#16
Omer Dizdar, Serkan Akin, Mutlu Hayran
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482290/pricing-of-innovative-drugs-correlation-between-incremental-cost-and-survival-gain-in-four-countries
#17
Daniele Mengato, Andrea Messori
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482289/anti-androgen-therapy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#18
Valerie N Barton, Michael A Gordon, Jennifer K Richer, Anthony Elias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482288/from-palliative-therapy-to-prolongation-of-survival-223-racl2-in-the-treatment-of-bone-metastases
#19
REVIEW
Knut Liepe, Ajit Shinto
Patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer often have multiple bone metastases. The resulting bone pain is associated with reduced life quality, increased cost of therapy and impairment of overall survival. Trials with bone-targeting β-emitters have mostly showed an effect on alleviation of bone pain along with prolongation in survival, documented in only a limited number of patients. A randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA) using the α-emitter (223)RaCl2 (Xofigo®) showed for the first time, a longer overall survival of 3...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27482287/current-targeted-therapies-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-colorectal-cancer-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Andrew Moriarity, Jacintha O'Sullivan, John Kennedy, Brian Mehigan, Paul McCormick
Treatment strategies for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients have undergone dramatic changes in the past decade and despite improved patient outcomes, there still exist areas for continued development. The introduction of targeted agents has provided clinicians with additional treatment options in mCRC, however, results have been mixed at best. These novel therapies were designed to interfere with specific molecules involved in the cellular carcinogenesis pathway and ultimately deliver a more focused treatment...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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