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Bao-Chen Chen, Jenn-Tzong Chang, Tsi-Shu Huang, Jih-Jung Chen, Yao-Shen Chen, Ming-Wei Jan, Tsung-Hsien Chang
Parechovirus A (Human parechovirus, HPeV) causes symptoms ranging from severe neonatal infection to mild gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. Use of molecular approaches with RT-PCR and genotyping has improved the detection rate of HPeV. Conventional methods, such as viral culture and immunofluorescence assay, together with molecular methods facilitate comprehensive viral diagnosis. To establish the HPeV immunofluorescence assay, an antibody against HPeV capsid protein VP0 was generated by using antigenic epitope prediction data...
December 12, 2018: Viruses
Adrian Schmalen, Julia Karius-Fischer, Pia Rauch, Christian Setz, Klaus Korn, Petra Henklein, Torgils Fossen, Ulrich Schubert
As part of the Pr55Gag polyprotein, p6 fulfills an essential role in the late steps of the replication cycle. However, almost nothing is known about the functions of the mature HIV-1 p6 protein. Recently, we showed that p6 is a bona fide substrate of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a ubiquitously expressed zinc metalloprotease. This phenomenon appears to be specific for HIV-1, since p6 homologs of HIV-2, SIV and EIAV were IDE-insensitive. Furthermore, abrogation of the IDE-mediated degradation of p6 reduces the replication capacity of HIV-1 in an Env-dependent manner...
December 12, 2018: Viruses
Andrea L Kroeker, Valerie Smid, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Estella Moffat, Brad Collignon, Oliver Lung, Robbin Lindsay, Hana Weingartl
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus of the Phenuiviridae family. Infection causes abortions in pregnant animals, high mortality in neonate animals, and mild to severe symptoms in both people and animals. There is currently an ongoing effort to produce safe and efficacious veterinary vaccines against RVFV in livestock to protect against both primary infection in animals and zoonotic infections in people. To test the efficacy of these vaccines, it is essential to have a reliable challenge model in relevant target species, including ruminants...
December 12, 2018: Viruses
Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
Influenza A viruses (IAV) can infect a broad range of animal hosts, including humans. In humans, IAV causes seasonal annual epidemics and occasional pandemics, representing a serious public health and economic problem, which is most effectively prevented through vaccination. The defense mechanisms that the host innate immune system provides restrict IAV replication and infection. Consequently, to successfully replicate in interferon (IFN)-competent systems, IAV has to counteract host antiviral activities, mainly the production of IFN and the activities of IFN-induced host proteins that inhibit virus replication...
December 12, 2018: Viruses
Achal Neupane, Chenchen Feng, Jiuhuan Feng, Arjun Kafle, Heike Bücking, Shin-Yi Lee Marzano
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), including Rhizophagus spp., can play important roles in nutrient cycling of the rhizosphere. However, the effect of virus infection on AMF's role in nutrient cycling cannot be determined without first knowing the diversity of the mycoviruses in AMF. Therefore, in this study, we sequenced the R . irregularis isolate-09 due to its previously demonstrated high efficiency in increasing the N/P uptake of the plant. We identified one novel mitovirus contig of 3685 bp, further confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR...
December 12, 2018: Viruses
Yosuke Matsushita, Hironobu Yanagisawa, Teruo Sano
Viroids are highly structured, single-stranded, non-protein-coding circular RNA pathogens. Some viroids are vertically transmitted through both viroid-infected ovule and pollen. For example, potato spindle tuber viroid, a species that belongs to Pospiviroidae family, is delivered to the embryo through the ovule or pollen during the development of reproductive tissues before embryogenesis. In addition, some of Pospiviroidae are also horizontally transmitted by pollen. Tomato planta macho viroid in pollen infects to the ovary from pollen tube during pollen tube elongation and eventually causes systemic infection, resulting in the establishment of horizontal transmission...
December 12, 2018: Viruses
Lia M Godinho, Mehdi El Sadek Fadel, Céline Monniot, Lina Jakutyte, Isabelle Auzat, Audrey Labarde, Karima Djacem, Leonor Oliveira, Rut Carballido-Lopez, Silvia Ayora, Paulo Tavares
Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1 is a lytic siphovirus first described 50 years ago [1]. Its complete DNA sequence was reported in 1997 [2]. Here we present an updated annotation of the 44,016 bp SPP1 genome and its correlation to different steps of the viral multiplication process. Five early polycistronic transcriptional units encode phage DNA replication proteins and lysis functions together with less characterized, mostly non-essential, functions. Late transcription drives synthesis of proteins necessary for SPP1 viral particles assembly and for cell lysis, together with a short set of proteins of unknown function...
December 11, 2018: Viruses
Christopher C Nguyen, Jeremy P Kamil
The past few years have brought substantial progress toward understanding how human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) enters the remarkably wide spectrum of cell types and tissues that it infects. Neuropilin-2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) were identified as receptors, respectively, for the trimeric and pentameric glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L (gH/gL) complexes that in large part govern HCMV cell tropism, while CD90 and CD147 were also found to play roles during entry. X-ray crystal structures for the proximal viral fusogen, glycoprotein B (gB), and for the pentameric gH/gL complex (pentamer) have been solved...
December 11, 2018: Viruses
Chen Liu, Miaolin Zeng, Meiling Zhang, Canwei Shu, Erxun Zhou
The complete genome of a novel double-stranded (ds) RNA mycovirus, named as Rhizoctonia solani partitivirus 5 (RsPV5), isolated from rice sheath blight fungus R. solani AG-1 IA strain C24, was sequenced and analysed. RsPV5 consists of two segments, dsRNA-1 (1899 nucleotides) and dsRNA-2 (1787 nucleotides). DsRNA-1 has an open reading frame (ORF) 1 that potentially codes for a protein of 584 amino acid (aa) containing the conserved motifs of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and dsRNA-2 also contains a ORF 2, encoding a putative capsid protein (CP) of 513 aa...
December 11, 2018: Viruses
Liliane T F Cavalcante, Cláudia P Muniz, Hongwei Jia, Anderson M Augusto, Fernando Troccoli, Sheila de O Medeiros, Carlos G A Dias, William M Switzer, Marcelo A Soares, André F Santos
Feline foamy virus (FFV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) belong to the Retroviridae family. While disease has not been reported for FFV infection, FeLV infection can cause anemia and immunosuppression (progressive infection). Co-infection with FFV/FeLV allows evaluation of the pathogenic potential and epidemiology of FFV infection in cats with FeLV pathology. Blood and buccal swab samples from 81 cats were collected in Rio de Janeiro. Plasma was serologically tested for FeLV. DNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and buccal swabs was used to PCR detect FFV and FeLV...
December 11, 2018: Viruses
Connor Buechler, Matthew Semler, David A Baker, Christina Newman, Joseph P Cornish, Deborah Chavez, Bernadette Guerra, Robert Lanford, Kathy Brasky, Jens H Kuhn, Reed F Johnson, David H O'Connor, Adam L Bailey
Simarteriviruses ( Arteriviridae : Simarterivirinae ) are commonly found at high titers in the blood of African monkeys but do not cause overt disease in these hosts. In contrast, simarteriviruses cause severe disease in Asian macaques upon accidental or experimental transmission. Here, we sought to better understand the host-dependent drivers of simarterivirus pathogenesis by infecting olive baboons (n = 4) and rhesus monkeys (n = 4) with the simarterivirus Southwest baboon virus 1 (SWBV-1). Surprisingly, none of the animals in our study showed signs of disease following SWBV-1 inoculation...
December 10, 2018: Viruses
Lizhou Zhang, Wei Ji, Shuang Lyu, Luhua Qiao, Guangxiang Luo
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has emerged as an important human viral pathogen, causing congenital malformation including microcephaly among infants born to mothers infected with the virus during pregnancy. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that ZIKV can be classified into African and Asian lineages. In this study, we have developed a stable plasmid-based reverse genetic system for robust production of both ZIKV prototype African-lineage MR766 and clinical Asian-lineage FSS13025 strains using a tetracycline (Tet)-controlled gene expression vector...
December 9, 2018: Viruses
Victor Latorre, Florian Mattenberger, Ron Geller
The order Mononegavirales harbors numerous viruses of significant relevance to human health, including both established and emerging infections. Currently, vaccines are only available for a small subset of these viruses, and antiviral therapies remain limited. Being obligate cellular parasites, viruses must utilize the cellular machinery for their replication and spread. Therefore, targeting cellular pathways used by viruses can provide novel therapeutic approaches. One of the key challenges confronted by both hosts and viruses alike is the successful folding and maturation of proteins...
December 8, 2018: Viruses
Diego Simón, Alvaro Fajardo, Pilar Moreno, Gonzalo Moratorio, Juan Cristina
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen member of the Flaviviridae family. ZIKV has spread rapidly in the Latin American region, causing hundreds of thousands of cases of ZIKV disease, as well as microcephaly in congenital infections. Detailed studies on the pattern of evolution of ZIKV strains have been extremely important to our understanding of viral survival, fitness, and evasion of the host's immune system. For these reasons, we performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of ZIKV strains recently isolated in the Americas...
December 8, 2018: Viruses
Hiromitsu Moriyama, Syun-Ichi Urayama, Tomoya Higashiura, Tuong Minh Le, Ken Komatsu
Magnaporthe oryzae , the fungus that causes rice blast, is the most destructive pathogen of rice worldwide. A number of M. oryzae mycoviruses have been identified. These include Magnaporthe oryzae. viruses 1, 2, and 3 (MoV1, MoV2, and MoV3) belonging to the genus, Victorivirus , in the family, Totiviridae ; Magnaporthe oryzae. partitivirus 1 (MoPV1) in the family, Partitiviridae ; Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1 strains A and B (MoCV1-A and MoCV1-B) belonging to cluster II of the family, Chrysoviridae ; a mycovirus related to plant viruses of the family, Tombusviridae ( Magnaporthe oryzae...
December 8, 2018: Viruses
Rodolphe Michiels, Eva Van Mael, Christian Quinet, Nadjah Radia Adjadj, Ann Brigitte Cay, Nick De Regge
Countries rely on good diagnostic tests and appropriate testing schemes to fight against economically important small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections. We undertook an extensive comparative analysis of seven commercially available serological tests and one in-house real-time PCR (qPCR) detecting genotype A and B strains using a large panel of representative Belgian field samples and samples from experimentally infected sheep and goats. ELISAs generally performed well and detected seroconversion within three weeks post experimental infection...
December 8, 2018: Viruses
David Mayo-Muñoz, Fei He, Jacob Bruun Jørgensen, Poul Kári Madsen, Yuvaraj Bhoobalan-Chitty, Xu Peng
Genetic engineering of viruses has generally been challenging. This is also true for archaeal rod-shaped viruses, which carry linear double-stranded DNA genomes with hairpin ends. In this paper, we describe two different genome editing approaches to mutate the Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2 (SIRV2) using the archaeon Sulfolobus islandicus LAL14/1 and its derivatives as hosts. The anti-CRISPR (Acr) gene acrID1 , which inhibits CRISPR-Cas subtype I-D immunity, was first used as a selection marker to knock out genes from SIRV2M, an acrID1 -null mutant of SIRV2...
December 8, 2018: Viruses
Daniel Rigling, Nora Borst, Carolina Cornejo, Archil Supatashvili, Simone Prospero
Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV-1) infects the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica and acts as a biological control agent against this harmful tree disease. In this study, we screened the recently characterized C. parasitica population in Eurasian Georgia for the presence of CHV-1. We found 62 CHV-1 infected C. parasitica isolates (9.3%) among a total of 664 isolates sampled in 14 locations across Georgia. The prevalence of CHV-1 at the different locations ranged from 0% in the eastern part of the country to 29% in the western part...
December 3, 2018: Viruses
Faten El Asmi, Carlos Eduardo Brantis-de-Carvalho, Danielle Blondel, Mounira K Chelbi-Alix
Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) conjugation to proteins has essential roles in several processes including localization, stability, and function of several players implicated in intrinsic and innate immunity. In human, five paralogs of SUMO are known of which three are ubiquitously expressed (SUMO1, 2, and 3). Infection by rhabdoviruses triggers cellular responses through the activation of pattern recognition receptors, which leads to the production and secretion of interferon. This review will focus on the effects of the stable expression of the different SUMO paralogs or Ubc9 depletion on rhabdoviruses-induced interferon production and interferon signaling pathways as well as on the expression and functions of restriction factors conferring the resistance to rhabdoviruses...
December 3, 2018: Viruses
Matthew A Knox, Kristene R Gedye, David T S Hayman
The reliable identification and classification of infectious diseases is critical for understanding their biology and controlling their impact. Recent advances in sequencing technology have allowed insight into the remarkable diversity of the virosphere, of which a large component remains undiscovered. For these emerging or undescribed viruses, the process of classifying unknown sequences is heavily reliant on existing nucleotide sequence information in public databases. However, due to the enormous diversity of viruses, and past focus on the most prevalent and impactful virus types, databases are often incomplete...
December 3, 2018: Viruses
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