journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Viruses

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635675/co-infection-with-marek-s-disease-virus-and-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-increases-illness-severity-and-reduces-marek-s-disease-vaccine-efficacy
#1
Guo-Rong Sun, Yan-Ping Zhang, Lin-Yi Zhou, Hong-Chao Lv, Feng Zhang, Kai Li, Yu-Long Gao, Xiao-Le Qi, Hong-Yu Cui, Yong-Qiang Wang, Li Gao, Qing Pan, Xiao-Mei Wang, Chang-Jun Liu
Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) cause Marek's disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE), respectively. Co-infection with MDV and REV is common in chickens, causing serious losses to the poultry industry. However, experimental studies of such co-infection are lacking. In this study, Chinese field strains of MDV (ZW/15) and REV (JLR1501) were used as challenge viruses to evaluate the pathogenicity of co-infection and the influence of MD vaccination in chickens. Compared to the MDV-challenged group, the mortality and tumor rates increased significantly by 20...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635671/rab33b-controls-hepatitis-b-virus-assembly-by-regulating-core-membrane-association-and-nucleocapsid-processing
#2
Christina Bartusch, Tatjana Döring, Reinhild Prange
Many viruses take advantage of cellular trafficking machineries to assemble and release new infectious particles. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that the Golgi/autophagosome-associated Rab33B is required for hepatitis B virus (HBV) propagation in hepatoma cell lines. While Rab33B is dispensable for the secretion of HBV subviral envelope particles, its knockdown reduced the virus yield to 20% and inhibited nucleocapsid (NC) formation and/or NC trafficking. The overexpression of a GDP-restricted Rab33B mutant phenocopied the effect of deficit Rab33B, indicating that Rab33B-specific effector proteins may be involved...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635669/modulation-of-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-production-by-viruses
#3
REVIEW
Lisa Kathleen Ryan, Gill Diamond
While initially identified as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide, constitutively expressed in epithelia, human β-defensin (hBD)-1 is now recognized to have a more complex pattern of expression of its gene, DEFB1, as well as activities that extend beyond direct antimicrobial. These observations suggest a complex role for hBD-1 in the host defense against viral infections, as evidenced by its expression in cells involved in viral defense, and its gene regulation in response to viral challenge. This regulation is observed both in vitro and in vivo in humans, as well as with the murine homolog, mBD-1...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635668/the-role-of-cccdna-in-hbv-maintenance
#4
REVIEW
Lena Allweiss, Maura Dandri
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to be a major health burden worldwide; it can cause various degrees of liver damage and is strongly associated with the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The molecular mechanisms determining HBV persistence are not fully understood, but these appear to be multifactorial and the unique replication strategy employed by HBV enables its maintenance in infected hepatocytes. Both the stability of the HBV genome, which forms a stable minichromosome, the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the hepatocyte nucleus, and the inability of the immune system to resolve chronic HBV infection are believed to be key mechanisms of HBV chronicity...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635667/a-review-of-flaviviruses-that-have-no-known-arthropod-vector
#5
REVIEW
Bradley J Blitvich, Andrew E Firth
Most viruses in the genus Flavivirus are horizontally transmitted between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts, but some are maintained in arthropod- or vertebrate-restricted transmission cycles. Flaviviruses maintained by vertebrate-only transmission are commonly referred to as no known vector (NKV) flaviviruses. Fourteen species and two subtypes of NKV flaviviruses are recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), and Tamana bat virus potentially belongs to this group. NKV flaviviruses have been isolated in nature almost exclusively from bats and rodents; exceptions are the two isolates of Dakar bat virus recovered from febrile humans and the recent isolations of Sokoluk virus from field-collected ticks, which raises questions as to whether it should remain classified as an NKV flavivirus...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635666/host-adaptation-of-soybean-dwarf-virus-following-serial-passages-on-pea-pisum-sativum-and-soybean-glycine-max
#6
Bin Tian, Frederick E Gildow, Andrew L Stone, Diana J Sherman, Vernon D Damsteegt, William L Schneider
Soybean Dwarf Virus (SbDV) is an important plant pathogen, causing economic losses in soybean. In North America, indigenous strains of SbDV mainly infect clover, with occasional outbreaks in soybean. To evaluate the risk of a US clover strain of SbDV adapting to other plant hosts, the clover isolate SbDV-MD6 was serially transmitted to pea and soybean by aphid vectors. Sequence analysis of SbDV-MD6 from pea and soybean passages identified 11 non-synonymous mutations in soybean, and six mutations in pea. Increasing virus titers with each sequential transmission indicated that SbDV-MD6 was able to adapt to the plant host...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629143/nutrients-and-other-environmental-factors-influence-virus-abundances-across-oxic-and-hypoxic-marine-environments
#7
Jan F Finke, Brian P V Hunt, Christian Winter, Eddy C Carmack, Curtis A Suttle
Virus particles are highly abundant in seawater and, on average, outnumber microbial cells approximately 10-fold at the surface and 16-fold in deeper waters; yet, this relationship varies across environments. Here, we examine the influence of a suite of environmental variables, including nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature, on the relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, including along a track from the Northwest Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific via the Arctic Ocean, and in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada...
June 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621755/biophysical-mode-of-action-and-selectivity-analysis-of-allosteric-inhibitors-of-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-polymerase
#8
Eldar Abdurakhmanov, Sara Øie Solbak, U Helena Danielson
Allosteric inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5B (NS5B) polymerase are effective for treatment of genotype 1, although their mode of action and potential to inhibit other isolates and genotypes are not well established. We have used biophysical techniques and a novel biosensor-based real-time polymerase assay to investigate the mode-of-action and selectivity of four inhibitors against enzyme from genotypes 1b (BK and Con1) and 3a. Two thumb inhibitors (lomibuvir and filibuvir) interacted with all three NS5B variants, although the affinities for the 3a enzyme were low...
June 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613272/phage-phagocyte-interactions-and-their-implications-for-phage-application-as-therapeutics
#9
REVIEW
Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Barbara Owczarek, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Marzanna Łusiak-Szelchowska, Norbert Łodej, Andrzej Górski
Phagocytes are the main component of innate immunity. They remove pathogens and particles from organisms using their bactericidal tools in the form of both reactive oxygen species and degrading enzymes-contained in granules-that are potentially toxic proteins. Therefore, it is important to investigate the possible interactions between phages and immune cells and avoid any phage side effects on them. Recent progress in knowledge concerning the influence of phages on phagocytes is also important as such interactions may shape the immune response...
June 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608847/hadv-c6-is-a-more-relevant-challenge-virus-than-hadv-c5-for-testing-antiviral-drugs-with-the-immunosuppressed-syrian-hamster-model
#10
Karoly Toth, Jacqueline F Spencer, Baoling Ying, Ann E Tollefson, William S M Wold
Adenovirus infections of immunocompromised patients can cause a severe multi-organ disease that often results in the patients' death. Presently, there are no drugs specifically approved to treat adenovirus infections, and clinicians resort to the off-label use of antivirals that are approved to treat other DNA virus infections, most frequently cidofovir (CDV). CDV, however, has considerable nephrotoxicity, thus it is recommended only for the most severe cases of adenovirus infections. To facilitate the development of effective, non-toxic antivirals against adenovirus, we have developed a permissive animal model based on the Syrian hamster that can be used to test the efficacy of antiviral compounds...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608818/impact-of-parvovirus-b19-viremia-in-liver-transplanted-children-on-anemia-a-retrospective-study
#11
Michael Würdinger, Susanne Modrow, Annelie Plentz
Acute parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in immunocompromised patients may lead to severe anemia. However, in adult transplant recipients, B19V reactivations without anemia and low-level viremia are common. The impact of B19V in pediatric transplant patients, with high risk of primary infection, is investigated here. In a six-month period, 159 blood samples of 54 pediatric liver transplant recipients were tested for B19V DNA by quantitative real-time PCR. Viremia was correlated with anemia and immunosuppression and compared with rates in adult transplant recipients...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608816/mechanisms-of-adaptive-immunity-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#12
REVIEW
Michael C Rahe, Michael P Murtaugh
The adaptive immune response is necessary for the development of protective immunity against infectious diseases. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a genetically heterogeneous and rapidly evolving RNA virus, is the most burdensome pathogen of swine health and wellbeing worldwide. Viral infection induces antigen-specific immunity that ultimately clears the infection. However, the resulting immune memory, induced by virulent or attenuated vaccine viruses, is inconsistently protective against diverse viral strains...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608813/zika-virus-recent-advances-towards-the-development-of-vaccines-and-therapeutics
#13
REVIEW
Monica A McArthur
Zika is a rapidly emerging public health threat. Although clinical infection is frequently mild, significant neurological manifestations have been demonstrated in infants born to Zika virus (ZIKV) infected mothers. Due to the substantial ramifications of intrauterine infection, effective counter-measures are urgently needed. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines and therapeutics, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required...
June 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604650/characterization-of-bacillus-subtilis-viruses-vb_bsum-goe2-and-vb_bsum-goe3
#14
Inka M Willms, Michael Hoppert, Robert Hertel
The Spounavirinae viruses are ubiquitous in nature and have an obligatory virulent lifestyle. They infect Firmicutes, a bacterial phylum containing an array of environmental non-pathogenic and pathogenic organisms. To expand the knowledge of this viral subfamily, new strains were isolated and investigated in this study. Here we present two new viruses, vB_BsuM-Goe2 and vB_BsuM-Goe3, isolated from raw sewage and infecting Bacillus species. Both were morphologically classified via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as members of the Spounavirinae subfamily belonging to the Myoviridae family...
June 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604604/classification-of-cowpox-viruses-into-several-distinct-clades-and-identification-of-a-novel-lineage
#15
Annika Franke, Florian Pfaff, Maria Jenckel, Bernd Hoffmann, Dirk Höper, Markus Antwerpen, Hermann Meyer, Martin Beer, Donata Hoffmann
Cowpox virus (CPXV) was considered as uniform species within the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV). Previous phylogenetic analysis indicated that CPXV is polyphyletic and isolates may cluster into different clades with two of these clades showing genetic similarities to either variola (VARV) or vaccinia viruses (VACV). Further analyses were initiated to assess both the genetic diversity and the evolutionary background of circulating CPXVs. Here we report the full-length sequences of 20 CPXV strains isolated from different animal species and humans in Germany...
June 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604602/highly-sensitive-bacteriophage-based-detection-of-brucella-abortus-in-mixed-culture-and-spiked-blood
#16
Kirill V Sergueev, Andrey A Filippov, Mikeljon P Nikolich
For decades, bacteriophages (phages) have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells...
June 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598352/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#17
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
June 9, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594392/the-human-gut-phage-community-and-its-implications-for-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Pilar Manrique, Michael Dills, Mark J Young
In this review, we assess our current understanding of the role of bacteriophages infecting the human gut bacterial community in health and disease. In general, bacteriophages contribute to the structure of their microbial communities by driving host and viral diversification, bacterial evolution, and by expanding the functional diversity of ecosystems. Gut bacteriophages are an ensemble of unique and shared phages in individuals, which encompass temperate phages found predominately as prophage in gut bacteria (prophage reservoir) and lytic phages...
June 8, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587310/viral-encephalitis-of-unknown-cause-current-perspective-and-recent-advances
#19
REVIEW
Peter G E Kennedy, Phenix-Lan Quan, W Ian Lipkin
Viral encephalitis causes acute inflammation of the brain parenchyma and is a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality. Although Herpes Simplex encephalitis is the most frequent known cause of fatal sporadic encephalitis in humans, an increasingly wide range of viruses and other microbial pathogens are implicated. Up to 60% of cases of presumed viral encephalitis remain unexplained due to the failure of conventional laboratory techniques to detect an infectious agent. High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have the potential to detect any microbial nucleic acid present in a biological specimen without any prior knowledge of the target sequence...
June 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587300/the-5-and-3-untranslated-regions-of-the-flaviviral-genome
#20
REVIEW
Wy Ching Ng, Ruben Soto-Acosta, Shelton S Bradrick, Mariano A Garcia-Blanco, Eng Eong Ooi
Flaviviruses are enveloped arthropod-borne viruses with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome that can cause serious illness in humans and animals. The 11 kb 5' capped RNA genome consists of a single open reading frame (ORF), and is flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR). The ORF is a polyprotein that is processed into three structural and seven non-structural proteins. The UTRs have been shown to be important for viral replication and immune modulation. Both of these regions consist of elements that are essential for genome cyclization, resulting in initiation of RNA synthesis...
June 6, 2017: Viruses
journal
journal
42435
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"