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Ying Li, Chao Zhang, Luwei Qin, Dong Li, Guangyuan Zhou, Dejian Dang, Shuaiyin Chen, Tiantian Sun, Rongguang Zhang, Weidong Wu, Yuanlin Xi, Yuefei Jin, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen of severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recognized as pivotal factors during the pathogenesis of viral infection. However, the critical functions of lncRNAs in EV71⁻host interactions have not been characterized. Here, for the first time, we performed global transcriptome analysis of lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in EV71-infected human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and skeletal muscle of mice using second-generation sequencing...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Han Xia, Hong Liu, Lu Zhao, Evans Atoni, Yujuan Wang, Zhiming Yuan
Banna virus (BAV) is considered to be an emerging human pathogen that is transmitted by blood-sucking insects. BAV was isolated from various species of mosquitoes, midges, and livestock. It is widely distributed geographically, since it was identified in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia. Previously reported evolution studies of BAV indicated that BAV can be divided into two groups, including isolates from China and Vietnam clustered in group A, and Indonesian isolates in group B. In this study, we report the isolation of a new strain of BAV named HB14-71-01 from Anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from Hubei, China...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Yoshihito Takano, Yuji Tomaru, Keizo Nagasaki
HcDNAV (a type species of Genus Dinodnavirus ) is a large double-stranded DNA virus, which lytically infects the bloom-forming marine microalga Heterocapsa circularisquama Horiguchi (Dinophyceae). In the present study, detailed observation of the HcDNAV particle and its infection process was conducted via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy (EFM). Each five-fold vertex of the icosahedral virion was decorated with a protrusion, which may be related to the entry process of HcDNAV into the host...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Aleksandra Dydecka, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk, Sylwia Bloch, Gracja Topka, Agnieszka Necel, Logan W Donaldson, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Alicja Węgrzyn
The exo-xis region of lambdoid bacteriophage genomes contains several established and potential genes that are evolutionarily conserved, but not essential for phage propagation under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, deletion or overexpression of either the whole exo-xis region and important regulatory elements can significantly influence the regulation of phage development. This report defines specific roles for orf60a and orf61 in bacteriophage λ and Φ24B , a specific Shiga toxin-converting phage with clinical relevance...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Jumpei Uchiyama, Hidehito Matsui, Hironobu Murakami, Shin-Ichiro Kato, Naoki Watanabe, Tadahiro Nasukawa, Keijiro Mizukami, Masaya Ogata, Masahiro Sakaguchi, Shigenobu Matsuzaki, Hideaki Hanaki
Vertical transmission of Streptococcus agalactiae can cause neonatal infections. A culture test in the late stage of pregnancy is used to screen for the presence of maternal S. agalactiae for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. For the test, a vaginal⁻rectal sample is recommended to be enriched, followed by bacterial identification. In some cases, Enterococcus faecalis overgrows in the enrichment culture. Consequently, the identification test yields false-negative results. Bacteriophages (phages) can be used as antimicrobial materials...
October 10, 2018: Viruses
Long Zhou, Runmin Kang, Jifeng Yu, Bo Xie, Changying Chen, Xingyu Li, Jing Xie, Yonggang Ye, Lu Xiao, Jinling Zhang, Xin Yang, Hongning Wang
Recombination among porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSVs), coupled with point mutations, insertions, and deletions occurring in the genome, is considered to contribute to the emergence of new variants. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of a PRRSV field strain, designated SCN17, isolated from a RespPRRS MLV-vaccinated piglet in China in 2017. Sequence alignment revealed that SCN17 had discontinuous 131-amino acid (111 + 1 + 19-aa) deletion in the NSP2-coding region identical to that of NADC30 when compared to VR-2332...
October 9, 2018: Viruses
Forrest T Goodfellow, Katherine A Willard, Xian Wu, Shelley Scoville, Steven L Stice, Melinda A Brindley
Maternal infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) during pregnancy can result in neonatal abnormalities, including neurological dysfunction and microcephaly. Experimental models of congenital Zika syndrome identified neural progenitor cells as a target of viral infection. Neural progenitor cells are responsible for populating the developing central nervous system with neurons and glia. Neural progenitor dysfunction can lead to severe birth defects, namely, lissencephaly, microcephaly, and cognitive deficits. For this study, the consequences of ZIKV infection in human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor (hNP) cells and neurons were evaluated...
October 9, 2018: Viruses
Alexandre Caron, Mathieu Bourgarel, Julien Cappelle, Florian Liégeois, Hélène M De Nys, François Roger
The maintenance mechanisms of ebolaviruses in African forest ecosystems are still unknown, but indirect evidences point at the involvement of some bat species. Despite intense research, the main bat-maintenance hypothesis has not been confirmed yet. The alternative hypotheses of a non-bat maintenance host or a maintenance community including, or not, several bat and other species, deserves more investigation. However, African forest ecosystems host a large biodiversity and abound in potential maintenance hosts...
October 9, 2018: Viruses
Jennifer H Lun, Joanne Hewitt, Grace J H Yan, Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, William D Rawlinson, Peter A White
For the past two decades, norovirus pandemic variants have emerged every 3⁻5 years, and dominate until they are replaced by alternate strains. However, this scenario changed in 2016 with the co-circulation of six prevalent viruses, three of which possessed the pandemic GII.4 Sydney 2012 capsid. An increased number of institutional gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported within the Oceania region in mid-2017. This study identified emerging noroviruses circulating in Australia and New Zealand in 2017 to assess the changing dynamics of the virus infection...
October 9, 2018: Viruses
Silvia Márquez-Jurado, Aitor Nogales, Ginés Ávila-Pérez, Francisco J Iborra, Luis Martínez-Sobrido, Fernando Almazán
The recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV), its association with Guillain⁻Barré syndrome and fetal abnormalities, and the lack of approved vaccines and antivirals, highlight the importance of developing countermeasures to combat ZIKV disease. In this respect, infectious clones constitute excellent tools to accomplish these goals. However, flavivirus infectious clones are often difficult to work with due to the toxicity of some flavivirus sequences in bacteria. To bypass this problem, several alternative approaches have been applied for the generation of ZIKV clones including, among others, in vitro ligation, insertions of introns and using infectious subgenomic amplicons...
October 7, 2018: Viruses
Cesare E M Gruber, Emanuela Giombini, Marina Selleri, Simon H Tausch, Andreas Andrusch, Alona Tyshaieva, Giusy Cardeti, Raniero Lorenzetti, Lorenzo De Marco, Fabrizio Carletti, Andreas Nitsche, Maria R Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito, Gian Luca Autorino, Concetta Castilletti
Orthopoxviruses (OPVs) are diffused over the complete Eurasian continent, but previously described strains are mostly from northern Europe, and few infections have been reported from Italy. Here we present the extended genomic characterization of OPV Abatino, a novel OPV isolated in Italy from an infected Tonkean macaque, with zoonotic potential. Phylogenetic analysis based on 102 conserved OPV genes (core gene set) showed that OPV Abatino is most closely related to the Ectromelia virus species (ECTV), although placed on a separate branch of the phylogenetic tree, bringing substantial support to the hypothesis that this strain may be part of a novel OPV clade...
October 6, 2018: Viruses
Pierre Pradat, Victor Virlogeux, Eric Trépo
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, defined by active carriage of HCV RNA, affects nearly 1.0% of the worldwide population. The main risk factors include unsafe injection drug use and iatrogenic infections. Chronic HCV infection can promote liver damage, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in affected individuals. The advent of new second-generation, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents allow a virological cure in more than 90% of treated patients, and therefore prevent HCV-related complications. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of DAA-regimens in cirrhotic patients with respect to the occurrence and the recurrence of HCC...
October 6, 2018: Viruses
Karol Sestak
There is an important role non-human primates (NHP) play in biomedical research. Phylogenetic proximity of any of the NHP species to Homo sapiens assures that much better translatability of research outcomes from model studies involving human diseases can be achieved than from those generated with other pre-clinical systems. Our group and others used during past two decades NHPs in research directed towards viral and autoimmune disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. This review summarizes progress made in the area of enteric viral infections including its applicability to human disease...
October 5, 2018: Viruses
Chi-Fei Kao, Hue-Ying Chiou, Yen-Chen Chang, Cheng-Shun Hsueh, Chian-Ren Jeng, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Ivan-Chen Cheng, Victor Fei Pang, Hui-Wen Chang
The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) poses a great threat to the global swine industries and the unreliable protection induced by the currently available vaccines remains a major challenge. We previously generated a genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDV Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain, PEDVPT-P96, and determined its promising host immune response against the virulent PEDVPT-P5 strain. To study the attenuation determinants of PEDVPT-P96 and establish a PEDVPT-P96-based recombinant vector as a vaccine platform for further antigenicity modification, iPEDVPT-P96, a full-length cDNA clone of PEDVPT-P96, was established...
October 4, 2018: Viruses
Zohreh Davoodi, Nicolás Bejerman, Cécile Richet, Denis Filloux, Safaa G Kumari, Elisavet K Chatzivassiliou, Serge Galzi, Charlotte Julian, Samira Samarfard, Verónica Trucco, Fabián Giolitti, Elvira Fiallo-Olivé, Jesús Navas-Castillo, Nader Asaad, Abdul Rahman Moukahel, Jomana Hijazi, Samia Mghandef, Jahangir Heydarnejad, Hossein Massumi, Arvind Varsani, Ralf G Dietzgen, Gordon W Harkins, Darren P Martin, Philippe Roumagnac
Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV), which causes severe disease symptoms in alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) and is transmitted by the widespread aphid species, Aphis craccivora Koch, has been found throughout the Mediterranean basin as well as in Iran and Argentina. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of ALCV and attempt to determine whether the recent discovery and widespread detection of ALCV is attributable either to past diagnostic biases or to the emergence and global spread of the virus over the past few years...
October 4, 2018: Viruses
Yin Xiang Setoh, Nias Y Peng, Eri Nakayama, Alberto A Amarilla, Natalie A Prow, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil was associated with an increased number of fetal brain infections that resulted in a spectrum of congenital neurological complications known as congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Herein, we generated de novo from sequence data an early Asian lineage ZIKV isolate (ZIKV-MY; Malaysia, 1966) not associated with microcephaly and compared the in vitro replication kinetics and fetal brain infection in interferon α/β receptor 1 knockout (IFNAR1-/- ) dams of this isolate and of a Brazilian isolate (ZIKV-Natal; Natal, 2015) unequivocally associated with microcephaly...
October 3, 2018: Viruses
Sarah Zobel, Mechthild Lorenz, Giada Frascaroli, Janik Böhnke, Nicole C Bilz, Megan L Stanifer, Steeve Boulant, Sandra Bergs, Uwe G Liebert, Claudia Claus
Rubella virus (RV) infection impacts cellular metabolic activity in a complex manner with strain-specific nutritional requirements. Here we addressed whether this differential metabolic influence was associated with differences in oxidative stress induction and subsequently with innate immune response activation. The low passaged clinical isolates of RV examined in this study induced oxidative stress as validated through generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) cytoplasmic hydrogen peroxide and mitochondrial superoxide...
October 3, 2018: Viruses
Mahjoub A Ejmal, David J Holland, Robin M MacDiarmid, Michael N Pearson
This study determined the effects of Aspergillus thermomutatus chrysovirus 1 (AthCV1), isolated from Aspergillus thermomutatus, on A. fumigatus , A. nidulans and A. niger. Protoplasts of virus-free isolates of A. fumigatus , A. nidulans and A. niger were transfected with purified AthCV1 particles and the phenotype, growth and sporulation of the isogenic AthCV1-free and AthCV1-infected lines assessed at 20 °C and 37 °C and gene expression data collected at 37 °C. AthCV1-free and AthCV1-infected A. fumigatus produced only conidia at both temperatures but more than ten-fold reduced compared to the AthCV1-infected line...
October 2, 2018: Viruses
Alessia Virzì, Armando Andres Roca Suarez, Thomas F Baumert, Joachim Lupberger
The liver is frequently exposed to toxins, metabolites, and oxidative stress, which can challenge organ function and genomic stability. Liver regeneration is therefore a highly regulated process involving several sequential signaling events. It is thus not surprising that individual oncogenic mutations in hepatocytes do not necessarily lead to cancer and that the genetic profiles of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are highly heterogeneous. Long-term infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) creates an oncogenic environment by a combination of viral protein expression, persistent liver inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronically deregulated signaling events that cumulate as a tipping point for genetic stability...
October 2, 2018: Viruses
Francesco Mancuso, Jiahui Shi, Danish J Malik
Future industrial demand for large quantities of bacteriophages e.g., for phage therapy, necessitates the development of scalable Good Manufacturing Practice compliant (cGMP) production platforms. The continuous production of high titres of E coli T3 phages (1011 PFU mL-1 ) was achieved using two continuous stirred tank bioreactors connected in series, and a third bioreactor was used as a final holding tank operated in semi-batch mode to finish the infection process. The first bioreactor allowed the steady-state propagation of host bacteria using a fully synthetic medium with glucose as the limiting substrate...
October 1, 2018: Viruses
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