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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918431/evaluation-of-microrna-expression-in-patients-with-herpes-zoster
#1
Xihan Li, Ying Huang, Yucheng Zhang, Na He
Reactivated varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which lies latent in the dorsal root ganglions and cranial nerves before its reactivation, is capable of causing herpes zoster (HZ), but the specific mechanism of virus reactivation and latency remains unknown. It was proposed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in body fluids could potentially indicate infection. However, the connection between herpes zoster and circulating miRNAs has not been demonstrated. In this study, 41 HZ patients without superinfection were selected...
December 2, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916968/ion-channel-activity-of-vpu-proteins-is-conserved-throughout-evolution-of-hiv-1-and-siv
#2
Timo Greiner, Sebastian Bolduan, Brigitte Hertel, Christine Groß, Kay Hamacher, Ulrich Schubert, Anna Moroni, Gerhard Thiel
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpu is encoded exclusively by HIV-1 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). The transmembrane domain of the protein has dual functions: it counteracts the human restriction factor tetherin and forms a cation channel. Since these two functions are causally unrelated it remains unclear whether the channel activity has any relevance for viral release and replication. Here we examine structure and function correlates of different Vpu homologs from HIV-1 and SIV to understand if ion channel activity is an evolutionary conserved property of Vpu proteins...
December 1, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916936/capsule-targeting-depolymerase-derived-from-klebsiella-kp36-phage-as-a-tool-for-the-development-of-anti-virulent-strategy
#3
Grażyna Majkowska-Skrobek, Agnieszka Łątka, Rita Berisio, Barbara Maciejewska, Flavia Squeglia, Maria Romano, Rob Lavigne, Carsten Struve, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
The rise of antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading nosocomial pathogen, prompts the need for alternative therapies. We have identified and characterized a novel depolymerase enzyme encoded by Klebsiella phage KP36 (depoKP36), from the Siphoviridae family. To gain insights into the catalytic and structural features of depoKP36, we have recombinantly produced this protein of 93.4 kDa and showed that it is able to hydrolyze a crude exopolysaccharide of a K. pneumoniae host. Using in vitro and in vivo assays, we found that depoKP36 was also effective against a native capsule of clinical K...
December 1, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916855/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-porcine-jejunum-tissues-in-response-to-a-virulent-strain-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-and-its-attenuated-strain
#4
Zhonghua Li, Fangzhou Chen, Shiyi Ye, Xiaozhen Guo, Atta Muhanmmad Memon, Meizhou Wu, Qigai He
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a predominant cause of acute enteric infection, leads to severe dehydrating diarrhea and mortality in piglets all over the world. A virulent PEDV YN13 strain, isolated in our laboratory, was attenuated to yield an attenuated PEDV strain YN144. To better understand the pathogenesis mechanism and the virus-host interaction during infection with both PEDV YN13 and YN144 strains, a comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to investigate the proteomic changes produced in the primary target organ, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 29, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916837/chloroquine-an-endocytosis-blocking-agent-inhibits-zika-virus-infection-in-different-cell-models
#5
Rodrigo Delvecchio, Luiza M Higa, Paula Pezzuto, Ana Luiza Valadão, Patrícia P Garcez, Fábio L Monteiro, Erick C Loiola, André A Dias, Fábio J M Silva, Matthew T Aliota, Elizabeth A Caine, Jorge E Osorio, Maria Bellio, David H O'Connor, Stevens Rehen, Renato Santana de Aguiar, Andrea Savarino, Loraine Campanati, Amilcar Tanuri
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres...
November 29, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898037/analyses-of-evolutionary-characteristics-of-the-hemagglutinin-esterase-gene-of-influenza-c-virus-during-a-period-of-68-years-reveals-evolutionary-patterns-different-from-influenza-a-and-b-viruses
#6
Yuki Furuse, Yoko Matsuzaki, Hidekazu Nishimura, Hitoshi Oshitani
Infections with the influenza C virus causing respiratory symptoms are common, particularly among children. Since isolation and detection of the virus are rarely performed, compared with influenza A and B viruses, the small number of available sequences of the virus makes it difficult to analyze its evolutionary dynamics. Recently, we reported the full genome sequence of 102 strains of the virus. Here, we exploited the data to elucidate the evolutionary characteristics and phylodynamics of the virus compared with influenza A and B viruses...
November 26, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886076/pathogens-inactivated-by-low-energy-electron-irradiation-maintain-antigenic-properties-and-induce-protective-immune-responses
#7
Jasmin Fertey, Lea Bayer, Thomas Grunwald, Alexandra Pohl, Jana Beckmann, Gaby Gotzmann, Javier Portillo Casado, Jessy Schönfelder, Frank-Holm Rögner, Christiane Wetzel, Martin Thoma, Susanne M Bailer, Ekkehard Hiller, Steffen Rupp, Sebastian Ulbert
Inactivated vaccines are commonly produced by incubating pathogens with chemicals such as formaldehyde or β-propiolactone. This is a time-consuming process, the inactivation efficiency displays high variability and extensive downstream procedures are often required. Moreover, application of chemicals alters the antigenic components of the viruses or bacteria, resulting in reduced antibody specificity and therefore stimulation of a less effective immune response. An alternative method for inactivation of pathogens is ionizing radiation...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886075/the-expanding-family-of-virophages
#8
REVIEW
Meriem Bekliz, Philippe Colson, Bernard La Scola
Virophages replicate with giant viruses in the same eukaryotic cells. They are a major component of the specific mobilome of mimiviruses. Since their discovery in 2008, five other representatives have been isolated, 18 new genomes have been described, two of which being nearly completely sequenced, and they have been classified in a new viral family, Lavidaviridae. Virophages are small viruses with approximately 35-74 nm large icosahedral capsids and 17-29 kbp large double-stranded DNA genomes with 16-34 genes, among which a very small set is shared with giant viruses...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886074/eleventh-international-foamy-virus-conference-meeting-report
#9
Florence Buseyne, Antoine Gessain, Marcelo A Soares, André F Santos, Magdalena Materniak-Kornas, Pascale Lesage, Alessia Zamborlini, Martin Löchelt, Wentao Qiao, Dirk Lindemann, Birgitta M Wöhrl, Jonathan P Stoye, Ian A Taylor, Arifa S Khan
The Eleventh International Foamy Virus Conference took place on 9-10 June 2016 at the Institut Pasteur, Paris, France. The meeting reviewed progress on foamy virus (FV) research, as well as related current topics in retrovirology. FVs are complex retroviruses that are widespread in several animal species. Several research topics on these viruses are relevant to human health: cross-species transmission and viral emergence, vectors for gene therapy, development of antiretroviral drugs, retroviral evolution and its influence on the human genome...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886048/interactions-between-the-hiv-1-unspliced-mrna-and-host-mrna-decay-machineries
#10
REVIEW
Daniela Toro-Ascuy, Bárbara Rojas-Araya, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría, Ricardo Soto-Rifo
The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation...
November 23, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879629/erratum-tahara-m-et-al-measles-virus-hemagglutinin-protein-epitopes-the-basis-of-antigenic-stability-viruses-2016-8-216
#11
Maino Tahara, Jean-Philippe Bürckert, Kazuhiko Kanou, Katsumi Maenaka, Claude P Muller, Makoto Takeda
The authors wish to make the following change to their paper [1].[...].
November 21, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869783/comparative-analysis-of-rnai-based-methods-to-down-regulate-expression-of-two-genes-expressed-at-different-levels-in-myzus-persicae
#12
Michaël Mulot, Sylvaine Boissinot, Baptiste Monsion, Maryam Rastegar, Gabriel Clavijo, David Halter, Nicole Bochet, Monique Erdinger, Véronique Brault
With the increasing availability of aphid genomic data, it is necessary to develop robust functional validation methods to evaluate the role of specific aphid genes. This work represents the first study in which five different techniques, all based on RNA interference and on oral acquisition of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), were developed to silence two genes, ALY and Eph, potentially involved in polerovirus transmission by aphids. Efficient silencing of only Eph transcripts, which are less abundant than those of ALY, could be achieved by feeding aphids on transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing an RNA hairpin targeting Eph, on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-Eph recombinant virus, or on in vitro-synthesized Eph-targeting dsRNA...
November 19, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869775/plant-virus-infection-and-the-ubiquitin-proteasome-machinery-arms-race-along-the-endoplasmic-reticulum
#13
REVIEW
Jeanmarie Verchot
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is central to plant virus replication, translation, maturation, and egress. Ubiquitin modification of ER associated cellular and viral proteins, alongside the actions of the 26S proteasome, are vital for the regulation of infection. Viruses can arrogate ER associated ubiquitination as well as cytosolic ubiquitin ligases with the purpose of directing the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) to new targets. Such targets include necessary modification of viral proteins which may stabilize certain complexes, or modification of Argonaute to suppress gene silencing...
November 19, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869772/aphis-glycines-virus-2-a-novel-insect-virus-with-a-unique-genome-structure
#14
Sijun Liu, Diveena Vijayendran, Yuting Chen, Bryony C Bonning
The invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is a major pest in soybeans, resulting in substantial economic loss. We analyzed the A. glycines transcriptome to identify sequences derived from viruses of A. glycines. We identified sequences derived from a novel virus named Aphis glycines virus 2 (ApGlV2). The assembled virus genome sequence was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Sanger sequencing, conserved domains were characterized, and distribution, and transmission examined...
November 19, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869713/role-of-pea-enation-mosaic-virus-coat-protein-in-the-host-plant-and-aphid-vector
#15
Juliette Doumayrou, Melissa Sheber, Bryony C Bonning, W Allen Miller
Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus-vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP) are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae) are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease...
November 18, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869695/studies-in-a-murine-model-confirm-the-safety-of-griffithsin-and-advocate-its-further-development-as-a-microbicide-targeting-hiv-1-and-other-enveloped-viruses
#16
Joseph Calvin Kouokam, Amanda B Lasnik, Kenneth E Palmer
Griffithsin (GRFT), a lectin from Griffithsia species, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication at sub-nanomolar concentrations, with limited cellular toxicity. However, in vivo safety of GRFT is not fully understood, especially following parenteral administration. We first assessed GRFT's effects in vitro, on mouse peripheral blood mononuclear cell (mPBMC) viability, mitogenicity, and activation using flow-cytometry, as well as cytokine secretion through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
November 17, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854339/two-novel-myoviruses-from-the-north-of-iraq-reveal-insights-into-clostridium-difficile-phage-diversity-and-biology
#17
Srwa J Rashid, Jakub Barylski, Katherine R Hargreaves, Andrew A Millard, Gurinder K Vinner, Martha R J Clokie
Bacteriophages (phages) are increasingly being explored as therapeutic agents to combat bacterial diseases, including Clostridium difficile infections. Therapeutic phages need to be able to efficiently target and kill a wide range of clinically relevant strains. While many phage groups have yet to be investigated in detail, those with new and useful properties can potentially be identified when phages from newly studied geographies are characterised. Here, we report the isolation of C. difficile phages from soil samples from the north of Iraq...
November 16, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854326/host-pathogen-interactions-in-measles-virus-replication-and-anti-viral-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Yanliang Jiang, Yali Qin, Mingzhou Chen
The measles virus (MeV) is a contagious pathogenic RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, that can cause serious symptoms and even fetal complications. Here, we summarize current molecular advances in MeV research, and emphasize the connection between host cells and MeV replication. Although measles has reemerged recently, the potential for its eradication is promising with significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of its replication and host-pathogen interactions...
November 16, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854284/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-tmem129-is-a-tri-spanning-transmembrane-protein
#19
Michael L van de Weijer, Guus H van Muijlwijk, Linda J Visser, Ana I Costa, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz, Robert Jan Lebbink
Misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are transported back into the cytosol for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The human cytomegalovirus protein US11 hijacks this ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway to downregulate human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules in virus-infected cells, thereby evading elimination by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Recently, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase transmembrane protein 129 (TMEM129) as a key player in this process, where interference with TMEM129 activity in human cells completely abrogates US11-mediated class I degradation...
November 15, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854239/kshv-entry-and-trafficking-in-target-cells-hijacking-of-cell-signal-pathways-actin-and-membrane-dynamics
#20
REVIEW
Binod Kumar, Bala Chandran
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is etiologically associated with human endothelial cell hyperplastic Kaposi's sarcoma and B-cell primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV infection of adherent endothelial and fibroblast cells are used as in vitro models for infection and KSHV enters these cells by host membrane bleb and actin mediated macropinocytosis or clathrin endocytosis pathways, respectively. Infection in endothelial and fibroblast cells is initiated by the interactions between multiple viral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface associated heparan sulfate (HS), integrins (α3β1, αVβ3 and αVβ5), and EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (EphA2R)...
November 14, 2016: Viruses
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