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Akhil Chameettachal, Vineeta Narayana Pillai, Lizna Mohamed Ali, Fathima Nuzra Nagoor Pitchai, Mustafa Taleb Ardah, Farah Mustafa, Roland Marquet, Tahir Aziz Rizvi
The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Pr77Gag polypeptide is an essential retroviral structural protein without which infectious viral particles cannot be formed. This process requires specific recognition and packaging of dimerized genomic RNA (gRNA) by Gag during virus assembly. Most of the previous work on retroviral assembly has used either the nucleocapsid portion of Gag, or other truncated Gag derivatives—not the natural substrate for virus assembly. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of MMTV gRNA packaging process, we expressed and purified full-length recombinant Pr77Gag -His₆-tag fusion protein from soluble fractions of bacterial cultures...
June 18, 2018: Viruses
Matthew S Parsons, Roger Le Grand, Stephen J Kent
Improved vaccine-mediated protection against HIV-1 requires a thorough understanding of the mode of HIV-1 transmission and how various immune responses control transmission. Cell-associated HIV-1 is infectious and contributes to HIV-1 transmission in humans. Non-human primate models of cell-associated SIV infection demonstrate that cell-associated SIV is more infectious than cell-free SIV. In a recently described chimeric simian⁻human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) macaque model, it was demonstrated that an occult infection with cell-associated SHIV can be established that evades passive protection with a broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)...
June 18, 2018: Viruses
Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Manoela Heringer, Thaís Chouin-Carneiro, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Flávia Barreto Dos Santos
Dengue is a worldwide problem characterized by a multifactorial pathogenesis. Considering the viral components, it is known that high viremia or high levels of the secreted nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) may be associated with a more severe disease. We aimed to characterize the NS1 antigenemia and viremia in dengue fatal and non-fatal cases, as potential markers of progression to a fatal outcome. NS1 antigenemia and viremia were determined in Brazilian dengue fatal cases ( n = 40) and non-fatal cases ( n = 40), representative of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes...
June 14, 2018: Viruses
Ping Li, Qinghua Cui, Lin Wang, Xiujuan Zhao, Yingying Zhang, Balaji Manicassamy, Yong Yang, Lijun Rong, Ruikun Du
Influenza A virus (IAV) causes seasonal epidemics and occasional but devastating pandemics, which are major public health concerns. Because the effectiveness of seasonal vaccines is highly variable and the currently available drugs are limited in their efficacy because of the emergence of drug resistance, there is an urgent need to develop novel antivirals. In this study, we characterized a recombinant IAV-carrying Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) gene and determined its potential as a tool for evaluating therapeutics...
June 13, 2018: Viruses
Brigitte Roy, Cécile Philippe, Martin J Loessner, Jacques Goulet, Sylvain Moineau
Applications for bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents are increasing. The industrial use of these bacterial viruses requires the production of large amounts of suitable strictly lytic phages, particularly for food and agricultural applications. This work describes a new approach for phage production. Phages H387 ( Siphoviridae ) and A511 ( Myoviridae ) were propagated separately using Listeria ivanovii host cells immobilised in alginate beads. The same batch of alginate beads could be used for four successive and efficient phage productions...
June 13, 2018: Viruses
Clara Torres-Barceló
Antibiotic resistance evolution in bacteria indicates that one of the challenges faced by phage therapy is that, sooner or later, bacteria will evolve resistance to phages. Evidently, this is the case of every known antimicrobial therapy, but here this is also part of a ubiquitous natural process of co-evolution between phages and bacteria. Fundamental evolutionary studies hold some clues that are crucial to limit the problematic process of bacterial resistance during phage applications. First, I discuss here the importance of defining evolutionary and ecological factors influencing bacterial resistance and phage counter-defense mechanisms...
June 12, 2018: Viruses
Vasanthan Devaraj, Jiye Han, Chuntae Kim, Yong-Cheol Kang, Jin-Woo Oh
Highly periodic and uniform nanostructures, based on a genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage, displayed unique properties at the nanoscale that have the potential for a variety of applications. In this work, we report a multilayer biofilm with self-assembled nanoporous surfaces involving a nanofiber-like genetically engineered 4E-type M13 bacteriophage, which was fabricated using a simple pulling method. The nanoporous surfaces were effectively formed by using the networking-like structural layers of the M13 bacteriophage during self-assembly...
June 12, 2018: Viruses
Michaelle Chojnacki, Thomas Melendy
The papillomavirus (PV) protein E2 is one of only two proteins required for viral DNA replication. E2 is the viral transcriptional regulator/activation protein as well as the initiator of viral DNA replication. E2 is known to interact with various cellular DNA replication proteins, including the PV E1 protein, the cellular ssDNA binding complex (RPA), and topoisomerase I. Recently, we observed that cellular DNA polymerase ε (pol ε) interacts with the PV helicase protein, E1. E1 stimulates its activity with a very high degree of specificity, implicating pol ε in PV DNA replication...
June 12, 2018: Viruses
Madiiha Bibi Mandary, Chit Laa Poh
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) that mainly affects young children less than five years old. The onset of severe HFMD is due to neurological complications bringing about acute flaccid paralysis and pulmonary oedema. In this review, we address how genetic events such as recombination and spontaneous mutations could change the genomic organization of EV-A71, leading to an impact on viral virulence. An understanding of the recombination mechanism of the poliovirus and non-polio enteroviruses will provide further evidence of the emergence of novel strains responsible for fatal HFMD outbreaks...
June 12, 2018: Viruses
Jessica S Russell, Leon Caly, Renata Kostecki, Sarah L McGuinness, Glen Carter, Dieter Bulach, Torsten Seemann, Tim P Stinear, Rob Baird, Mike Catton, Julian Druce
Murray Valley Encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a mosquito-borne Flavivirus. Clinical presentation is rare but severe, with a case fatality rate of 15⁻30%. Here we report a case of MVEV from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient in the Northern Territory in Australia. Initial diagnosis was performed using both MVEV-specific real-time, and Pan- Flavivirus conventional, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), with confirmation by Sanger sequencing. Subsequent isolation, the first from CSF, was conducted in Vero cells and the observed cytopathic effect was confirmed by increasing viral titre in the real-time PCR...
June 11, 2018: Viruses
Dániel Baráth, Nikoletta Jaksa-Czotter, János Molnár, Tünde Varga, Júlia Balássy, Luca Krisztina Szabó, Zoltán Kirilla, Gábor E Tusnády, Éva Preininger, Éva Várallyay
Fruit trees, such as apricot trees, are constantly exposed to the attack of viruses. As they are propagated in a vegetative way, this risk is present not only in the field, where they remain for decades, but also during their propagation. Metagenomic diagnostic methods, based on next generation sequencing (NGS), offer unique possibilities to reveal all the present pathogens in the investigated sample. Using NGS of small RNAs, a special field of these techniques, we tested leaf samples of different varieties of apricot originating from an isolator house or open field stock nursery...
June 11, 2018: Viruses
Elena Gayo, Vincenzo Cuteri, Laura Polledo, Giacomo Rossi, Juan F García Marín, Silvia Preziuso
Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) are widespread in many countries and cause economically relevant, slow, and persistent diseases in sheep and goats. Monitoring the genetic diversity of SRLVs is useful to improve the diagnostic tools used in the eradication programs. In this study, SRLVs detected in Spanish Assaf sheep with different grades of lymphoproliferative mastitis were sequenced. Genetic characterization showed that most samples belonged to type A and were closer to Spanish SRLV isolates previously classified as A2/A3...
June 9, 2018: Viruses
Camilly P Pires de Mello, George L Drusano, Jaime L Rodriquez, Ajeet Kaushik, Ashley N Brown
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral illness in humans. Currently, there are no therapeutic agents available to prevent or treat DENV infections. Our objective was to fill this unmet medical need by evaluating the antiviral activity of interferon-α (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) as a combination therapy against DENV. DENV-infected Vero and Huh-7 cells were exposed to RBV and/or IFN, and the viral burden was quantified over time by plaque assay. Drug-drug interactions for antiviral effect were determined by fitting a mathematical model to the data...
June 9, 2018: Viruses
Vincenzo Cavalieri, Elena Baiamonte, Melania Lo Iacono
Lentiviruses have a number of molecular features in common, starting with the ability to integrate their genetic material into the genome of non-dividing infected cells. A peculiar property of non-primate lentiviruses consists in their incapability to infect and induce diseases in humans, thus providing the main rationale for deriving biologically safe lentiviral vectors for gene therapy applications. In this review, we first give an overview of non-primate lentiviruses, highlighting their common and distinctive molecular characteristics together with key concepts in the molecular biology of lentiviruses...
June 9, 2018: Viruses
Jatin Shrinet, Neel Sarovar Bhavesh, Sujatha Sunil
Arboviral infection causes dysregulation of cascade of events involving numerous biomolecules affecting fitness of mosquito to combat virus. In response of the viral infection mosquito’s defense mechanism get initiated. Oxidative stress is among the first host responses triggered by the vector. Significant number of information is available showing changes in the transcripts and/or proteins upon Chikungunya virus and Dengue virus mono-infections and as co-infections. In the present study, we collected different -omics data available in the public database along with the data generated in our laboratory related to mono-infections or co-infections of these viruses...
June 9, 2018: Viruses
Julie A Thomas, Jared Orwenyo, Lai-Xi Wang, Lindsay W Black
In bacteriophages related to T4, hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) is incorporated into the genomic DNA during DNA replication and is then further modified to glucosyl-hmC by phage-encoded glucosyltransferases. Previous studies have shown that RB69 shares a core set of genes with T4 and relatives. However, unlike the other “RB” phages, RB69 is unable to recombine its DNA with T4 or with the other “RB” isolates. In addition, despite having homologs to the T4 enzymes used to synthesize hmC, RB69 has no identified homolog to known glucosyltransferase genes...
June 8, 2018: Viruses
Milton Thomas, Max Pierson, Tirth Uprety, Laihua Zhu, Zhiguang Ran, Chithra C Sreenivasan, Dan Wang, Ben Hause, David H Francis, Feng Li, Radhey S Kaushik
Influenza viruses infect the epithelial cells of the swine respiratory tract. Cell lines derived from the respiratory tract of pigs could serve as an excellent in vitro model for studying the pathogenesis of influenza viruses. In this study, we examined the replication of influenza viruses in the MK1-OSU cell line, which was clonally derived from pig airway epithelium. MK1-OSU cells expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin proteins and displayed several sugar moieties on the cell membrane. These cells also expressed both Sial2-3Gal and Sial2-6Gal receptors and were susceptible to swine influenza A, but not to human B and C viruses...
June 7, 2018: Viruses
Valery A Petrenko
The development of phage engineering technology has led to the construction of a novel type of phage display library-a collection of nanofiber materials with diverse molecular landscapes accommodated on the surface of phage particles. These new nanomaterials, called the "landscape phage", serve as a huge resource of diagnostic/detection probes and versatile construction materials for the preparation of phage-functionalized biosensors and phage-targeted nanomedicines. Landscape-phage-derived probes interact with biological threat agents and generate detectable signals as a part of robust and inexpensive molecular recognition interfaces introduced in mobile detection devices...
June 7, 2018: Viruses
Vincent A Fischetti
Bacteriophage lysins and related bacteriolytic enzymes are now considered among the top antibiotic alternatives for solving the mounting resistance problem. Over the past 17 years, lysins have been widely developed against Gram-positive and recently Gram-negative pathogens, and successfully tested in a variety of animal models to demonstrate their efficacy. A lysin (CF-301) directed to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has effectively completed phase 1 human clinical trials, showing safety in this novel therapeutic class...
June 7, 2018: Viruses
Nina N Sykilinda, Alena Y Nikolaeva, Mikhail M Shneider, Dmitry V Mishkin, Artem A Patutin, Vladimir O Popov, Konstantin M Boyko, Natalia L Klyachko, Konstantin A Miroshnikov
Proteins that include enzymatic domain degrading the bacterial cell wall and a domain providing transport through the bacterial outer membrane are considered as prospective compounds to combat pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. This paper presents an isolation and study of an enzyme of this class naturally encoded in the prophage region of Acinetobacter baumannii AB 5075 genome. Recombinant protein expressed in E. coli exhibits an antimicrobial activity with respect to live cultures of Gram-negative bacteria reducing the population of viable bacteria by 1...
June 6, 2018: Viruses
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