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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718834/dna-interacting-characteristics-of-the-archaeal-rudiviral-protein-sirv2_gp1
#1
Eveline Peeters, Maarten Boon, Clare Rollie, Ronnie G Willaert, Marleen Voet, Malcolm F White, David Prangishvili, Rob Lavigne, Tessa E F Quax
Whereas the infection cycles of many bacterial and eukaryotic viruses have been characterized in detail, those of archaeal viruses remain largely unexplored. Recently, studies on a few model archaeal viruses such as SIRV2 (Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus) have revealed an unusual lysis mechanism that involves the formation of pyramidal egress structures on the host cell surface. To expand understanding of the infection cycle of SIRV2, we aimed to functionally characterize gp1, which is a SIRV2 gene with unknown function...
July 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714929/synchronous-langat-virus-infection-of-haemaphysalis-longicornis-using-anal-pore-microinjection
#2
Melbourne Rio Talactac, Kentaro Yoshii, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Kodai Kusakisako, Remil Linggatong Galay, Kozo Fujisaki, Masami Mochizuki, Tetsuya Tanaka
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) serocomplex of flaviviruses consists of arboviruses that cause important diseases in animals and humans. The transmission of this group of viruses is commonly associated with tick species such as Ixodes spp., Dermacentor spp., and Hyalomma spp. In the case of Haemaphysalis longicornis, the detection and isolation of flaviviruses have been previously reported. However, studies showing survival dynamics of any tick-borne flavivirus in H. longicornis are still lacking. In this study, an anal pore microinjection method was used to infect adult H...
July 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714913/novel-fri1-like-viruses-infecting-acinetobacter-baumannii-vb_abap_as11-and-vb_abap_as12-characterization-comparative-genomic-analysis-and-host-recognition-strategy
#3
Anastasia V Popova, Daria G Lavysh, Evgeniy I Klimuk, Mikhail V Edelstein, Alexander G Bogun, Mikhail M Shneider, Artemiy E Goncharov, Sergey V Leonov, Konstantin V Severinov
Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-fermenting aerobic bacterium which is often associated with hospital-acquired infections and known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics, form biofilms, and survive for long periods in hospital environments. In this study, we present two novel viruses, vB_AbaP_AS11 and vB_AbaP_AS12, specifically infecting and lysing distinct multidrug-resistant clinical A. baumannii strains with K19 and K27 capsular polysaccharide structures, respectively. Both phages demonstrate rapid adsorption, short latent periods, and high burst sizes in one-step growth experiments...
July 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708084/molecular-mechanisms-of-human-papillomavirus-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#4
Martin Hufbauer, Baki Akgül
Infection of the cutaneous skin with human papillomaviruses (HPV) of genus betapapillomavirus (βHPV) is associated with the development of premalignant actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma. Due to the higher viral loads of βHPVs in actinic keratoses than in cancerous lesions, it is currently discussed that these viruses play a carcinogenic role in cancer initiation. In vitro assays performed to characterize the cell transforming activities of high-risk HPV types of genus alphapapillomavirus have markedly contributed to the present knowledge on their oncogenic functions...
July 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703784/targeting-pattern-recognition-receptors-prr-for-vaccine-adjuvantation-from-synthetic-prr-agonists-to-the-potential-of-defective-interfering-particles-of-viruses
#5
REVIEW
Andri Vasou, Nazife Sultanoglu, Stephen Goodbourn, Richard E Randall, Leondios G Kostrikis
Modern vaccinology has increasingly focused on non-living vaccines, which are more stable than live-attenuated vaccines but often show limited immunogenicity. Immunostimulatory substances, known as adjuvants, are traditionally used to increase the magnitude of protective adaptive immunity in response to a pathogen-associated antigen. Recently developed adjuvants often include substances that stimulate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), essential components of innate immunity required for the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which serve as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity...
July 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704957/chromosomally-integrated-human-herpesvirus-6-models-of-viral-genome-release-from-the-telomere-and-impacts-on-human-health
#6
REVIEW
Michael L Wood, Nicola J Royle
Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, alongside some other herpesviruses, have the striking capacity to integrate into telomeres, the terminal repeated regions of chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated forms, ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B, are proposed to be a state of latency and it has been shown that they can both be inherited if integration occurs in the germ line. The first step in full viral reactivation must be the release of the integrated viral genome from the telomere and here we propose various models of this release involving transcription of the viral genome, replication fork collapse, and t-circle mediated release...
July 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696406/pcr-dgge-analysis-unravelling-complex-mixtures-of-badnavirus-sequences-present-in-yam-germplasm
#7
Aliyu A Turaki, Moritz Bömer, Gonçalo Silva, P Lava Kumar, Susan E Seal
Badnaviruses (family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus) have emerged as serious pathogens especially affecting the cultivation of tropical crops. Badnavirus sequences can be integrated in host genomes, complicating the detection of episomal infections and the assessment of viral genetic diversity in samples containing a complex mixture of sequences. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) plants are hosts to a diverse range of badnavirus species, and recent findings have suggested that mixed infections occur frequently in West African yam germplasm...
July 11, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696402/variability-of-emaravirus-species-associated-with-sterility-mosaic-disease-of-pigeonpea-in-india-provides-evidence-of-segment-reassortment
#8
Basavaprabhu L L Patil, Meenakshi Dangwal, Ritesh Mishra
Sterility mosaic disease (SMD) of pigeonpea is a serious constraint for cultivation of pigeonpea in India and other South Asian countries. SMD of pigeonpea is associated with two distinct emaraviruses, Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 1 (PPSMV-1) and Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus 2 (PPSMV-2), with genomes consisting of five and six negative-sense RNA segments, respectively. The recently published genome sequences of both PPSMV-1 and PPSMV-2 are from a single location, Patancheru from the state of Telangana in India...
July 11, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696396/the-interaction-between-nidovirales-and-autophagy-components
#9
REVIEW
Yingying Cong, Pauline Verlhac, Fulvio Reggiori
Autophagy is a conserved intracellular catabolic pathway that allows cells to maintain homeostasis through the degradation of deleterious components via specialized double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes. During the past decades, it has been revealed that numerous pathogens, including viruses, usurp autophagy in order to promote their propagation. Nidovirales are an order of enveloped viruses with large single-stranded positive RNA genomes. Four virus families (Arterividae, Coronaviridae, Mesoniviridae, and Roniviridae) are part of this order, which comprises several human and animal pathogens of medical and veterinary importance...
July 11, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698524/telomerase-induction-in-hpv-infection-and-oncogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Rachel Katzenellenbogen
Telomerase extends the repetitive DNA at the ends of linear chromosomes, and it is normally active in stem cells. When expressed in somatic diploid cells, it can lead to cellular immortalization. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with and high-risk for cancer activate telomerase through the catalytic subunit of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The expression of hTERT is affected by both high-risk HPVs, E6 and E7. Seminal studies over the last two decades have identified the transcriptional, epigenetic, and post-transcriptional roles high-risk E6 and E7 have in telomerase induction...
July 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698509/almond-skin-extracts-abrogate-hsv-1-replication-by-blocking-virus-binding-to-the-cell
#11
Carlo Bisignano, Giuseppina Mandalari, Antonella Smeriglio, Domenico Trombetta, Maria Musarra Pizzo, Rosamaria Pennisi, Maria Teresa Sciortino
The aim of the present research was to determine the effect of almond skin extracts on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication. Drug-resistant strains of HSV frequently develop following therapeutic treatment. Therefore, the discovery of novel anti-HSV drugs deserves great effort. Here, we tested both natural (NS) and blanched (BS) polyphenols-rich almond skin extracts against HSV-1. HPLC analysis showed that the prevalent compounds in NS and BS extracts contributing to their antioxidant activity were quercetin, epicatechin and catechin...
July 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698455/development-of-polioencephalomyelitis-in-cesarean-derived-colostrum-deprived-pigs-following-experimental-inoculation-with-either-teschovirus-a-serotype-2-or-serotype-11
#12
Franco Matias Ferreyra, Bailey Arruda, Gregory Stevenson, Kent Schwartz, Darin Madson, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Jianqiang Zhang, Pablo Piñeyro, Qi Chen, Paulo Arruda
Teschovirus encephalomyelitis is a sporadic disease associated with Teschovirus A (PTV) serotype 1 and, less frequently, other serotypes. In recent years, the number of cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory with a history of posterior paresis has increased. Submission histories from various regions of the United States suggest a trend for clinical disease to persist in herds and affect a wider age-range of pigs than historically reported. Polioencephalitis and/or myelitis was consistently present and PTV was detected in affected neural tissue by PCR in a portion of cases...
July 8, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684708/porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-in-europe-in-detail-analyses-of-disease-dynamics-and-molecular-epidemiology
#13
Dennis Hanke, Anne Pohlmann, Carola Sauter-Louis, Dirk Höper, Julia Stadler, Mathias Ritzmann, Adi Steinrigl, Bernd-Andreas Schwarz, Valerij Akimkin, Robert Fux, Sandra Blome, Martin Beer
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease of swine caused by the eponymous virus (PEDV) which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus within the Coronaviridae virus family. Following the disastrous outbreaks in Asia and the United States, PEDV has been detected also in Europe. In order to better understand the overall situation, the molecular epidemiology, and factors that might influence the most variable disease impact; 40 samples from swine feces were collected from different PED outbreaks in Germany and other European countries and sequenced by shot-gun next-generation sequencing...
July 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684681/interplay-between-autophagy-exosomes-and-hiv-1-associated-neurological-disorders-new-insights-for-diagnosis-and-therapeutic-applications
#14
REVIEW
Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Myosotys Rodriguez, Seth M Dever, Mohammad Asad Zadeh, Catherine DeMarino, Michelle L Pleet, Fatah Kashanchi, Nazira El-Hage
The autophagy-lysosomal pathway mediates a degradative process critical in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis as well as the preservation of proper organelle function by selective removal of damaged proteins and organelles. In some situations, cells remove unwanted or damaged proteins and RNAs through the release to the extracellular environment of exosomes. Since exosomes can be transferred from one cell to another, secretion of unwanted material to the extracellular environment in exosomes may have an impact, which can be beneficial or detrimental, in neighboring cells...
July 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678198/virus-host-cell-crosstalk-in-hypoxic-hpv-positive-cancer-cells
#15
REVIEW
Karin Hoppe-Seyler, Julia Mändl, Svenja Adrian, Bianca J Kuhn, Felix Hoppe-Seyler
Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major human carcinogens. The expression of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes plays a key role for HPV-linked oncogenesis. It recently has been found that low oxygen concentrations ("hypoxia"), as present in sub-regions of HPV-positive cancers, strongly affect the interplay between the HPV oncogenes and their transformed host cell. As a result, a state of dormancy is induced in hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells, which is characterized by a shutdown of viral oncogene expression and a proliferative arrest that can be reversed by reoxygenation...
July 5, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678184/sox2-as-a-new-regulator-of-hpv16-transcription
#16
Imelda Martínez-Ramírez, Víctor Del-Castillo-Falconi, Irma B Mitre-Aguilar, Alfredo Amador-Molina, Adela Carrillo-García, Elizabeth Langley, Alejandro Zentella-Dehesa, Ernesto Soto-Reyes, Alejandro García-Carrancá, Luis A Herrera, Marcela Lizano
Persistent infections with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) constitute the main risk factor for cervical cancer development. HPV16 is the most frequent type associated to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), followed by HPV18. The long control region (LCR) in the HPV genome contains the replication origin and sequences recognized by cellular transcription factors (TFs) controlling viral transcription. Altered expression of E6 and E7 viral oncogenes, modulated by the LCR, causes modifications in cellular pathways such as proliferation, leading to malignant transformation...
July 5, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678154/complex-virus-host-interactions-involved-in-the-regulation-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-replication-a-minireview
#17
REVIEW
Su Li, Jinghan Wang, Qian Yang, Muhammad Naveed Anwar, Shaoxiong Yu, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is one of the most devastating epizootic diseases of pigs in many countries. Viruses are small intracellular parasites and thus rely on the cellular factors for replication. Fundamental aspects of CSFV-host interactions have been well described, such as factors contributing to viral attachment, modulation of genomic replication and translation, antagonism of innate immunity, and inhibition of cell apoptosis. However, those host factors that participate in the viral entry, assembly, and release largely remain to be elucidated...
July 5, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677645/hepatitis-delta-virus-replication-strategy-and-upcoming-therapeutic-options-for-a-neglected-human-pathogen
#18
REVIEW
Florian A Lempp, Stephan Urban
The human Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is unique among all viral pathogens. Encoding only one protein (Hepatitis Delta Antigen; HDAg) within its viroid-like self-complementary RNA, HDV constitutes the smallest known virus in the animal kingdom. To disseminate in its host, HDV depends on a helper virus, the human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which provides the envelope proteins required for HDV assembly. HDV affects an estimated 15-20 million out of the 240 million chronic HBV-carriers and disperses unequally in disparate geographical regions of the world...
July 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677644/2bc-non-structural-protein-of-enterovirus-a71-interacts-with-snare-proteins-to-trigger-autolysosome-formation
#19
Jeffrey K F Lai, I-Ching Sam, Pauline Verlhac, Joël Baguet, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Mathias Faure, Yoke Fun Chan
Viruses have evolved unique strategies to evade or subvert autophagy machinery. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) induces autophagy during infection in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we report that EV-A71 triggers autolysosome formation during infection in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells to facilitate its replication. Blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion with chloroquine inhibited virus RNA replication, resulting in lower viral titres, viral RNA copies and viral proteins. Overexpression of the non-structural protein 2BC of EV-A71 induced autolysosome formation...
July 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677643/telomeres-and-telomerase-role-in-marek-s-disease-virus-pathogenesis-integration-and-tumorigenesis
#20
REVIEW
Ahmed Kheimar, Renato L Previdelli, Darren J Wight, Benedikt B Kaufer
Telomeres protect the ends of vertebrate chromosomes from deterioration and consist of tandem nucleotide repeats (TTAGGG)n that are associated with a number of proteins. Shortening of the telomeres occurs during genome replication, thereby limiting the replication potential of somatic cells. To counteract this shortening, vertebrates encode the telomerase complex that maintains telomere length in certain cell types via de novo addition of telomeric repeats. Several herpesviruses, including the highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV), harbor telomeric repeats (TMR) identical to the host telomere sequences at the ends of their linear genomes...
July 4, 2017: Viruses
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