journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Viruses

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039746/preclinical-testing-of-an-oncolytic-parvovirus-standard-protoparvovirus-h-1pv-efficiently-induces-osteosarcoma-cell-lysis-in-vitro
#1
Carsten Geiss, Zoltán Kis, Barbara Leuchs, Monika Frank-Stöhr, Jörg R Schlehofer, Jean Rommelaere, Christiane Dinsart, Jeannine Lacroix
Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant disease of the bone. On the basis of early clinical experience in the 1960s with H-1 protoparvovirus (H-1PV) in osteosarcoma patients, this effective oncolytic virus was selected for systematic preclinical testing on various osteosarcoma cell cultures. A panel of five human osteosarcoma cell lines (CAL 72, H-OS, MG-63, SaOS-2, U-2OS) was tested. Virus oncoselectivity was confirmed by infecting non-malignant human neonatal fibroblasts and osteoblasts used as culture models of non-transformed mesenchymal cells...
October 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035342/seed-transmission-of-beet-curly-top-virus-and-beet-curly-top-iran-virus-in-a-local-cultivar-of-petunia-in-iran
#2
Ameneh Anabestani, Seyed Ali Akbar Behjatnia, Keramat Izadpanah, Saeid Tabein, Gian Paolo Accotto
Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) are known as the causal agents of curly top disease in beet and several other dicotyledonous plants in Iran. These viruses are transmitted by Circulifer species, and until now, there has been no confirmed report of their seed transmission. A percentage (38.2-78.0%) of the seedlings developed from the seeds of a petunia local cultivar under insect-free conditions showed stunting, interveinal chlorosis, leaf curling, and vein swelling symptoms, and were infected by BCTV when tested by PCR...
October 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035332/random-network-models-to-predict-the-long-term-impact-of-hpv-vaccination-on-genital-warts
#3
Javier Díez-Domingo, Víctor Sánchez-Alonso, Rafael-J Villanueva, Luis Acedo, José-Antonio Moraño, Javier Villanueva-Oller
The Human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine induces a herd immunity effect in genital warts when a large number of the population is vaccinated. This aspect should be taken into account when devising new vaccine strategies, like vaccination at older ages or male vaccination. Therefore, it is important to develop mathematical models with good predictive capacities. We devised a sexual contact network that was calibrated to simulate the Spanish epidemiology of different HPV genotypes. Through this model, we simulated the scenario that occurred in Australia in 2007, where 12-13 year-old girls were vaccinated with a three-dose schedule of a vaccine containing genotypes 6 and 11, which protect against genital warts, and also a catch-up program in women up to 26 years of age...
October 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035292/secreted-expression-of-the-cap-gene-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-in-classical-swine-fever-virus-c-strain-potential-of-c-strain-used-as-a-vaccine-vector
#4
Lingkai Zhang, Yongfeng Li, Libao Xie, Xiao Wang, Xulei Gao, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Bivalent vaccines based on live attenuated viruses expressing a heterologous protein are an attractive strategy to address co-infections with various pathogens in the field. Considering the excellent efficacy and safety of the lapinized live attenuated vaccine C-strain (HCLV strain) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV), we proposed that C-strain has the potential as a viral vector for developing bivalent vaccines. To this end, we generated three recombinant viruses based on C-strain, one expressing the capsid (Cap) gene of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) with the nuclear localization signal (NLS) (rHCLV-2ACap), and the other two expressing the PCV2 Cap gene without the NLS yet containing the signal peptide of the prolactin gene (rHCLV-pspCap) or that of the ubiquitin-specific peptidase gene (rHCLV-uspCap)...
October 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036922/microrna-and-mrna-dysregulation-in-astrocytes-infected-with-zika-virus
#5
Robert A Kozak, Anna Majer, Mia J Biondi, Sarah J Medina, Lee W Goneau, Babu V Sajesh, Jessy A Slota, Vanessa Zubach, Alberto Severini, David Safronetz, Shannon L Hiebert, Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth, Gary P Kobinger
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is an ongoing public health concern. ZIKV is a flavivirus reported to be associated with microcephaly, and recent work in animal models demonstrates the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and affect fetal brain development. Recent findings suggest that the virus preferentially infects neural stem cells and thereby deregulates gene expression, cell cycle progression, and increases cell death. However, neuronal stem cells are not the only brain cells that are susceptible to ZIKV and infection of other brain cells may contribute to disease progression...
October 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027916/a-next-generation-sequencing-approach-uncovers-viral-transcripts-incorporated-in-poxvirus-virions
#6
Marica Grossegesse, Joerg Doellinger, Berit Haldemann, Lars Schaade, Andreas Nitsche
Transcripts are known to be incorporated in particles of DNA viruses belonging to the families of Herpesviridae and Mimiviridae, but the presence of transcripts in other DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, has not been analyzed yet. Therefore, we first established a next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based protocol, enabling the unbiased identification of transcripts in virus particles. Subsequently, we applied our protocol to analyze RNA in an emerging zoonotic member of the Poxviridae family, namely Cowpox virus...
October 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023371/expression-profiles-of-ligands-for-activating-natural-killer-cell-receptors-on-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-cd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cells
#7
Alexandra Tremblay-McLean, Julie Bruneau, Bertrand Lebouché, Irene Lisovsky, Rujun Song, Nicole F Bernard
Natural Killer (NK) cell responses to HIV-infected CD4 T cells (iCD4) depend on the integration of signals received through inhibitory (iNKR) and activating NK receptors (aNKR). iCD4 activate NK cells to inhibit HIV replication. HIV infection-dependent changes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands for iNKR on iCD4 are well documented. By contrast, less is known regarding the HIV infection related changes in ligands for aNKR on iCD4. We examined the aNKR ligand profiles HIV p24⁺ HIV iCD4s that maintained cell surface CD4 (iCD4⁺), did not maintain CD4 (iCD4(-)) and uninfected CD4 (unCD4) T cells for expression of unique long (UL)-16 binding proteins-1 (ULBP-1), ULBP-2/5/6, ULBP-3, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1-related (MIC)-A, MIC-B, CD48, CD80, CD86, CD112, CD155, Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, ICAM-2, HLA-E, HLA-F, HLA-A2, HLA-C, and the ligands to NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, and killer immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DS1 (KIR3DS1) by flow cytometry on CD4 T cells from 17 HIV-1 seronegative donors activated and infected with HIV...
October 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023368/the-evolutionary-history-and-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-nc-lineage-of-citrus-tristeza-virus
#8
María José Benítez-Galeano, Matías Castells, Rodney Colina
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is a major pathogen affecting citrus trees worldwide. However, few studies have focused on CTV's evolutionary history and geographic behavior. CTV is locally dispersed by an aphid vector and long distance dispersion due to transportation of contaminated material. With the aim to delve deeper into the CTV-NC (New Clade) genotype evolution, we estimated an evolution rate of 1.19 × 10(-3) subs/site/year and the most common recent ancestor in 1977. Furthermore, the place of origin of the genotype was in the United States, and a great expansion of the population was observed in Uruguay...
October 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994713/the-luteovirus-p4-movement-protein-is-a-suppressor-of-systemic-rna-silencing
#9
Adriana F Fusaro, Deborah A Barton, Kenlee Nakasugi, Craig Jackson, Melanie L Kalischuk, Lawrence M Kawchuk, Maite F S Vaslin, Regis L Correa, Peter M Waterhouse
The plant viral family Luteoviridae is divided into three genera: Luteovirus, Polerovirus and Enamovirus. Without assistance from another virus, members of the family are confined to the cells of the host plant's vascular system. The first open reading frame (ORF) of poleroviruses and enamoviruses encodes P0 proteins which act as silencing suppressor proteins (VSRs) against the plant's viral defense-mediating RNA silencing machinery. Luteoviruses, such as barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), however, have no P0 to carry out the VSR role, so we investigated whether other proteins or RNAs encoded by BYDV-PAV confer protection against the plant's silencing machinery...
October 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994707/why-human-papillomavirus-acute-infections-matter
#10
REVIEW
Samuel Alizon, Carmen Lía Murall, Ignacio G Bravo
Most infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are `acute', that is non-persistent. Yet, for HPVs, as for many other oncoviruses, there is a striking gap between our detailed understanding of chronic infections and our limited data on the early stages of infection. Here we argue that studying HPV acute infections is necessary and timely. Focusing on early interactions will help explain why certain infections are cleared while others become chronic or latent. From a molecular perspective, descriptions of immune effectors and pro-inflammatory pathways during the initial stages of infections have the potential to lead to novel treatments or to improved handling algorithms...
October 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991178/polyprotein-processing-as-a-determinant-for-in-vitro-activity-of-semliki-forest-virus-replicase
#11
Maija K Pietilä, Irina C Albulescu, Martijn J van Hemert, Tero Ahola
Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that induces membrane invaginations (spherules) in host cells. These harbor the viral replication complexes (RC) that synthesize viral RNA. Alphaviruses have four replicase or nonstructural proteins (nsPs), nsP1-4, expressed as polyprotein P1234. An early RC, which synthesizes minus-strand RNA, is formed by the polyprotein P123 and the polymerase nsP4. Further proteolytic cleavage results in a late RC consisting of nsP1-4 and synthesizing plus strands...
October 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991176/innate-immune-evasion-mediated-by-flaviviridae-non-structural-proteins
#12
REVIEW
Shun Chen, Zhen Wu, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng
Flaviviridae-caused diseases are a critical, emerging public health problem worldwide. Flaviviridae infections usually cause severe, acute or chronic diseases, such as liver damage and liver cancer resulting from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and high fever and shock caused by yellow fever. Many researchers worldwide are investigating the mechanisms by which Flaviviridae cause severe diseases. Flaviviridae can interfere with the host's innate immunity to achieve their purpose of proliferation. For instance, dengue virus (DENV) NS2A, NS2B3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5; HCV NS2, NS3, NS3/4A, NS4B and NS5A; and West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 and NS4B proteins are involved in immune evasion...
October 7, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984827/the-bcl-2-family-in-host-virus-interactions
#13
REVIEW
Marc Kvansakul, Sofia Caria, Mark G Hinds
Members of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family are pivotal arbiters of mitochondrially mediated apoptosis, a process of fundamental importance during tissue development, homeostasis, and disease. At the structural and mechanistic level, the mammalian members of the Bcl-2 family are increasingly well understood, with their interplay ultimately deciding the fate of a cell. Dysregulation of Bcl-2-mediated apoptosis underlies a plethora of diseases, and numerous viruses have acquired homologs of Bcl-2 to subvert host cell apoptosis and autophagy to prevent premature death of an infected cell...
October 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981470/telomere-dynamics-in-immune-senescence-and-exhaustion-triggered-by-chronic-viral-infection
#14
REVIEW
Marcia Bellon, Christophe Nicot
The progressive loss of immunological memory during aging correlates with a reduced proliferative capacity and shortened telomeres of T cells. Growing evidence suggests that this phenotype is recapitulated during chronic viral infection. The antigenic volume imposed by persistent and latent viruses exposes the immune system to unique challenges that lead to host T-cell exhaustion, characterized by impaired T-cell functions. These dysfunctional memory T cells lack telomerase, the protein capable of extending and stabilizing chromosome ends, imposing constraints on telomere dynamics...
October 5, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976939/autophagy-proteins-in-viral-exocytosis-and-anti-viral-immune-responses
#15
REVIEW
Christian Münz
Abstract: Autophagy-related (Atg) gene-encoded proteins were originally described for their crucial role in macroautophagy, a catabolic pathway for cytoplasmic constituent degradation in lysosomes. Recently it has become clear that modules of this machinery can also be used to influence endo- and exocytosis. This mini review discusses how these alternative Atg functions support virus replication and viral antigen presentation on major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and II molecules. A better understanding of the modular use of the macroautophagy machinery might enable us to manipulate these alternative functions of Atg proteins during anti-viral therapies and to attenuate virus-induced immune pathologies...
October 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972551/sophoraflavenone-g-restricts-dengue-and-zika-virus-infection-via-rna-polymerase-interference
#16
Alexandre Sze, David Olagnier, Samar Bel Hadj, Xiaoying Han, Xiao Hong Tian, Hong-Tao Xu, Long Yang, Qingwen Shi, Penghua Wang, Mark A Wainberg, Jian Hui Wu, Rongtuan Lin
Flaviviruses including Zika, Dengue and Hepatitis C virus cause debilitating diseases in humans, and the former are emerging as global health concerns with no antiviral treatments. We investigated Sophora Flavecens, used in Chinese medicine, as a source for antiviral compounds. We isolated Sophoraflavenone G and found that it inhibited Hepatitis C replication, but not Sendai or Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Pre- and post-infection treatments demonstrated anti-flaviviral activity against Dengue and Zika virus, via viral RNA polymerase inhibition...
October 3, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972544/assessing-monkeypox-virus-prevalence-in-small-mammals-at-the-human-animal-interface-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#17
Jeffrey B Doty, Jean M Malekani, Lem's N Kalemba, William T Stanley, Benjamin P Monroe, Yoshinori U Nakazawa, Matthew R Mauldin, Trésor L Bakambana, Tobit Liyandja Dja Liyandja, Zachary H Braden, Ryan M Wallace, Divin V Malekani, Andrea M McCollum, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Ashley Kondas, A Townsend Peterson, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke, Kevin L Karem, Ginny L Emerson, Darin S Carroll
During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Some rodents and shrews were captured from houses where human monkeypox cases have recently been identified, but most were trapped in forests and agricultural areas near villages...
October 3, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974036/protoparvovirus-knocking-at-the-nuclear-door
#18
REVIEW
Elina Mäntylä, Michael Kann, Maija Vihinen-Ranta
Protoparvoviruses target the nucleus due to their dependence on the cellular reproduction machinery during the replication and expression of their single-stranded DNA genome. In recent years, our understanding of the multistep process of the capsid nuclear import has improved, and led to the discovery of unique viral nuclear entry strategies. Preceded by endosomal transport, endosomal escape and microtubule-mediated movement to the vicinity of the nuclear envelope, the protoparvoviruses interact with the nuclear pore complexes...
October 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973998/protein-inhibitor-of-activated-stat2-restricts-hcv-replication-by-modulating-viral-proteins-degradation
#19
Jing Guo, Dan Chen, Xiaoxiao Gao, Xue Hu, Yuan Zhou, Chunchen Wu, Yun Wang, Jizheng Chen, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in cells is controlled by many host factors. In this report, we found that protein inhibitor of activated STAT2 (PIAS2), which is a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, restricted HCV replication. During infection, HCV core, NS3 and NS5A protein expression, as well as the viral assembly and budding efficiency were enhanced when endogenous PIAS2 was knocked down, whereas exogenous PIAS2 expression decreased HCV core, NS3, and NS5A protein expression and the viral assembly and budding efficiency...
September 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973992/3d-spatially-resolved-models-of-the-intracellular-dynamics-of-the-hepatitis-c-genome-replication-cycle
#20
Markus M Knodel, Sebastian Reiter, Paul Targett-Adams, Alfio Grillo, Eva Herrmann, Gabriel Wittum
Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors...
September 30, 2017: Viruses
journal
journal
42435
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"