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Viruses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106842/adenoviral-vectors-armed-with-cell-fusion-inducing-proteins-as-anti-cancer-agents
#1
REVIEW
Joshua Del Papa, Robin J Parks
Cancer is a devastating disease that affects millions of patients every year, and causes an enormous economic burden on the health care system and emotional burden on affected families. The first line of defense against solid tumors is usually extraction of the tumor, when possible, by surgical methods. In cases where solid tumors can not be safely removed, chemotherapy is often the first line of treatment. As metastatic cancers often become vigorously resistant to treatments, the development of novel, more potent and selective anti-cancer strategies is of great importance...
January 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106841/perspective-on-global-measles-epidemiology-and-control-and-the-role-of-novel-vaccination-strategies
#2
REVIEW
Melissa M Coughlin, Andrew S Beck, Bettina Bankamp, Paul A Rota
Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network...
January 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106839/the-importance-of-the-nucleus-during-flavivirus-replication
#3
REVIEW
Adam J Lopez-Denman, Jason M Mackenzie
Flaviviruses are a large group of arboviruses of significant medical concern worldwide. With outbreaks a common occurrence, the need for efficient viral control is required more than ever. It is well understood that flaviviruses modulate the composition and structure of membranes in the cytoplasm that are crucial for efficient replication and evading immune detection. As the flavivirus genome consists of positive sense RNA, replication can occur wholly within the cytoplasm. What is becoming more evident is that some viral proteins also have the ability to translocate to the nucleus, with potential roles in replication and immune system perturbation...
January 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106836/the-astrovirus-capsid-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Carlos F Arias, Rebecca M DuBois
Astroviruses are enterically transmitted viruses that cause infections in mammalian and avian species. Astroviruses are nonenveloped, icosahedral viruses comprised of a capsid protein shell and a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. The capsid protein undergoes dramatic proteolytic processing both inside and outside of the host cell, resulting in a coordinated maturation process that affects cellular localization, virus structure, and infectivity. After maturation, the capsid protein controls the initial phases of virus infection, including virus attachment, endocytosis, and genome release into the host cell...
January 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106800/frequency-and-pathological-phenotype-of-bovine-astrovirus-ch13-neuros1-infection-in-neurologically-diseased-cattle-towards-assessment-of-causality
#5
Senija Selimovic-Hamza, Céline L Boujon, Monika Hilbe, Anna Oevermann, Torsten Seuberlich
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has opened up the possibility of detecting new viruses in unresolved diseases. Recently, astrovirus brain infections have been identified in neurologically diseased humans and animals by NGS, among them bovine astrovirus (BoAstV) CH13/NeuroS1, which has been found in brain tissues of cattle with non-suppurative encephalitis. Only a few studies are available on neurotropic astroviruses and a causal relationship between BoAstV CH13/NeuroS1 infections and neurological disease has been postulated, but remains unproven...
January 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098749/a-semipersistent-plant-virus-differentially-manipulates-feeding-behaviors-of-different-sexes-and-biotypes-of-its-whitefly-vector
#6
Shaohua Lu, Jingjing Li, Xueli Wang, Danyang Song, Rune Bai, Yan Shi, Qinsheng Gu, Yen-Wen Kuo, Bryce W Falk, Fengming Yan
It is known that plant viruses can change the performance of their vectors. However, there have been no reports on whether or how a semipersistent plant virus manipulates the feeding behaviors of its whitefly vectors. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is an emergent plant virus in many Asian countries and is transmitted specifically by B and Q biotypes of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique to investigate the effect of CCYV on the feeding behaviors of B...
January 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085120/astrovirus-diagnostics
#7
REVIEW
Philippe Pérot, Marc Lecuit, Marc Eloit
Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes...
January 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085106/effective-detection-of-porcine-cytomegalovirus-using-non-invasively-taken-samples-from-piglets
#8
Vladimir A Morozov, Gerd Heinrichs, Joachim Denner
Shortage of human organs forced the development of xenotransplantation using cells, tissues, and organs from pigs. Xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of porcine zoonotic microorganisms, among them the porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV). To prevent virus transmission, pigs have to be screened using sensitive methods. In order to perform regular follow-ups and further breeding of the animals, samples for testing should be collected by low-invasive or non-invasive methods. Sera, ear biopsies, as well as oral and anal swabs were collected from ten 10-day-old Aachen minipigs (AaMP) and tested for PCMV using sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as well as uniplex and duplex real-time PCR...
January 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085055/acknowledgement-to-reviewers-of-viruses-in-2016
#9
EDITORIAL
Viruses Editorial Office
The editors of Viruses would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for  assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...].
January 11, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075421/mx-is-not-responsible-for-the-antiviral-activity-of-interferon-%C3%AE-against-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#10
Jing Zhou, Shi-Qi Wang, Jian-Chao Wei, Xiao-Min Zhang, Zhi-Can Gao, Ke Liu, Zhi-Yong Ma, Pu-Yan Chen, Bin Zhou
Mx proteins are interferon (IFN)-induced dynamin-like GTPases that are present in all vertebrates and inhibit the replication of myriad viruses. However, the role Mx proteins play in IFN-mediated suppression of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is unknown. In this study, we set out to investigate the effects of Mx1 and Mx2 expression on the interferon-α (IFNα) restriction of JEV replication. To evaluate whether the inhibitory activity of IFNα on JEV is dependent on Mx1 or Mx2, we knocked down Mx1 or Mx2 with siRNA in IFNα-treated PK-15 cells and BHK-21 cells, then challenged them with JEV; the production of progeny virus was assessed by plaque assay, RT-qPCR, and Western blotting...
January 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075376/the-new-high-resolution-crystal-structure-of-ns2b-ns3-protease-of-zika-virus
#11
Syed Lal Badshah, Abdul Naeem, Yahia Mabkhot
Zika virus (ZIKV) is the cause of a significant viral disease affecting humans, which has spread throughout many South American countries and has also become a threat to Southeastern Asia. This commentary discusses the article "Crystal structure of unlinked NS2B-NS3 protease from Zika virus" published recently in the journal Science by Zhang et al. of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. They resolved a 1.58 Å resolution structure of the NS2B-NS3 protease of ZIKV and demonstrated how peptide and non-peptide inhibitors interact with this structure, along with the different conformational states that were observed...
January 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075374/a-point-mutation-in-a-herpesvirus-co-determines-neuropathogenicity-and-viral-shedding
#12
Mathias Franz, Laura B Goodman, Gerlinde R Van de Walle, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D Greenwood
A point mutation in the DNA polymerase gene in equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is one determinant for the development of neurological disease in horses. Three recently conducted infection experiments using domestic horses and ponies failed to detect statistically significant differences in viral shedding between the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants. These results were interpreted as suggesting the absence of a consistent selective advantage of the neuropathogenic variant and therefore appeared to be inconsistent with a systematic increase in the prevalence of neuropathogenic strains...
January 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067803/regulation-of-viral-replication-apoptosis-and-pro-inflammatory-responses-by-17-aag-during-chikungunya-virus-infection-in-macrophages
#13
Tapas K Nayak, Prabhudutta Mamidi, Abhishek Kumar, Laishram Pradeep K Singh, Subhransu S Sahoo, Soma Chattopadhyay, Subhasis Chattopadhyay
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively...
January 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054965/attacked-from-all-sides-rna-decay-in-antiviral-defense
#14
REVIEW
Jerome M Molleston, Sara Cherry
The innate immune system has evolved a number of sensors that recognize viral RNA (vRNA) to restrict infection, yet the full spectrum of host-encoded RNA binding proteins that target these foreign RNAs is still unknown. The RNA decay machinery, which uses exonucleases to degrade aberrant RNAs largely from the 5' or 3' end, is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in antiviral defense. The 5' degradation pathway can directly target viral messenger RNA (mRNA) for degradation, as well as indirectly attenuate replication by limiting specific pools of endogenous RNAs...
January 4, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042824/the-immune-response-to-astrovirus-infection
#15
REVIEW
Shauna A Marvin
Astroviruses are one of the leading causes of pediatric gastroenteritis worldwide and are clinically importantly pathogens in the elderly and immunocompromised populations. Although the use of cell culture systems and small animal models have enhanced our understanding of astrovirus infection and pathogenesis, little is known about the immune response to astrovirus infection. Studies from humans and animals suggest that adaptive immunity is important in restricting classic and novel astrovirus infections, while studies from animal models and cell culture systems suggest that an innate immune system plays a role in limiting astrovirus replication...
December 30, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009841/use-of-cellular-decapping-activators-by-positive-strand-rna-viruses
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer Jungfleisch, Bernat Blasco-Moreno, Juana Díez
Positive-strand RNA viruses have evolved multiple strategies to not only circumvent the hostile decay machinery but to trick it into being a priceless collaborator supporting viral RNA translation and replication. In this review, we describe the versatile interaction of positive-strand RNA viruses and the 5'-3' mRNA decay machinery with a focus on the viral subversion of decapping activators. This highly conserved viral trickery is exemplified with the plant Brome mosaic virus, the animal Flock house virus and the human hepatitis C virus...
December 21, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009832/nmr-studies-of-the-structure-and-function-of-the-hiv-1-5-leader
#17
REVIEW
Sarah C Keane, Michael F Summers
The 5'-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA) fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally modulated by structural changes in the 5'-leader. Over the past 30 years, combinations of nucleotide reactivity mapping experiments with biochemistry, mutagenesis, and phylogenetic studies have provided clues regarding the secondary structures of stretches of residues within the leader that adopt functionally discrete domains...
December 21, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009821/insights-into-adenovirus-uncoating-from-interactions-with-integrins-and-mediators-of-host-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Glen R Nemerow, Phoebe L Stewart
Human adenoviruses are large (150 MDa) nonenveloped double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that cause acute respiratory, gastrointestinal and ocular infections. Despite these disease associations, adenovirus has aided basic and clinical research efforts through studies of its association with cells and as a target of host antiviral responses. This review highlights the knowledge of adenovirus disassembly and nuclear transport gleaned from structural, biophysical and functional analyses of adenovirus interactions with soluble and membrane-associated host molecules...
December 21, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999419/transspecies-transmission-of-gammaretroviruses-and-the-origin-of-the-gibbon-ape-leukaemia-virus-galv-and-the-koala-retrovirus-korv
#19
REVIEW
Joachim Denner
Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is a frequent event, and the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a well-known example. The gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GaLV) and koala retrovirus (KoRV), two gammaretroviruses, are also the result of a transspecies transmission, however from a still unknown host. Related retroviruses have been found in Southeast Asian mice although the sequence similarity was limited. Viruses with a higher sequence homology were isolated from Melomys burtoni, the Australian and Indonesian grassland melomys...
December 20, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999393/diverse-strategies-used-by-picornaviruses-to-escape-host-rna-decay-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Wendy Ullmer, Bert L Semler
To successfully replicate, viruses protect their genomic material from degradation by the host cell. RNA viruses must contend with numerous destabilizing host cell processes including mRNA decay pathways and viral RNA (vRNA) degradation resulting from the antiviral response. Members of the Picornaviridae family of small RNA viruses have evolved numerous diverse strategies to evade RNA decay, including incorporation of stabilizing elements into vRNA and re-purposing host stability factors. Viral proteins are deployed to disrupt and inhibit components of the decay machinery and to redirect decay machinery to the advantage of the virus...
December 20, 2016: Viruses
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