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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671810/bacteriophage-applications-for-food-production-and-processing
#1
REVIEW
Zachary D Moye, Joelle Woolston, Alexander Sulakvelidze
Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to varying degrees, but they also have considerable drawbacks, such as a large initial investment, potential damage to processing equipment due to their corrosive nature, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities (and possibly the nutritional value) of foods...
April 19, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670059/variability-studies-of-two-prunus-infecting-fabaviruses-with-the-aid-of-high-throughput-sequencing
#2
Igor Koloniuk, Tatiana Sarkisova, Karel Petrzik, Ondřej Lenz, Jaroslava Přibylová, Jana Fránová, Josef Špak, Leonidas Lotos, Christina Beta, Asimina Katsiani, Thierry Candresse, Varvara I Maliogka
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing, we describe co-infection of sweet and sour cherry trees with diverse genomic variants of two closely related viruses, namely prunus virus F (PrVF) and cherry virus F (CVF). Both viruses are most homologous to members of the Fabavirus genus ( Secoviridae family)...
April 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670049/remembering-jan-svoboda-a-personal-reflection
#3
Robin A Weiss
The Czech scientist Jan Svoboda was a pioneer of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the 1960s, before the discovery of reverse transcriptase, he demonstrated the long-term persistence of the viral genome in non-productive mammalian cells, and he supported the DNA provirus hypothesis of Howard Temin. He showed how the virus can be rescued in the infectious form and elucidated the replication-competent nature of the Prague strain of RSV later used for the identification of the src oncogene. His studies straddled molecular oncology and virology, and he remained an active contributor to the field until his death last year...
April 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670029/concepts-in-light-microscopy-of-viruses
#4
REVIEW
Robert Witte, Vardan Andriasyan, Fanny Georgi, Artur Yakimovich, Urs F Greber
Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections...
April 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659541/zika-virus-in-the-male-reproductive-tract
#5
REVIEW
Liesel Stassen, Charles W Armitage, David J van der Heide, Kenneth W Beagley, Francesca D Frentiu
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are resurging across the globe. Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused significant concern in recent years because it can lead to congenital malformations in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. Unlike other arboviruses, ZIKV can be sexually transmitted and may persist in the male reproductive tract. There is limited information regarding the impact of ZIKV on male reproductive health and fertility. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie persistent ZIKV infections in men is critical to developing effective vaccines and therapies...
April 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662026/the-hard-way-towards-an-antibody-based-hiv-1-env-vaccine-lessons-from-other-viruses
#6
REVIEW
Oliver Ringel, Vincent Vieillard, Patrice Debré, Jutta Eichler, Hildegard Büning, Ursula Dietrich
Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced the number of new infections worldwide, a vaccine against HIV-1 is still urgently needed. We discuss here the major reasons for the failure of "classical" vaccine approaches, which are mostly due to the biological properties of the virus itself...
April 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662014/interferon-independent-non-canonical-stat-activation-and-virus-induced-inflammation
#7
REVIEW
Yuchen Nan, Chunyan Wu, Yan-Jin Zhang
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of secreted proteins that play critical roles in antiviral immunity, antitumor activity, activation of cytotoxic T cells, and modulation of host immune responses. IFNs are cytokines, and bind receptors on cell surfaces to trigger signal transduction. The major signaling pathway activated by IFNs is the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway, a complex pathway involved in both viral and host survival strategies. On the one hand, viruses have evolved strategies to escape from antiviral host defenses evoked by IFN-activated JAK/STAT signaling...
April 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652855/a-new-model-for-the-dynamics-of-hepatitis-c-infection-derivation-analysis-and-implications
#8
Philip J Aston
We review various existing models of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and show that there are inconsistencies between the models and known behaviour of the infection. A new model for HCV infection is proposed, based on various dynamical processes that occur during the infection that are described in the literature. This new model is analysed, and three steady state branches of solutions are found when there is no stem cell generation of hepatocytes. Unusually, the branch of infected solutions that connects the uninfected branch and the pure infection branch can be found analytically and always includes a limit point, subject to a few conditions on the parameters...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652854/phylogenetic-analysis-and-pathogenicity-assessment-of-the-emerging-recombinant-subgroup-k-of-avian-leukosis-virus-in-south-china
#9
Zijun Zhao, Mingzhang Rao, Ming Liao, Weisheng Cao
In recent years, cases of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infection have become more frequent in China. We isolated 6 ALV strains from yellow feather broiler breeders in south China from 2014 to 2016. Their full genomes were sequenced, compared, and analyzed with other reference strains of ALV. The complete genomic nucleotide sequences of GD150509, GD160403, GD160607, GDFX0601, and GDFX0602 were 7482 bp in length, whereas GDFX0603 was 7480 bp. They shared 99.7% to 99.8% identity with each other. Homology analysis showed that the gag , pol , long terminal repeats (LTRs), and the transmembrane region (gp37) of the env genes of the 6 viruses were well conserved to endogenous counterpart sequences (>97...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652824/full-genome-characterization-and-genetic-evolution-of-west-african-isolates-of-bagaza-virus
#10
Martin Faye, Oumar Faye, Moussa Moise Diagne, Gamou Fall, Manfred Weidmann, Mbacke Sembene, Amadou Alpha Sall, Ousmane Faye
Bagaza virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, first isolated in 1966 in Central African Republic. It has currently been identified in mosquito pools collected in the field in West and Central Africa. Emergence in wild birds in Europe and serological evidence in encephalitis patients in India raise questions on its genetic evolution and the diversity of isolates circulating in Africa. To better understand genetic diversity and evolution of Bagaza virus, we describe the full-genome characterization of 11 West African isolates, sampled from 1988 to 2014...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652800/full-genome-sequencing-reveals-new-southern-african-territories-genotypes-bringing-us-closer-to-understanding-true-variability-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-in-africa
#11
Lidia Lasecka-Dykes, Caroline F Wright, Antonello Di Nardo, Grace Logan, Valerie Mioulet, Terry Jackson, Tobias J Tuthill, Nick J Knowles, Donald P King
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hooved animals that poses a constant burden on farmers in endemic regions and threatens the livestock industries in disease-free countries. Despite the increased number of publicly available whole genome sequences, FMDV data are biased by the opportunistic nature of sampling. Since whole genomic sequences of Southern African Territories (SAT) are particularly underrepresented, this study sequenced 34 isolates from eastern and southern Africa...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652799/combination-kinase-inhibitor-treatment-suppresses-rift-valley-fever-virus-replication
#12
Todd M Bell, Virginia Espina, Lindsay Lundberg, Chelsea Pinkham, Ashwini Brahms, Brian D Carey, Shih-Chao Lin, Bibha Dahal, Caitlin Woodson, Cynthia de la Fuente, Lance A Liotta, Charles L Bailey, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. In this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. Previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 S6K, p90RSK, ERK, and p38 MAPK, are phosphorylated following Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection. Furthermore, inhibiting p70 S6K through treatment with the FDA approved drug rapamycin prevents RVFV pathogenesis in a mouse model of infection...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652795/counteracting-akt-activation-by-hiv-protease-inhibitors-in-monocytes-macrophages
#13
Sébastien Pasquereau, Amit Kumar, Wasim Abbas, Georges Herbein
Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes that are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The persistence of latent reservoirs in successfully treated patients, mainly located in macrophages and latently infected resting CD4+ T cells, remains a major obstacle in HIV-1 eradication. We assessed the in vitro effects of an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) on HIV-1 Nef-induced Akt activation in macrophages and on HIV-1 reactivation in U1 monocytoid cells...
April 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649135/development-and-validation-of-a-microtiter-plate-based-assay-for-determination-of-bacteriophage-host-range-and-virulence
#14
Yicheng Xie, Laith Wahab, Jason J Gill
Bacteriophages, which are the natural predators of bacteria, have re-emerged as an attractive alternative to combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Phages are highly specific at the species and strain level and measurement of the phage host range plays an important role in utilizing the phage as antimicrobials. The most common method for phage host range determination has been to spot phage lysates on soft agar overlays and observe plaque formation. In this study, a liquid culture-based assay was developed in a 96-well microtiter plate format to measure the phage host range and virulence for a collection of 15 Salmonella phages against a panel of 20 Salmonella strains representing 11 serovars...
April 12, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642590/characterizing-phage-genomes-for-therapeutic-applications
#15
Casandra W Philipson, Logan J Voegtly, Matthew R Lueder, Kyle A Long, Gregory K Rice, Kenneth G Frey, Biswajit Biswas, Regina Z Cer, Theron Hamilton, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly
Multi-drug resistance is increasing at alarming rates. The efficacy of phage therapy, treating bacterial infections with bacteriophages alone or in combination with traditional antibiotics, has been demonstrated in emergency cases in the United States and in other countries, however remains to be approved for wide-spread use in the US. One limiting factor is a lack of guidelines for assessing the genomic safety of phage candidates. We present the phage characterization workflow used by our team to generate data for submitting phages to the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for authorized use...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642587/pervasive-chimerism-in-the-replication-associated-proteins-of-uncultured-single-stranded-dna-viruses
#16
Darius Kazlauskas, Arvind Varsani, Mart Krupovic
Numerous metagenomic studies have uncovered a remarkable diversity of circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, the majority of which are uncultured and unclassified. Unlike capsid proteins, the Reps show significant similarity across different groups of CRESS DNA viruses and have conserved domain organization with the N-terminal nuclease and the C-terminal helicase domain. Consequently, Rep is widely used as a marker for identification, classification and assessment of the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642583/feline-apobec3s-barriers-to-cross-species-transmission-of-fiv
#17
REVIEW
Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Daniela Marino, Kyeong-Lim Lee, Il-Keun Kong, Dieter Häussinger, Carsten Münk
The replication of lentiviruses highly depends on host cellular factors, which defines their species-specific tropism. Cellular restriction factors that can inhibit lentiviral replication were recently identified. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was found to be sensitive to several feline cellular restriction factors, such as apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) and tetherin, but FIV evolved to counteract them. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which feline APOBEC3 restriction factors inhibit FIV replication and discuss the molecular interaction of APOBEC3 proteins with the viral antagonizing protein Vif...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642581/remnants-of-an-ancient-deltaretrovirus-in-the-genomes-of-horseshoe-bats-rhinolophidae
#18
Tomáš Hron, Helena Farkašová, Robert J Gifford, Petr Benda, Pavel Hulva, Tamás Görföl, Jan Pačes, Daniel Elleder
Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences provide a rich source of information about the long-term interactions between retroviruses and their hosts. However, most ERVs are derived from a subset of retrovirus groups, while ERVs derived from certain other groups remain extremely rare. In particular, only a single ERV sequence has been identified that shows evidence of being related to an ancient Deltaretrovirus , despite the large number of vertebrate genome sequences now available. In this report, we identify a second example of an ERV sequence putatively derived from a past deltaretroviral infection, in the genomes of several species of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae)...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642580/arbidol-umifenovir-a-broad-spectrum-antiviral-drug-that-inhibits-medically-important-arthropod-borne-flaviviruses
#19
Jan Haviernik, Michal Štefánik, Martina Fojtíková, Sabrina Kali, Noël Tordo, Ivo Rudolf, Zdeněk Hubálek, Luděk Eyer, Daniel Ruzek
Arthropod-borne flaviviruses are human pathogens of global medical importance, against which no effective small molecule-based antiviral therapy has currently been reported. Arbidol (umifenovir) is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound approved in Russia and China for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza. This compound shows activities against numerous DNA and RNA viruses. The mode of action is based predominantly on impairment of critical steps in virus-cell interactions. Here we demonstrate that arbidol possesses micromolar-level anti-viral effects (EC50 values ranging from 10...
April 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642453/glycosylation-of-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase-of-influenza-a-virus-as-signature-for-ecological-spillover-and-adaptation-among-influenza-reservoirs
#20
Paul Kim, Yo Han Jang, Soon Bin Kwon, Chung Min Lee, Gyoonhee Han, Baik Lin Seong
Glycosylation of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the influenza provides crucial means for immune evasion and viral fitness in a host population. However, the time-dependent dynamics of each glycosylation sites have not been addressed. We monitored the potential N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of over 10,000 HA and NA of H1N1 subtype isolated from human, avian, and swine species over the past century. The results show a shift in glycosylation sites as a hallmark of 1918 and 2009 pandemics, and also for the 1976 "abortive pandemic"...
April 7, 2018: Viruses
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