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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538705/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#1
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
May 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538703/metagenomic-approaches-to-assess-bacteriophages-in-various-environmental-niches
#2
REVIEW
Stephen Hayes, Jennifer Mahony, Arjen Nauta, Douwe van Sinderen
Bacteriophages are ubiquitous and numerous parasites of bacteria and play a critical evolutionary role in virtually every ecosystem, yet our understanding of the extent of the diversity and role of phages remains inadequate for many ecological niches, particularly in cases in which the host is unculturable. During the past 15 years, the emergence of the field of viral metagenomics has drastically enhanced our ability to analyse the so-called viral 'dark matter' of the biosphere. Here, we review the evolution of viral metagenomic methodologies, as well as providing an overview of some of the most significant applications and findings in this field of research...
May 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545254/bacterial-virus-ontology-coordinating-across-databases
#3
Chantal Hulo, Patrick Masson, Ariane Toussaint, David Osumi-Sutherland, Edouard de Castro, Andrea H Auchincloss, Sylvain Poux, Lydie Bougueleret, Ioannis Xenarios, Philippe Le Mercier
Bacterial viruses, also called bacteriophages, display a great genetic diversity and utilize unique processes for infecting and reproducing within a host cell. All these processes were investigated and indexed in the ViralZone knowledge base. To facilitate standardizing data, a simple ontology of viral life-cycle terms was developed to provide a common vocabulary for annotating data sets. New terminology was developed to address unique viral replication cycle processes, and existing terminology was modified and adapted...
May 23, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531167/a-role-for-the-host-dna-damage-response-in-hepatitis-b-virus-cccdna-formation-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Sabrina Schreiner, Michael Nassal
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection puts more than 250 million people at a greatly increased risk to develop end-stage liver disease. Like all hepadnaviruses, HBV replicates via protein-primed reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA, yielding an unusually structured, viral polymerase-linked relaxed-circular (RC) DNA as genome in infectious particles. Upon infection, RC-DNA is converted into nuclear covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA. Associating with cellular proteins into an episomal minichromosome, cccDNA acts as template for new viral RNAs, ensuring formation of progeny virions...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531165/a-japanese-encephalitis-virus-vaccine-inducing-antibodies-strongly-enhancing-in-vitro-infection-is-protective-in-pigs
#5
Obdulio García-Nicolás, Meret E Ricklin, Matthias Liniger, Nathalie J Vielle, Sylvie Python, Philippe Souque, Pierre Charneau, Artur Summerfield
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is responsible for zoonotic severe viral encephalitis transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Although birds are reservoirs, pigs play a role as amplifying hosts, and are affected in particular through reproductive failure. Here, we show that a lentiviral JEV vector, expressing JEV prM and E proteins (TRIP/JEV.prME), but not JEV infection induces strong antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) activities for infection of macrophages. Such antibodies strongly promoted infection via Fc receptors...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531150/distinct-contributions-of-autophagy-receptors-in-measles-virus-replication
#6
Denitsa S Petkova, Pauline Verlhac, Aurore Rozières, Joël Baguet, Mathieu Claviere, Carole Kretz-Remy, Renaud Mahieux, Christophe Viret, Mathias Faure
Autophagy is a potent cell autonomous defense mechanism that engages the lysosomal pathway to fight intracellular pathogens. Several autophagy receptors can recognize invading pathogens in order to target them towards autophagy for their degradation after the fusion of pathogen-containing autophagosomes with lysosomes. However, numerous intracellular pathogens can avoid or exploit autophagy, among which is measles virus (MeV). This virus induces a complete autophagy flux, which is required to improve viral replication...
May 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531104/stumbling-across-the-same-phage-comparative-genomics-of-widespread-temperate-phages-infecting-the-fish-pathogen-vibrio-anguillarum
#7
Panos G Kalatzis, Nanna Iben Rørbo, Daniel Castillo, Jesper Juel Mauritzen, Jóhanna Jørgensen, Constantina Kokkari, Faxing Zhang, Pantelis Katharios, Mathias Middelboe
Nineteen Vibrio anguillarum-specific temperate bacteriophages isolated across Europe and Chile from aquaculture and environmental sites were genome sequenced and analyzed for host range, morphology and life cycle characteristics. The phages were classified as Siphoviridae with genome sizes between 46,006 and 54,201 bp. All 19 phages showed high genetic similarity, and 13 phages were genetically identical. Apart from sporadically distributed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genetic diversifications were located in three variable regions (VR1, VR2 and VR3) in six of the phage genomes...
May 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534856/manipulation-of-viral-micrornas-as-a-potential-antiviral-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection
#8
Jiang Deng, Jun Xiao, Ping Ma, Bo Gao, Feng Gong, Liping Lv, Yanyu Zhang, Jinbo Xu
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection leads to notable morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Current antiviral drugs are effective but seriously limited in their long-term use due to their relatively high toxicity. In the present study, we characterized the expression of murine CMV microRNAs (MCMV miRNAs) both in vitro and in vivo. Although 29 miRNAs were detectable during in vitro infection, only 11 miRNAs (classified as Group 1) were detectable during in vivo infection, and as many as 18 viral miRNAs (classified as Group 2) were less detectable (<50% of animals) in both the liver and lungs...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534849/evaluation-and-comparison-of-the-pathogenicity-and-host-immune-responses-induced-by-a-g2b-taiwan-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-strain-pintung-52-and-its-highly-cell-culture-passaged-strain-in-conventional-5-week-old-pigs
#9
Yen-Chen Chang, Chi-Fei Kao, Chia-Yu Chang, Chian-Ren Jeng, Pei-Shiue Tsai, Victor Fei Pang, Hue-Ying Chiou, Ju-Yi Peng, Ivan-Chen Cheng, Hui-Wen Chang
A genogroup 2b (G2b) porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) Taiwan Pintung 52 (PEDVPT) strain was isolated in 2014. The pathogenicity and host antibody responses elicited by low-passage (passage 5; PEDVPT-P5) and high-passage (passage 96; PEDVPT-P96) PEDVPT strains were compared in post-weaning PEDV-seronegative pigs by oral inoculation. PEDVPT-P5-inoculation induced typical diarrhea during 1-9 days post inoculation with fecal viral shedding persisting for 26 days. Compared to PEDVPT-P5, PEDVPT-P96 inoculation induced none-to-mild diarrhea and lower, delayed fecal viral shedding...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534836/differentiation-and-structure-in-sulfolobus-islandicus-rod-shaped-virus-populations
#10
Maria A Bautista, Jesse A Black, Nicholas D Youngblut, Rachel J Whitaker
In the past decade, molecular surveys of viral diversity have revealed that viruses are the most diverse and abundant biological entities on Earth. In culture, however, most viral isolates that infect microbes are represented by a few variants isolated on type strains, limiting our ability to study how natural variation affects virus-host interactions in the laboratory. We screened a set of 137 hot spring samples for viruses that infect a geographically diverse panel of the hyperthemophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534829/variation-in-the-genetic-repertoire-of-viruses-infecting-micromonas-pusilla-reflects-horizontal-gene-transfer-and-links-to-their-environmental-distribution
#11
Jan F Finke, Danielle M Winget, Amy M Chan, Curtis A Suttle
Prasinophytes, a group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has a global distribution and is infected by large double-stranded DNA viruses (prasinoviruses) in the family Phycodnaviridae. This study examines the genetic repertoire, phylogeny, and environmental distribution of phycodnaviruses infecting Micromonas pusilla, other prasinophytes and chlorophytes. Based on comparisons among the genomes of viruses infecting M. pusilla and other phycodnaviruses, as well as the genome from a host isolate of M. pusilla, viruses infecting M...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534826/atp-driven-contraction-of-phage-t3-capsids-with-dna-incompletely-packaged-in-vivo
#12
Philip Serwer, Elena T Wright
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) cleavage powers packaging of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule in a pre-assembled capsid of phages that include T3. Several observations constitute a challenge to the conventional view that the shell of the capsid is energetically inert during packaging. Here, we test this challenge by analyzing the in vitro effects of ATP on the shells of capsids generated by DNA packaging in vivo. These capsids retain incompletely packaged DNA (ipDNA) and are called ipDNA-capsids; the ipDNA-capsids are assumed to be products of premature genome maturation-cleavage...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534812/understanding-the-complex-patterns-observed-during-hepatitis-b-virus-therapy
#13
Andrea Carracedo Rodriguez, Matthias Chung, Stanca M Ciupe
Data from human clinical trials have shown that the hepatitis B virus (HBV) follows complex profiles, such as bi-phasic, tri-phasic, stepwise decay and rebound. We utilized a deterministic model of HBV kinetics following antiviral therapy to uncover the mechanistic interactions behind HBV dynamics. Analytical investigation of the model was used to separate the parameter space describing virus decay and rebound. Monte Carlo sampling of the parameter space was used to determine the virological, pharmacological and immunological factors that separate the bi-phasic and tri-phasic virus profiles...
May 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524115/label-free-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-treated-rice-infected-with-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus
#14
Anming Yang, Lu Yu, Zhuo Chen, Shanxue Zhang, Jing Shi, Xiaozhen Zhao, Yuanyou Yang, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from thesouth of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years and severelyinfluenced rice production. Its long incubation period and early symptoms are not evident; thus, controlling it is difficult. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a green plant immunomodulator. Early studies showed that preventing and controlling SRBSDV have a certain effect and reduce disease infection rate, but its underlying controlling and preventing mechanism is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524070/tmprss2-and-mspl-facilitate-trypsin-independent-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-replication-in-vero-cells
#15
Wen Shi, Wenlu Fan, Jing Bai, Yandong Tang, Li Wang, Yanping Jiang, Lijie Tang, Min Liu, Wen Cui, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) facilitate the spread and replication of viruses such as influenza and human coronaviruses, although it remains unclear whether TTSPs play a role in the progression of animal coronavirus infections, such as that by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). In this study, TTSPs including TMPRSS2, HAT, DESC1, and MSPL were tested for their ability to facilitate PEDV replication in Vero cells. Our results showed that TMPRSS2 and MSPL played significant roles in the stages of cell-cell fusion and virus-cell fusion, whereas HAT and DESC1 exhibited weaker effects...
May 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509878/antigenic-and-biological-characterization-of-orf2-6-variants-at-early-times-following-prrsv-infection
#16
Alyssa B Evans, Hyelee Loyd, Jenelle R Dunkelberger, Sarah van Tol, Marcus J Bolton, Karin S Dorman, Jack C M Dekkers, Susan Carpenter
Genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) challenges efforts to develop effective and broadly acting vaccines. Although genetic variation in PRRSV has been extensively documented, the effects of this variation on virus phenotype are less well understood. In the present study, PRRSV open reading frame (ORF)2-6 variants predominant during the first six weeks following experimental infection were characterized for antigenic and replication phenotype. There was limited genetic variation during these early times after infection; however, distinct ORF2-6 haplotypes that differed from the NVSL97-7895 inoculum were identified in each of the five pigs examined...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509877/human-beta-defensin-2-selectively-inhibits-hiv-1-in-highly-permissive-ccr6%C3%A2-%C2%BAcd4%C3%A2-%C2%BA-t-cells
#17
Mark K Lafferty, Lingling Sun, Aaron Christensen-Quick, Wuyuan Lu, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6)⁺CD4⁺ T cells are preferentially infected and depleted during HIV disease progression, but are preserved in non-progressors. CCR6 is expressed on a heterogeneous population of memory CD4⁺ T cells that are critical to mucosal immunity. Preferential infection of these cells is associated, in part, with high surface expression of CCR5, CXCR4, and α4β7. In addition, CCR6⁺CD4⁺ T cells harbor elevated levels of integrated viral DNA and high levels of proliferation markers...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509875/in-silico-analysis-of-epitope-based-vaccine-candidates-against-hepatitis-b-virus-polymerase-protein
#18
Juzeng Zheng, Xianfan Lin, Xiuyan Wang, Liyu Zheng, Songsong Lan, Sisi Jin, Zhanfan Ou, Jinming Wu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has persisted as a major public health problem due to the lack of an effective treatment for those chronically infected. Therapeutic vaccination holds promise, and targeting HBV polymerase is pivotal for viral eradication. In this research, a computational approach was employed to predict suitable HBV polymerase targeting multi-peptides for vaccine candidate selection. We then performed in-depth computational analysis to evaluate the predicted epitopes' immunogenicity, conservation, population coverage, and toxicity...
May 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505134/a-novel-roseosiphophage-isolated-from-the-oligotrophic-south-china-sea
#19
Yunlan Yang, Lanlan Cai, Ruijie Ma, Yongle Xu, Yigang Tong, Yong Huang, Nianzhi Jiao, Rui Zhang
The Roseobacter clade is abundant and widespread in marine environments and plays an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycling. In this present study, a lytic siphophage (labeled vB_DshS-R5C) infecting the strain type of Dinoroseobacter shibae named DFL12(T), which is part of the Roseobacter clade, was isolated from the oligotrophic South China Sea. Phage R5C showed a narrow host range, short latent period and low burst size. The genome length of phage R5C was 77, 874 bp with a G+C content of 61.5%. Genomic comparisons detected no genome matches in the GenBank database and phylogenetic analysis based on DNA polymerase I revealed phylogenetic features that were distinct to other phages, suggesting the novelty of R5C...
May 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505117/hiv-enhancing-and-hiv-inhibiting-properties-of-cationic-peptides-and-proteins
#20
REVIEW
Alexander M Cole, Amy L Cole
Cationic antimicrobial peptides and proteins have historically been ascribed roles in innate immunity that infer killing of microbial and viral pathogens and protection of the host. In the context of sexually transmitted HIV-1, we take an unconventional approach that questions this paradigm. It is becoming increasingly apparent that many of the cationic polypeptides present in the human genital or anorectal mucosa, or human semen, are capable of enhancing HIV-1 infection, often in addition to other reported roles as viral inhibitors...
May 15, 2017: Viruses
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