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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463033/spindle-e-acts-antivirally-against-alphaviruses-in-mosquito-cells
#1
Margus Varjak, Isabelle Dietrich, Vattipally B Sreenu, Bethan Eluned Till, Andres Merits, Alain Kohl, Esther Schnettler
Mosquitoes transmit several human- and animal-pathogenic alphaviruses ( Togaviridae family). In alphavirus-infected mosquito cells two different types of virus-specific small RNAs are produced as part of the RNA interference response: short-interfering (si)RNAs and PIWI-interacting (pi)RNAs. The siRNA pathway is generally thought to be the main antiviral pathway. Although an antiviral activity has been suggested for the piRNA pathway its role in host defences is not clear. Knock down of key proteins of the piRNA pathway (Ago3 and Piwi5) in Aedes aegypti -derived cells reduced the production of alphavirus chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific piRNAs but had no effect on virus replication...
February 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462983/a-survey-on-west-nile-and-usutu-viruses-in-horses-and-birds-in-poland
#2
Barbara Bażanów, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Piotr Szymański, Dominika Stygar, Agnieszka Frącka, Jan Twardoń, Roland Kozdrowski, Janusz T Pawęska
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are members of the family Flaviviridae which, natural life cycles involve mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission. Both represent emerging viruses in Europe with potential to cause neuroinvasive disease in humans. This study investigates the seroprevalence of serum neutralizing antibodies to WNV and to USUV in birds and in horses in Poland. Antibodies against WNV and USUV were detected in 5 (35.7%) and in 1 (7.14%) of 14 birds and in 62 (15.08%) and in 115 (27.98%) of 411 horses, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462879/chondrocytes-contribute-to-alphaviral-disease-pathogenesis-as-a-source-of-virus-replication-and-soluble-factor-production
#3
Elisa X Y Lim, Aroon Supramaniam, Hayman Lui, Peta Coles, Wai Suet Lee, Xiang Liu, Penny A Rudd, Lara J Herrero
Arthritogenic alphavirus infections often result in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders that affect the joints, muscle, and bone. In order to evaluate the infection profile of primary human skeletal muscle and chondrocyte cells to Ross River virus (RRV) in vitro, cells were infected at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 over a period of two days. Viral titers were determined by plaque assay and cytokine expression by Bio-Plex® assays using the supernatants harvested. Gene expression studies were conducted using total RNA isolated from cells...
February 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443938/the-microbial-zoo-in-the-c-elegans-intestine-bacteria-fungi-and-viruses
#4
REVIEW
Hongbing Jiang, David Wang
C. elegans is an invaluable model organism that has been a driving force in many fundamental biological discoveries. However, it is only in the past two decades that it has been applied to host-pathogen interaction studies. These studies have been facilitated by the discoveries of natural microbes that infect C. elegans , including bacteria, fungi and viruses. Notably, many of these microbes share a common site of infection, the C. elegans intestine. Furthermore, the recent descriptions of a natural gut microbiota in C...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443908/mosquitoes-as-suitable-vectors-for-alphaviruses
#5
REVIEW
Elisa X Y Lim, Wai Suet Lee, Eugene T Madzokere, Lara J Herrero
Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne viruses and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito vectors. This vector preference by alphaviruses raises the important question of the determinants that contribute to vector competence. There are several tissue barriers of the mosquito that the virus must overcome in order to establish a productive infection. Of importance are the midgut, basal lamina and the salivary glands. Infection of the salivary glands is crucial for virus transmission during the mosquito's subsequent bloodfeed...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443887/impact-of-mutations-in-the-hemagglutinin-of-h10n7-viruses-isolated-from-seals-on-virus-replication-in-avian-and-human-cells
#6
Anne Dittrich, David Scheibner, Ahmed H Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Marcel Gischke, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
Wild birds are the reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses, which are frequently transmitted to domestic birds and occasionally to mammals. In 2014, an H10N7 virus caused severe mortality in harbor seals in northeastern Europe. Although the hemagglutinin (HA) of this virus was closely related to H10 of avian H10N4 virus, it possessed unique nonsynonymous mutations, particularly in the HA1 subunit in or adjacent to the receptor binding domain and proteolytic cleavage site. Here, the impact of these mutations on virus replication was studied in vitro...
February 14, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438328/dna-tumor-virus-regulation-of-host-dna-methylation-and-its-implications-for-immune-evasion-and-oncogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Sharon K Kuss-Duerkop, Joseph A Westrich, Dohun Pyeon
Viruses have evolved various mechanisms to evade host immunity and ensure efficient viral replication and persistence. Several DNA tumor viruses modulate host DNA methyltransferases for epigenetic dysregulation of immune-related gene expression in host cells. The host immune responses suppressed by virus-induced aberrant DNA methylation are also frequently involved in antitumor immune responses. Here, we describe viral mechanisms and virus-host interactions by which DNA tumor viruses regulate host DNA methylation to evade antiviral immunity, which may contribute to the generation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment during cancer development...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438322/the-application-of-nhej-crispr-cas9-and-cre-lox-system-in-the-generation-of-bivalent-duck-enteritis-virus-vaccine-against-avian-influenza-virus
#8
Pengxiang Chang, Yongxiu Yao, Na Tang, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Joshua Sealy, Anabel Clements, Sushant Bhat, Muhammad Munir, Juliet E Bryant, Munir Iqbal
Duck-targeted vaccines to protect against avian influenza are critically needed to aid in influenza disease control efforts in regions where ducks are endemic for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is a promising candidate viral vector for development of vaccines targeting ducks, owing to its large genome and narrow host range. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a versatile gene-editing tool that has proven beneficial for gene modification and construction of recombinant DNA viral vectored vaccines...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438321/the-intersection-of-hpv-epidemiology-genomics-and-mechanistic-studies-of-hpv-mediated-carcinogenesis
#9
Lisa Mirabello, Megan A Clarke, Chase W Nelson, Michael Dean, Nicolas Wentzensen, Meredith Yeager, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Mark Schiffman, Robert D Burk
Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438303/cytoskeletons-in-the-closet-subversion-in-alphaherpesvirus-infections
#10
REVIEW
Christopher E Denes, Monica Miranda-Saksena, Anthony L Cunningham, Russell J Diefenbach
Actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments form the cytoskeleton of vertebrate cells. Involved in maintaining cell integrity and structure, facilitating cargo and vesicle transport, remodelling surface structures and motility, the cytoskeleton is necessary for the successful life of a cell. Because of the broad range of functions these filaments are involved in, they are common targets for viral pathogens, including the alphaherpesviruses. Human-tropic alphaherpesviruses are prevalent pathogens carried by more than half of the world's population; comprising herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2) and varicella-zoster virus, these viruses are characterised by their ability to establish latency in sensory neurons...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438294/first-diagnosed-case-of-camelpox-virus-in-israel
#11
Oran Erster, Sharon Melamed, Nir Paran, Shay Weiss, Yevgeny Khinich, Boris Gelman, Aharon Solomony, Orly Laskar-Levy
An outbreak of a disease in camels with skin lesions was reported in Israel during 2016. To identify the etiological agent of this illness, we employed a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of lesion material revealed the presence of an orthopox-like virus, based on its characteristic brick shape. The virus from the skin lesions successfully infected chorioallantoic membranes and induced cytopathic effect in Vero cells, which were subsequently positively stained by an orthopox-specific antibody...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439467/blood-mitochondrial-dna-content-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Matthew A Budd, Kristina Calli, Lindy Samson, Jennifer Bowes, Anthony Y Y Hsieh, John C Forbes, Ari Bitnun, Joel Singer, Fatima Kakkar, Ariane Alimenti, Evelyn J Maan, M E Suzanne Lewis, Carole Gentile, Hélène C F Côté, Jason C Brophy
Long-term outcomes of perinatal exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are unknown. However, both HIV antiretroviral therapy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with mitochondrial alterations. Leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content can serve as a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. In this cross-sectional, nested case-control study, HEU children with ASD were matched approximately 1:3 on age, sex, and ethnicity to HEU children without ASD, HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) controls, and HUU children with ASD...
February 11, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439438/rna-dependent-rna-polymerases-insights-from-structure-function-and-evolution
#13
REVIEW
Sangita Venkataraman, Burra V L S Prasad, Ramasamy Selvarajan
RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is one of the most versatile enzymes of RNA viruses that is indispensable for replicating the genome as well as for carrying out transcription. The core structural features of RdRps are conserved, despite the divergence in their sequences. The structure of RdRp resembles that of a cupped right hand and consists of fingers, palm and thumb subdomains. The catalysis involves the participation of conserved aspartates and divalent metal ions. Complexes of RdRps with substrates, inhibitors and metal ions provide a comprehensive view of their functional mechanism and offer valuable insights regarding the development of antivirals...
February 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439402/mammarenaviral-infection-is-dependent-on-directional-exposure-to-and-release-from-polarized-intestinal-epithelia
#14
Nikole L Warner, Jenny D Jokinen, Juliane I Beier, Kevin J Sokoloski, Igor S Lukashevich
Mammarenavirusesare single-stranded RNA viruses with a bisegmented ambisense genome. Ingestion has been shown as a natural route of transmission for both Lassa virus (LASV) and Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Due to the mechanism of transmission, epithelial tissues are among the first host cells to come in contact with the viruses, and as such they potentially play a role in spread of virus to naïve hosts. The role of the intestinal epithelia during arenavirus infection remains to be uncharacterized...
February 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439385/alv-integration-associated-hypomethylation-at-the-tert-promoter-locus
#15
Gary Lam, Karen Beemon
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is a simple retrovirus that can induce B-cell lymphoma in chicken(s) and other birds by insertional mutagenesis. The promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has been identified as an important integration site for tumorigenesis. Tumors with TERT promoter integrations are associated with increased TERT expression. The mechanism of this activation is still under investigation. We asked whether insertion of proviral DNA perturbs the epigenome of the integration site and, subsequently, impacts the regulation of neighboring genes...
February 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439384/antibody-responses-to-marburg-virus-in-egyptian-rousette-bats-and-their-role-in-protection-against-infection
#16
Nadia Storm, Petrus Jansen Van Vuren, Wanda Markotter, Janusz T Paweska
Egyptian rousette bats (ERBs) are reservoir hosts for the Marburg virus (MARV). The immune dynamics and responses to MARV infection in ERBs are poorly understood, and limited information exists on the role of antibodies in protection of ERBs against MARV infection. Here, we determine the duration of maternal immunity to MARV in juvenile ERBs, and evaluate the duration of the antibody response to MARV in bats naturally or experimentally infected with the virus. We further explore whether antibodies in previously naturally exposed bats is fully protective against experimental reinfection with MARV...
February 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425176/favipiravir-and-ribavirin-inhibit-replication-of-asian-and-african-strains-of-zika-virus-in-different-cell-models
#17
Ji-Ae Kim, Rak-Kyun Seong, Mukesh Kumar, Ok Sarah Shin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged as a new public health threat. ZIKV infections have caused a wide spectrum of neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, and congenital microcephaly. No effective therapies currently exist for treating patients infected with ZIKV. Herein, we evaluated the anti-viral activity of favipiravir (T-705) and ribavirin against Asian and African strains of ZIKV using different cell models, including human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs), human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and Vero cells...
February 9, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425115/nonstructural-proteins-of-alphavirus-potential-targets-for-drug-development
#18
REVIEW
Farhana Abu Bakar, Lisa F P Ng
Alphaviruses are enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA viruses, typically transmitted by arthropods. They often cause arthralgia or encephalitic diseases in infected humans and there is currently no targeted antiviral treatment available. The re-emergence of alphaviruses in Asia, Europe, and the Americas over the last decade, including chikungunya and o'nyong'nyong viruses, have intensified the search for selective inhibitors. In this review, we highlight key molecular determinants within the alphavirus replication complex that have been identified as viral targets, focusing on their structure and functionality in viral dissemination...
February 9, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419763/the-regulation-of-translation-in-alphavirus-infected-cells
#19
REVIEW
Luis Carrasco, Miguel Angel Sanz, Esther González-Almela
Sindbis virus (SINV) contains an RNA genome of positive polarity with two open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF is translated from the genomic RNA (gRNA), rendering the viral non-structural proteins, whereas the second ORF is translated from a subgenomic mRNA (sgRNA), which directs the synthesis of viral structural proteins. SINV infection strongly inhibits host cell translation through a variety of different mechanisms, including the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2α and the redistribution of cellular proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm...
February 8, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419739/transcytosis-involvement-in-transport-system-and-endothelial-permeability-of-vascular-leakage-during-dengue-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Chanettee Chanthick, Aroonroong Suttitheptumrong, Nantapon Rawarak, Sa-Nga Pattanakitsakul
The major role of endothelial cells is to maintain homeostasis of vascular permeability and to preserve the integrity of vascular vessels to prevent fluid leakage. Properly functioning endothelial cells promote physiological balance and stability for blood circulation and fluid components. A monolayer of endothelial cells has the ability to regulate paracellular and transcellular pathways for transport proteins, solutes, and fluid. In addition to the paracellular pathway, the transcellular pathway is another route of endothelial permeability that mediates vascular permeability under physiologic conditions...
February 8, 2018: Viruses
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