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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230787/bat-astroviruses-towards-understanding-the-transmission-dynamics-of-a-neglected-virus-family
#1
REVIEW
Kerstin Fischer, Vinícius Pinho Dos Reis, Anne Balkema-Buschmann
Bats belong to the order Chiroptera that represents the second largest order of mammals with more than 1200 species and an almost global distribution. Environmental changes and deforestation have severely influenced many ecosystems, intensifying the contact between wildlife and humans. In recent years, bats have been found to harbor a number of different viruses with zoonotic potential, as well as a great diversity of astroviruses, for which the question of zoonotic potential remains unanswered to date. Human astroviruses have been identified as the causative agent for diarrhea in children and immunocompromised patients...
February 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230780/a3r-phage-and-staphylococcus-aureus-lysate-do-not-induce-neutrophil-degranulation
#2
Jan Borysowski, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Piotr Wierzbicki, Danuta Kłosowska, Grażyna Korczak-Kowalska, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Andrzej Górski
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of A3R phage and Staphylococcus aureus lysate obtained after phage infection on neutrophil degranulation. The exocytosis of primary and secondary granules from neutrophils was investigated in vitro in whole blood specimens by flow cytometry based on the expression of specific markers of exocytosis (CD63 for primary granules and CD66b for secondary granules). We found that both A3R and S. aureus lysate had no significant effect on the exocytosis of primary and secondary granules...
February 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230775/prec-and-c-regions-of-woodchuck-hepatitis-virus-facilitate-persistent-expression-of-surface-antigen-of-chimeric-whv-hbv-virus-in-the-hydrodynamic-injection-balb-c-mouse-model
#3
Weimin Wu, Yan Liu, Yong Lin, Danzhen Pan, Dongliang Yang, Mengji Lu, Yang Xu
In the hydrodynamic injection (HI) BALB/c mouse model with the overlength viral genome, we have found that woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) could persist for a prolonged period of time (up to 45 weeks), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) was mostly cleared at week four. In this study, we constructed a series of chimeric genomes based on HBV and WHV, in which the individual sequences of a 1.3-fold overlength HBV genome in pBS-HBV1.3 were replaced by their counterparts from WHV. After HI with the WHV-HBV chimeric constructs in BALB/c mice, serum viral antigen, viral DNA (vDNA), and intrahepatic viral antigen expression were analyzed to evaluate the persistence of the chimeric genomes...
February 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218714/hciv-1-and-other-tailless-icosahedral-internal-membrane-containing-viruses-of-the-family-sphaerolipoviridae
#4
REVIEW
Tatiana A Demina, Maija K Pietilä, Julija Svirskaitė, Janne J Ravantti, Nina S Atanasova, Dennis H Bamford, Hanna M Oksanen
Members of the virus family Sphaerolipoviridae include both archaeal viruses and bacteriophages that possess a tailless icosahedral capsid with an internal membrane. The genera Alpha- and Betasphaerolipovirus comprise viruses that infect halophilic euryarchaea, whereas viruses of thermophilic Thermus bacteria belong to the genus Gammasphaerolipovirus. Both sequence-based and structural clustering of the major capsid proteins and ATPases of sphaerolipoviruses yield three distinct clades corresponding to these three genera...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218712/epidemiology-of-classic-and-novel-human-astrovirus-gastroenteritis-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Diem-Lan Vu, Albert Bosch, Rosa M Pintó, Susana Guix
Since they were identified in 1975, human astroviruses have been considered one of the most important agents of viral acute gastroenteritis in children. However, highly divergent astroviruses infecting humans have been recently discovered and associated with extra-intestinal infections. The report of cases of fatal meningitis and encephalitis, especially in immunocompromised individuals, has broadened their disease spectrum. Although zoonotic transmission among animal and human astroviruses has not been clearly recognized, the genetic similarity between some human and animal viruses makes it likely to occur...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218698/genetic-assessment-of-african-swine-fever-isolates-involved-in-outbreaks-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-between-2005-and-2012-reveals-co-circulation-of-p72-genotypes-i-ix-and-xiv-including-19-variants
#6
Leopold K Mulumba-Mfumu, Jenna E Achenbach, Matthew R Mauldin, Linda K Dixon, Curé Georges Tshilenge, Etienne Thiry, Noelia Moreno, Esther Blanco, Claude Saegerman, Charles E Lamien, Adama Diallo
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating disease of domestic pigs. It is a socioeconomically important disease, initially described from Kenya, but subsequently reported in most Sub-Saharan countries. ASF spread to Europe, South America and the Caribbean through multiple introductions which were initially eradicated-except for Sardinia-followed by re‑introduction into Europe in 2007. In this study of ASF within the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 62 domestic pig samples, collected between 2005-2012, were examined for viral DNA and sequencing at multiple loci: C-terminus of the B646L gene (p72 protein), central hypervariable region (CVR) of the B602L gene, and the E183L gene (p54 protein)...
February 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212298/prevalence-and-clinical-impact-of-human-pegivirus-1-infection-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-in-yunnan-china
#7
Zhijiang Miao, Li Gao, Yindi Song, Ming Yang, Mi Zhang, Jincheng Lou, Yue Zhao, Xicheng Wang, Yue Feng, Xingqi Dong, Xueshan Xia
Human Pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) may have a beneficial impact on disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, analysis of the genotypic diversity of HPgV-1 and its relevance to the progression of HIV-1 disease remains limited. A total of 1062 HIV-1-infected individuals were recruited in all sixteen prefectures of Yunnan province, China. The reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR), phylogenetic analyses, and clinical data analyses were used to detect HPgV-1 infection, determine genotype, and analyze HPgV-1 genotype impact on HIV-1 disease progression...
February 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216551/microscopic-characterization-of-the-brazilian-giant-samba-virus
#8
Jason R Schrad, Eric J Young, Jônatas S Abrahão, Juliana R Cortines, Kristin N Parent
Prior to the discovery of the mimivirus in 2003, viruses were thought to be physically small and genetically simple. Mimivirus, with its ~750-nm particle size and its ~1.2-Mbp genome, shattered these notions and changed what it meant to be a virus. Since this discovery, the isolation and characterization of giant viruses has exploded. One of the more recently discovered giant viruses, Samba virus, is a Mimivirus that was isolated from the Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. Initial characterization of Samba has revealed some structural information, although the preparation techniques used are prone to the generation of structural artifacts...
February 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208602/a-review-of-the-strain-diversity-and-pathogenesis-of-chicken-astrovirus
#9
REVIEW
Victoria J Smyth
Although a relatively recently emerged virus, identified only in 2004 as a separate species of avian astrovirus, chicken astrovirus (CAstV) has been associated with poor growth of broiler flocks, enteritis and diarrhea and is a candidate pathogen in cases of runting stunting syndrome. More recently CAstV has been implicated in cases of two other diseases of broilers as the sole etiological agent, namely severe kidney disease of young broilers with visceral gout and the "White Chicks" hatchery disease. Examination of the strains of CAstV associated with the two latter diseases reveals they are closely related genetically...
February 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157174/myxoma%C3%A2-virus%C3%A2-dsrna%C3%A2-binding%C3%A2-protein%C3%A2-m029%C3%A2-inhibits%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-type%C3%A2-i%C3%A2-ifn-induced%C3%A2-antiviral%C3%A2-state%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-highly%C3%A2-species-specific%C3%A2-fashion
#10
Masmudur M Rahman, Grant McFadden
Myxoma virus (MYXV) is Leporipoxvirus that possesses a specific rabbit-restricted host tropism but exhibits a much broader  cellular host range in cultured cells. MYXV is able to efficiently  block all aspects of the type I interferon (IFN)-induced  antiviral  state  in rabbit cells, partially in  human  cells  and  very  poorly  in  mouse  cells.  The mechanism(s) of this species-specific inhibition of  type I IFN-induced antiviral state is not well understood...
February 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146109/the%C3%A2-characteristics%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-herpes%C3%A2-simplex%C3%A2-virus%C3%A2-type%C3%A2-1-infection%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-rhesus%C3%A2-macaques%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-associated-pathological%C3%A2-features
#11
Shengtao Fan, Hongzhi Cai, Xingli Xu, Min Feng, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Ying Zhang, Zhanlong He, Fengmei Yang, Wenhai Yu, Jingjing Wang, Jumin Zhou, Qihan Li
As one of the major pathogens for human herpetic diseases, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) causes herpes labialis, genital herpes and herpetic encephalitis. Our aim here was to investigate the infectious process of HSV1 in rhesus macaques and the pathological features induced during this infection. Clinical symptoms that manifested in the rhesus macaque during HSV1 infection included vesicular lesions and their pathological features. Viral distribution in the nervous tissues and associated pathologic changes indicated the typical systematic pathological processes associated with viral distribution of HSV1...
January 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146100/echovirus-6-infects-human-exocrine-and-endocrine-pancreatic-cells-and-induces-pro-inflammatory-innate-immune-response
#12
Luis Sarmiento, Gun Frisk, Mahesh Anagandula, Monika Hodik, Ilaria Barchetta, Eitan Netanyah, Eduardo Cabrera-Rode, Corrado M Cilio
Human enteroviruses (HEV), especially coxsackievirus serotype B (CVB) and echovirus (E), have been associated with diseases of both the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, but so far evidence on HEV infection in human pancreas has been reported only in islets and ductal cells. This study aimed to investigate the capability of echovirus strains to infect human exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells. Infection of explanted human islets and exocrine cells with seven field strains of E6 caused cytopathic effect, virus titer increase and production of HEV protein VP1 in both cell types...
January 30, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125002/feline-panleucopenia-virus-ns2-suppresses-the-host-ifn-%C3%AE-induction-by-disrupting-the-interaction-between-tbk1-and-sting
#13
Hongtao Kang, Dafei Liu, Jin Tian, Xiaoliang Hu, Xiaozhan Zhang, Hang Yin, Hongxia Wu, Chunguo Liu, Dongchun Guo, Zhijie Li, Qian Jiang, Jiasen Liu, Liandong Qu
Feline panleucopenia virus (FPV) is a highly infectious pathogen that causes severe diseases in pets, economically important animals and wildlife in China. Although FPV was identified several years ago, little is known about how it overcomes the host innate immunity. In the present study, we demonstrated that infection with the FPV strain Philips-Roxane failed to activate the interferon β (IFN-β) pathway but could antagonize the induction of IFN stimulated by Sendai virus (SeV) in F81 cells. Subsequently, by screening FPV nonstructural and structural proteins, we found that only nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) significantly suppressed IFN expression...
January 23, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124995/virus-escape-and-manipulation-of-cellular-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay
#14
REVIEW
Giuseppe Balistreri, Claudia Bognanni, Oliver Mühlemann
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), a cellular RNA turnover pathway targeting RNAs with features resulting in aberrant translation termination, has recently been found to restrict the replication of positive-stranded RNA ((+)RNA) viruses. As for every other antiviral immune system, there is also evidence of viruses interfering with and modulating NMD to their own advantage. This review will discuss our current understanding of why and how NMD targets viral RNAs, and elaborate counter-defense strategies viruses utilize to escape NMD...
January 23, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117758/astrovirus-pathogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Cydney Johnson, Virginia Hargest, Valerie Cortez, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Astroviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young, elderly, and the immunocompromised. Since the discovery of human astrovirus type 1 (HAstV-1) in 1975, the family Astroviridae has expanded to include two more human clades and numerous mammalian and avian-specific genotypes. Despite this, there is still little known about pathogenesis. The following review highlights the current knowledge of astrovirus pathogenesis, and outlines the critical steps needed to further astrovirus research, including the development of animal models of cell culture systems...
January 22, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117725/envelope-protein-mutations-l107f-and-e138k-are-important-for-neurovirulence-attenuation-for-japanese-encephalitis-virus-sa14-14-2-strain
#16
Jian Yang, Huiqiang Yang, Zhushi Li, Wei Wang, Hua Lin, Lina Liu, Qianzhi Ni, Xinyu Liu, Xianwu Zeng, Yonglin Wu, Yuhua Li
The attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strain SA14-14-2 has been successfully utilized to prevent JEV infection; however, the attenuation determinants have not been fully elucidated. The envelope (E) protein of the attenuated JEV SA14-14-2 strain differs from that of the virulent parental SA14 strain at eight amino acid positions (E107, E138, E176, E177, E264, E279, E315, and E439). Here, we investigated the SA14-14-2-attenuation determinants by mutating E107, E138, E176, E177, and E279 in SA14-14-2 to their status in the parental virulent strain and tested the replication capacity, neurovirulence, neuroinvasiveness, and mortality associated with the mutated viruses in mice, as compared with those of JEV SA14-14-2 and SA14...
January 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117723/nuclear-import-of-hepatitis-b-virus-capsids-and-genome
#17
REVIEW
Lara Gallucci, Michael Kann
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped pararetrovirus with a DNA genome, which is found in an up to 36 nm-measuring capsid. Replication of the genome occurs via an RNA intermediate, which is synthesized in the nucleus. The virus must have thus ways of transporting its DNA genome into this compartment. This review summarizes the data on hepatitis B virus genome transport and correlates the finding to those from other viruses.
January 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117718/novel-approach-for-isolation-and-identification-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pedv-strain-nj-using-porcine-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#18
Wen Shi, Shuo Jia, Haiyuan Zhao, Jiyuan Yin, Xiaona Wang, Meiling Yu, Sunting Ma, Yang Wu, Ying Chen, Wenlu Fan, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea in China and other countries, is responsible for serious economic losses in the pork industry. Inactivated PEDV vaccine plays a key role in controlling the prevalence of PEDV. However, consistently low viral titers are obtained during the propagation of PEDV in vitro; this represents a challenge to molecular analyses of the virus and vaccine development. In this study, we successfully isolated a PEDV isolate (strain NJ) from clinical samples collected during a recent outbreak of diarrhea in piglets in China, using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC)...
January 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117696/a-glimpse-of-nucleo-cytoplasmic-large-dna-virus-biodiversity-through-the-eukaryotic-genomics-window
#19
Lucie Gallot-Lavallée, Guillaume Blanc
The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) are a group of extremely complex double-stranded DNA viruses, which are major parasites of a variety of eukaryotes. Recent studies showed that certain eukaryotes contain fragments of NCLDV DNA integrated in their genome, when surprisingly many of these organisms were not previously shown to be infected by NCLDVs. We performed an update survey of NCLDV genes hidden in eukaryotic sequences to measure the incidence of this phenomenon in common public sequence databases...
January 20, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117695/control-of-hepatitis-b-virus-by-cytokines
#20
REVIEW
Yuchen Xia, Ulrike Protzer
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem worldwide with more than 240 million individuals chronically infected. Current treatments can control HBV replication to a large extent, but cannot eliminate HBV infection. Cytokines have been shown to control HBV replication and contribute to HBV cure in different models. Cytokines play an important role in limiting acute HBV infection in patients and mediate a non-cytolytic clearance of the virus. In this review, we summarize the effects of cytokines and cytokine-induced cellular signaling pathways on different steps of the HBV life cycle, and discuss possible strategies that may contribute to the eradication of HBV through innate immune activation...
January 20, 2017: Viruses
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