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Cancer Epidemiology

Leif Aage Strand, Jan Ivar Martinsen, Inger Rudvin, Elin Anita Fadum, Einar Kristian Borud
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 8358 civilians (5134 men and 3224 women) employed by the Royal Norwegian Navy at any time between 1950 and 2005. METHODS: The cohort was followed for cancer incidence and all-cause mortality from 1960 through 2015. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) and mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated from national rates. Separate SIRs were calculated for a subgroup of male workshop workers and another of female cleaners...
September 8, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
A F Duarte, B Sousa-Pinto, A Freitas, L Delgado, A Costa-Pereira, O Correia
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is an important health concern, with an increasing incidence worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and economic burden of melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) at public hospitals in mainland Portugal. METHODS: We used an administrative database containing a registration of all hospitalizations and ambulatory episodes occurred in Portuguese public hospitals between 2011 and 2015. We assessed all episodes with associated diagnoses of MM or NMSC regarding neoplasm location, metastases occurrence, length of stay, in-hospital mortality and hospital costs...
September 1, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Charles A Stiller, Laura Botta, David H Brewster, Vincent K Y Ho, Anna Maria Frezza, Jeremy Whelan, Paolo G Casali, Annalisa Trama, Gemma Gatta
BACKGROUND: Five-year relative survival (RS) of adults with bone and soft-tissue cancers in Europe was still <60% by 1995-1999. There was large geographical survival variability, mainly for bone tumours, and survival decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. METHODS: Data from 87 population-based cancer registries in 29 countries, extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database, were used to provide updated estimates of survival and describe trends in survival of adults with cancers of these sites across Europe...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Sameer Vali Gopalani, Amanda E Janitz, Janis E Campbell
BACKGROUND: The twin prevention strategies of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening reduce new cases and averts deaths, yet women still develop or die from cervical cancer. To assess and better understand the burden of cervical cancer in Oklahoma, we analyzed incidence and mortality trends in Oklahoma from 1999 to 2013. METHODS: We obtained age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates and calculated standardized rate ratios (RR) for women in Oklahoma compared to the US...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Melissa J Blumenthal, Charlotte Schutz, Graeme Meintjes, Zainab Mohamed, Marc Mendelson, Jon M Ambler, Denise Whitby, Romel D Mackelprang, Sinead Carse, Arieh A Katz, Georgia Schäfer
BACKGROUND: To determine if variations exist in the KSHV host receptor EPHA2's coding region that affect KSHV infectivity and/or KS prevalence among South African HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A retrospective candidate gene association study was performed on 150 patients which were randomly selected from a total of 756 HIV-infected patients and grouped according to their KS status and KSHV serodiagnosis; namely group 1: KS+ /KSHV+ ; group 2: KS- /KSHV+ ; group 3: KS- /KSHV- ...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Jan Herden, Axel Heidenreich, Christian Wittekind, Lothar Weissbach
BACKGROUND: According to the 8th -edition of the tumor-nodes-metastasis-classification localized prostate cancer (PCa) can be divided into two categories (cT1,cT2), two stages (SI,SII), and, by incorporating prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) and WHO-grade (Gleason-Score), into prognostic stage groups (PSG I,IIA,IIB,IIC,III). We examined the predictive value of these systems for an organ-confined disease (pT≤2), favorable WHO-grade ≤2 (Gleason-score ≤7a), and biochemical-free-survival (BFS) after radical prostatectomy (RP)...
August 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Elio Mazzone, Sebastiano Nazzani, Felix Preisser, Zhe Tian, Michele Marchioni, Marco Bandini, Umberto Capitanio, Anil Kapoor, Derya Tilki, Francesco Montorsi, Shahrokh F Shariat, Fred Saad, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I Karakiewicz
OBJECTIVE: Partial nephrectomy (PN) is technically feasible in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tested the contemporary effect of PN on cancer-specific mortality (CSM), other-cause mortality (OCM) and early postoperative outcomes compared to radical nephrectomy (RN) in mRCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first part, we identified surgically treated mRCC patients within the SEER database (2004-2013). After propensity-score (PS) matching, cumulative incidence plots and multivariable competing-risks regression (CRR) models were used...
August 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Brock O'Neil, Christopher Martin, Ashley Kapron, Michael Flynn, Kensaku Kawamoto, Kathleen A Cooney
BACKGROUND: Reports of low-value prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing (testing in which the harms outweigh the benefits) generally employ population level data sources. While such results may be generalizable, they often lack the detail necessary to understand provider clinical decision making and guideline concordance. Using a retrospective study of PSA testing at our institution we intend to characterize the frequency and patterns associated with low-value PSA testing. METHODS: We leveraged the electronic health record to determine guideline-defined low-value testing in our health system from 07/01/2012 to 06/30/2017...
August 18, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Kari A Kusler, Jenny N Poynter
BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men in developed countries. In adults, international variation in testicular cancer incidence rates has been well-described, while previous research on pediatric and adolescent testicular cancer has been more geographically limited. METHODS: In this analysis, we used data from the three most recent volumes of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) and the National Cancer Institute's SEER 18 registries to compare incidence rates for testicular cancer in children (ages 0-14) and adolescents and young adults (AYA; ages 15-39)...
August 18, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
M Colonna, O Boussari, A Cowppli-Bony, P Delafosse, G Romain, P Grosclaude, V Jooste
BACKGROUND: This study analyzes time trends in cancer prevalence in France and provides short-term projections up to the year 2017. The 15-year prevalence for 24 cancers was estimated from the French cancer registries network (FRANCIM) incidence and survival data. METHOD: We estimated prevalence using the P = I × S relationship, with flexible modeling of incidence and survival. Based on observations of the incidence and survival up to 2010, different scenarios for evolution up to 2017 were studied, combining stable and dynamic incidence and survival...
August 17, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Wessel van de Veerdonk, Guido Van Hal, Marc Peeters, Isabel De Brabander, Geert Silversmit, Sarah Hoeck
BACKGROUND: The quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) detects pre-cancerous lesions and colorectal cancer (CRC). Current CRC screening programmes are based upon a binary FIT result. This study evaluates the possibility of personalised risk prediction, based on FIT, age and gender to gain more insight into improving discrimination between normal outcomes, pre-cancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ and CRC working towards a more tailored screening approach. METHODS: In this retrospective study, from October 2013 until July 2016, data from 57,421 participants who underwent a colonoscopy after a positive FIT in the Flemish CRC screening programme were analysed using a multinomial multivariable logistic regression model...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Matthew F Buas, Christopher I Li, Garnet L Anderson, Margaret S Pepe
BACKGROUND: Biomarker candidates are often ranked using P-values. Standard P-value calculations use normal or logit-normal approximations, which may not be correct for small P-values and small sample sizes common in discovery research. METHODS: We compared exact P-values, correct by definition, with logit-normal approximations in a simulated study of 40 cases and 160 controls. The key measure of biomarker performance was sensitivity at 90% specificity. Data for 3000 uninformative false markers and 30 informative true markers were generated randomly...
August 9, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Rhonda Arthur, Victoria A Kirsh, Thomas E Rohan
BACKGROUND: Although, biologically plausible evidence has implicated coffee, tea and caffeine with carcinogenesis, there is a paucity of data on their associations with risk of cancer among Canadian women. Hence, we assessed their associations with risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers within this population. METHODS: The study comprised a subcohort of 3185 women from a cohort of 39,532 female participants who completed self-administered lifestyle and dietary questionnaires at enrollment...
July 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Christine M Friedenreich, Qinggang Wang, Nicholas S Ting, Darren R Brenner, Shannon M Conroy, John B McIntyre, Alexis Mickle, Kerry S Courneya, Tara Beattie
BACKGROUND: Short telomeres may indicate a higher risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. Some observational studies show positive associations between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and physical activity levels. We hypothesized, therefore, that exercise may be one strategy for slowing telomere attrition. METHODS: We conducted an ancillary analysis of blood from a year-long, two-centred, two-armed (1:1) randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise versus usual inactivity...
July 31, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Patrick Muller, Sarah Walters, Michel P Coleman, Laura Woods
BACKGROUND: A key component of recent English cancer policy is the monitoring of trends in early diagnosis of cancer. Early diagnosis can be defined by the disease stage at diagnosis or by other indicators derived from electronic health records. We evaluate the association between different early diagnosis indicators and survival, and discuss the implementation of the indicators in surveillance of early diagnosis. METHODS: We searched the PubMed database and grey literature to identify early diagnosis indicators and evaluate their association with survival...
July 25, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Alexandre Bellier, Marc Colonna, Patricia Delafosse, Arnaud Seigneurin
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the leading type of cancer among men in more developed countries. Incidence trends and survival rates could differ by age groups considering potential differences in the frequency of PSA testing, types of cancers and medical management. Our objective was to compare incidence trends and survival rates of prostate cancer between men aged ≥75 and 60-74 years. METHOD: We analyzed data from a population-based cancer registry in Isère, France...
July 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Adeylson G Ribeiro, Oswaldo S Baquero, Clarice U de Freitas, Francisco Chiaravalotti Neto, Maria Regina A Cardoso, Maria do Rosario D O Latorre, Adelaide C Nardocci
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that exposure to traffic-related air pollution is related to the incidence of and mortality associated with lung cancer. The aim of this study was to perform a spatial analysis, with a Bayesian approach, to test the hypothesis that high traffic density is associated with increased respiratory tract cancer incidence and mortality risk among individuals over 20 years of age residing in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We employed data from two different databases: the São Paulo Municipal Population-Based Cancer Registry (2002-2011 cancer incidence data); and the Mortality Database of the São Paulo Municipal Health Department (2002-2013 cancer mortality data)...
July 23, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
E E Jedy-Agba, E O Dareng, S N Adebamowo, M Odutola, E A Oga, F Igbinoba, T Otu, E Ezeome, F Bray, R Hassan, C A Adebamowo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Sarwar Islam Mozumder, Paul W Dickman, Mark J Rutherford, Paul C Lambert
BACKGROUND: There are a variety of ways for quantifying cancer survival with each measure having advantages and disadvantages. Distinguishing these measures and how they should be interpreted has led to confusion among scientists, the media, health care professionals and patients. This motivates the development of tools to facilitate communication and interpretation of these statistics. METHODS: "InterPreT Cancer Survival" is a newly developed, publicly available, online interactive cancer survival tool targeted towards health-care professionals and epidemiologists (http://interpret...
July 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Leandro Martin Totaro Garcia, Grégore Iven Mielke, Dong Hoon Lee, Kana Wu, Edward Giovannucci, José Eluf-Neto
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is associated with lower risk of colon and breast cancers. Herein we estimated preventable fractions of colon and breast cancers in Brazil by increasing population-wide physical activity to different counterfactual scenarios. METHODS: We used data from a representative national survey in Brazil and corresponding relative risks of colon and postmenopausal breast cancers from a meta-analysis. Estimated cancer incidence was retrieved from GLOBOCAN and Brazilian National Cancer Institute...
July 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
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