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Cancer Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088657/early-adulthood-body-mass-index-cumulative-smoking-and-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-survival
#1
Anna Spreafico, Linda Coate, Rihong Zhai, Wei Xu, Zheng-Fei Chen, Zhuo Chen, Devalben Patel, Brandon Tse, M Catherine Brown, Rebecca S Heist, Lorin Dodbiba, Jennifer Teichman, Matthew Kulke, Li Su, Lawson Eng, Jennifer Knox, Rebecca Wong, Gail E Darling, David C Christiani, Geoffrey Liu
BACKGROUND: Smoking and obesity are esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) risk factors. However, the same risk factors may also affect biological aggressiveness and cancer outcomes. Our study evaluated the combined effects of early-adulthood obesity and cumulative smoking on the EAC survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In two EAC cohorts, Toronto (TO; N=235) and Boston (BO; N=329), associations between early adulthood body mass index (EA-BMI), BMI at 1year prior to diagnosis (BMI-1), and smoking with overall survival (OS) were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for relevant covariates...
January 12, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088656/low-dose-aspirin-use-and-survival-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#2
Úna C Mc Menamin, Chris R Cardwell, Carmel M Hughes, Liam J Murray
BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence from breast cancer cell lines and animal models suggest that aspirin could have anti-cancer properties. In a large breast cancer patient cohort, we investigated whether post-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use was associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality. METHODS: We identified 15,140 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients within the Scottish Cancer Registry. Linkages to the Scottish Prescribing Information System provided data on dispensed medications and breast cancer-specific deaths were identified from National Records of Scotland Death Records...
January 12, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086199/association-between-comorbidity-and-participation-in-breast-and-cervical-cancer-screening-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Abbey Diaz, Jimin Kang, Suzanne P Moore, Peter Baade, Danette Langbecker, John R Condon, Patricia C Valery
BACKGROUND: Comorbidity is associated with poor outcomes for cancer patients but it is less clear how it influences cancer prevention and early detection. This review synthesizes evidence from studies that have quantified the association between comorbidity and participation in breast and cervical screening. METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE databases were systematically searched using key terms related to cancer screening and comorbidity for original research articles published between 1 January 1991 and 21 March 2016...
January 10, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081474/the-future-excess-fraction-of-occupational-cancer-among-those-exposed-to-carcinogens-at-work-in-australia-in-2012
#4
Renee N Carey, Sally J Hutchings, Lesley Rushton, Timothy R Driscoll, Alison Reid, Deborah C Glass, Ellie Darcey, Si Si, Susan Peters, Geza Benke, Lin Fritschi
BACKGROUND: Studies in other countries have generally found approximately 4% of current cancers to be attributable to past occupational exposures. This study aimed to estimate the future burden of cancer resulting from current occupational exposures in Australia. METHODS: The future excess fraction method was used to estimate the future burden of occupational cancer (2012-2094) among the proportion of the Australian working population who were exposed to occupational carcinogens in 2012...
January 9, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056392/trends-of-classification-incidence-mortality-and-survival-of-mds-patients-in-switzerland-between-2001-and-2012
#5
Nicolas Bonadies, Anita Feller, Alicia Rovo, Axel Ruefer, Sabine Blum, Bernhard Gerber, Georg Stuessi, Rudolf Benz, Nathan Cantoni, Andreas Holbro, Adrian Schmidt, Thomas Lehmann, C Matthias Wilk, Volker Arndt
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are emerging disorders of the elderly with an increasing burden on healthcare systems. He we report on the first population-based, epidemiological analysis of patients diagnosed with MDS in Switzerland between 2001 and 2012. The aim of this study was to characterize the extent and limitations of currently available population-based, epidemiological data and formulate recommendations for future health services research. The investigated outcomes comprised trends of annual case frequency, classification of morphological subtypes, incidence, mortality and survival...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056391/proton-pump-inhibitors-on-pancreatic-cancer-risk-and-survival
#6
Malcolm D Kearns, Ben Boursi, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND: Hypergastrinemia may promote the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is known to cause hypergastrinemia. We sought to determine the association between PPI therapy and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer as well as survival following pancreatic cancer diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study and a retrospective cohort study in The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a medical records database representative of the UK population...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056390/disparities-in-hospitalization-outcomes-among-african-american-and-white-prostate-cancer-patients
#7
Gurudatta Naik, Tomi Akinyemiju
OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to determine whether racial disparities exist in hospitalization outcomes among African-American and White hospitalized prostate cancer patients in the United States. We evaluated racial differences among matched groups of patients in post-operative complications, hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We identified a total of 183,856 men aged 40 years and older with a primary diagnosis of prostate cancer, of which 58,701 underwent prostatectomy, through the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and matched all African-American patients with White patients on: 1) Demographics, 2) Demographics+Clinical presentation and 3) Demographics+Clinical presentation+Treatment...
January 2, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039770/body-mass-index-height-and-early-onset-basal-cell-carcinoma-in-a-case-control-study
#8
Yanchang Zhang, Brenda Cartmel, Courtney C Choy, Annette M Molinaro, David J Leffell, Allen E Bale, Susan T Mayne, Leah M Ferrucci
INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignancy in the US. Body mass index (BMI) and height have been associated with a variety of cancer types, yet the evidence regarding BCC is limited. Therefore, we evaluated BMI and height in relation to early-onset BCC (under age 40) and explored the potential role of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and estrogen-related exposures in the BMI-BCC relationship. METHODS: BCC cases (n=377) were identified through a central dermatopathology facility in Connecticut...
December 28, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033538/geographic-patterns-of-change-over-time-in-mammography-differences-between-black-and-white-u-s-medicare-enrollees
#9
Laura Stiel, Samuel Soret, Susanne Montgomery
U.S. Black women have higher breast cancer mortality compared to White women while their rate of ever having a mammogram has become equal to or slightly surpassed that of Whites. We mapped the distribution of change in screening mammography for Black and White female Medicare enrollees ages 67-69 from 2008 to 2012 by hospital referral region across the contiguous U.S., performed cluster analysis to assess spatial autocorrelation, and examined the screening differences between these groups in 2008 and 2012 respectively...
December 26, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027488/assessment-of-lead-time-bias-in-estimates-of-relative-survival-for-breast-cancer
#10
Therese M-L Andersson, Mark J Rutherford, Keith Humphreys
Relative survival ratios (RSRs) can be useful for evaluating the impact of changes in cancer care on the prognosis of cancer patients or for comparing the prognosis for different subgroups of patients, but their use is problematic for cancer sites where screening has been introduced due to the potential of lead-time bias. Lead-time is survival time that is added to a patient's survival time because of an earlier diagnosis irrespective of a possibly postponed time of death. In the presence of screening it is difficult to disentangle how much of an observed improvement in survival is real and how much is due to lead-time bias...
December 24, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013088/risk-of-malignant-childhood-germ-cell-tumors-in-relation-to-demographic-gestational-and-perinatal-characteristics
#11
Clinton Hall, Beate Ritz, Myles Cockburn, Tom B Davidson, Julia E Heck
BACKGROUND: Childhood germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare assortment of neoplasms, with mostly unknown etiology, that are believed to originate very early in life. Few studies have examined risk factors by histologic subtype, despite evidence of different risk profiles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this population-based case-control study, 451 childhood malignant GCT cases ages 0-5 years were identified from the California Cancer Registry. Differentiating between common histologic subtypes, we identified 181 yolk sac tumors, 216 teratomas, and 54 rarer subtypes...
December 22, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012443/evaluation-of-maternal-health-and-labor-and-delivery-conditions-as-risk-factors-for-childhood-leukemias-in-children-with-down-syndrome
#12
Susan E Carozza, Harold Bae, Thomas Meath, Adam Branscum, Marit L Bovbjerg, Peter H Langlois
Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a remarkably high risk of developing leukemia during childhood; the mechanisms driving that risk are not well understood, and no clear prevention strategies exist. We conducted a nested case-control study in a Texas DS birth cohort to investigate possible links between maternal health, labor/delivery conditions, and leukemia risk. For most of the factors studied there was no evidence of an increased risk of total leukemias, or the subtypes acute lymphoid or acute myeloid leukemia...
December 21, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012442/lower-use-of-prostate-specific-antigen-testing-by-cigarette-smokers-another-possible-explanation-for-the-unfavorable-prostate-cancer-pca-specific-prognosis-in-smokers
#13
LETTER
Matthias May, Odilo Maurer, Steffen Lebentrau, Sabine Brookman-May
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918907/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-cancer-patients-receiving-care-from-single-vs-multiple-institutions
#14
Christina A Clarke, Sally L Glaser, Rita Leung, Kathleen Davidson-Allen, Scarlett L Gomez, Theresa H M Keegan
INTRODUCTION: Patients may receive cancer care from multiple institutions. However, at the population level, such patterns of cancer care are poorly described, complicating clinical research. To determine the population-based prevalence and characteristics of patients seen by multiple institutions, we used operations data from a state-mandated cancer registry. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 59,672 invasive cancers diagnosed in 1/1/2010-12/31/2011 in the Greater Bay Area of northern California were categorized as having been reported to the cancer registry within 365days of diagnosis by: 1) ≥1 institution within an integrated health system (IHS); 2) IHS institution(s) and ≥1 non-IHS institution (e...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918906/diet-and-the-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-among-never-smokers-and-smokers-in-a-chinese-population
#15
Carrie Butler, Yuan-Chin Amy Lee, Shuang Li, Qian Li, Chien-Jen Chen, Wan-Lun Hsu, Pen-Jen Lou, Cairong Zhu, Jian Pan, Hongbing Shen, Hongxia Ma, Lin Cai, Baochang He, Yu Wang, Xiaoyan Zhou, Qinghai Ji, Baosen Zhou, Wei Wu, Jie Ma, Paolo Boffetta, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Min Dai, Mia Hashibe
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted in China to investigate the association between diet and the risk of head-and-neck cancer (HNC). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between diet and HNC risk in the Chinese population and to examine whether smoking status has any effect on the risk. METHODS: Our multicenter case-control study included 921 HNC cases and 806 controls. We obtained information on the frequency of both animal- and plant-based food consumption...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889661/what-explains-the-differences-between-centres-in-the-european-screening-trial-a-simulation-study
#16
Jaakko Nevalainen, Ulf-Håkan Stenman, Teuvo L Tammela, Monique Roobol, Sigrid Carlsson, Kirsi Talala, Fritz H Schröder, Anssi Auvinen
BACKGROUND: The European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) is a multicentre, randomised screening trial on men aged 55-69 years at baseline without known prostate cancer (PrCa) at randomisation to an intervention arm invited to screening or to a control arm. The ERSPC has shown a significant 21% reduction in PrCa mortality at 13 years of follow-up. The effect of screening appears to vary across centres, for which several explanations are possible. We set to assess if the apparent differences in PrCa mortality reduction between the centres can be explained by differences in screening protocols...
November 24, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871006/evaluating-the-use-of-friend-or-family-controls-in-epidemiologic-case-control-studies
#17
Charlie Zhong, Myles Cockburn, Wendy Cozen, Jenna Voutsinas, James V Lacey, Jianning Luo, Jane Sullivan-Halley, Leslie Bernstein, Sophia S Wang
BACKGROUND: Traditional methodologies for identifying and recruiting controls in epidemiologic case-control studies, such as random digit dialing or neighborhood walk, suffer from declining response rates. Here, we revisit the feasibility and comparability of using alternative sources of controls, specifically friend and family controls. METHODS: We recruited from a recently completed case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among women in Los Angeles County where controls from the parent study were ascertained by neighborhood walk...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866066/terminate-lung-cancer-tlc-study-a-mixed-methods-population-approach-to-increase-lung-cancer-screening-awareness-and-low-dose-computed-tomography-in-eastern-kentucky
#18
Roberto Cardarelli, David Reese, Karen L Roper, Kathryn Cardarelli, Frances J Feltner, Jamie L Studts, Jennifer R Knight, Debra Armstrong, Anthony Weaver, Dana Shaffer
For low dose CT lung cancer screening to be effective in curbing disease mortality, efforts are needed to overcome barriers to awareness and facilitate uptake of the current evidence-based screening guidelines. A sequential mixed-methods approach was employed to design a screening campaign utilizing messages developed from community focus groups, followed by implementation of the outreach campaign intervention in two high-risk Kentucky regions. This study reports on rates of awareness and screening in intervention regions, as compared to a control region...
November 17, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915004/economic-analysis-of-the-nairobi-cancer-registry-implications-for-expanding-and-enhancing-cancer-registration-in-kenya
#19
Anne Korir, Robai Gakunga, Sujha Subramanian, Nathan Okerosi, Gladys Chesumbai, Patrick Edwards, Florence Tangka, Rachael Joseph, Nathan Buziba, Victor Rono, Donald Maxwell Parkin, Mona Saraiya
INTRODUCTION: Cancer registration is an important activity for informing cancer control activities. Cancer registries in Sub-Saharan Africa have limited resources to effectively operate because of competing priorities. To date, there has not been an assessment of the resources and funding needed to perform all the activities essential for cancer registration in Kenya. Evidence will help registries to quantify and advocate for the funds needed to sustain, enhance, and expand high quality cancer registration in Kenya...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890388/uganda-experience-using-cost-assessment-of-an-established-registry-to-project-resources-required-to-expand-cancer-registration
#20
Henry Wabinga, Sujha Subramanian, Sarah Nambooze, Phoebe Mary Amulen, Patrick Edwards, Rachael Joseph, Martin Ogwang, Francis Okongo, D Maxwell Parkin, Florence Tangka
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study are (1) to estimate the cost of operating the Kampala Cancer Registry (KCR) and (2) to use cost data from the KCR to project the resource needs and cost of expanding and sustaining cancer registration in Uganda, focusing on the recently established Gulu Cancer Registry (GCR) in rural Northern Uganda. METHODS: We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool) to estimate the KCR's activity-based cost for 2014...
December 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
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