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Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929383/association-between-genetic-variants-in-the-xpg-gene-and-gastric-cancer-risk-in-a-southern-chinese-population
#1
Rui-Xi Hua, Zhen-Jian Zhuo, Jinhong Zhu, Dan-Hua Jiang, Wen-Qiong Xue, Shao-Dan Zhang, Jiang-Bo Zhang, Xi-Zhao Li, Pei-Fen Zhang, Wei-Hua Jia, Guo-Ping Shen, Jing He
Xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XPG) recognizes and excises DNA damage on the 3' side during the DNA repair process. Previous studies indicated that XPG gene polymorphisms may associate with gastric cancer susceptibility, but results were inconsistent. We evaluated the association of five potentially functional XPG polymorphisms (rs2094258 C>T, rs751402 C>T, rs2296147 T>C, rs1047768 T>C, and rs873601 G>A) with gastric cancer susceptibility in 1142 gastric cancer cases and 1173 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models...
December 6, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929382/aging-promotes-neoplastic-disease-through-effects-on-the-tissue-microenvironment
#2
Fabio Marongiu, Maria Paola Serra, Silvia Doratiotto, Marcella Sini, Maura Fanti, Erika Cadoni, Monica Serra, Ezio Laconi
A better understanding of the complex relationship between aging and cancer will provide important tools for the prevention and treatment of neoplasia. In these studies, the hypothesis was tested that aging may fuel carcinogenesis via alterations imposed in the tissue microenvironment. Preneoplastic hepatocytes isolated from liver nodules were orthotopically injected into either young or old syngeneic rats and their fate was followed over time using the dipeptidyl-peptidase type IV (DPPIV) system to track donor-derived-cells...
December 6, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922824/impaired-energy-metabolism-of-senescent-muscle-satellite-cells-is-associated-with-oxidative-modifications-of-glycolytic-enzymes
#3
Martín A Baraibar, Janek Hyzewicz, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Carina Prip-Buus, Gillian Butler-Browne, Bertrand Friguet
Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not completely understood. In the present study we have addressed the potential impact of oxidatively modified proteins on the altered metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a modified proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during the replicative senescence of satellite cells...
December 4, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922822/serum-protein-mediators-of-dementia-and-aging-proper
#4
Donald R Royall, Safa Al-Rubaye, Ram Bishnoi, Raymond F Palmer
The latent variable "δ" (for "dementia") appears to be uniquely responsible for the dementing aspects of cognitive impairment. Age, depressive symptoms, gender and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele are independently associated with δ. In this analysis, we explore serum proteins as potential mediators of age's specific association with δ in a large, ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). 22 serum proteins were recognized as partial mediators of age's association with δ...
December 3, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922823/slm35-links-mitochondrial-stress-response-and-longevity-through-tor-signaling-pathway
#5
Jose L Aguilar-Lopez, Raymond Laboy, Fabiola Jaimes-Miranda, Erika Garay, Alexander DeLuna, Soledad Funes
In most eukaryotic cells mitochondria are essential organelles involved in a great variety of cellular functions. One of the physiological processes linked to mitochondria is aging, a gradual process of damage accumulation that eventually promotes cell death. Aging depends on a balance between mitochondrial biogenesis, function and degradation. It has been previously shown that Tor1, Sch9 and Ras2 are activated in response to nutrient availability and regulate cell growth and division. A deficiency in any of these genes promotes lifespan extension and cell protection during oxidative and heat shock stress...
December 2, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922821/identification-of-salvia-haenkei-as-gerosuppressant-agent-by-using-an-integrated-senescence-screening-assay
#6
Ivana Matic, Ajinkya Revandkar, Jingjing Chen, Angela Bisio, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Veronica Cocetta, Paola Brun, Giorgio Mancino, Martina Milanese, Maurizio Mattei, Monica Montopoli, Andrea Alimonti
Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that is the causative process of aging. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is implicated in the control of cellular senescence and inhibitors of this pathway have been successfully used for life span prolongation experiments in mammals. PTEN is the major regulator of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and loss of PTEN promotes a senescence response termed PICS. Here we report a novel-screening assay, for the identification of compounds that block different types of senescence response...
December 1, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899768/effects-of-dietary-restriction-on-adipose-mass-and-biomarkers-of-healthy-aging-in-human
#7
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Esmeralda Giovannetti, Katia Aquilano
In developing countries the rise of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, reflects the changes in lifestyle habits and wrong dietary choices. Dietary restriction (DR) regimens have been shown to extend health span and lifespan in many animal models including primates. Identifying biomarkers predictive of clinical benefits of treatment is one of the primary goals of precision medicine. To monitor the clinical outcomes of DR interventions in humans, several biomarkers are commonly adopted...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889708/mir-34a-is-a-common-link-in-both-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-induced-vascular-aging
#8
Jiaxin Zhan, Shanshan Qin, Lili Lu, Xiamin Hu, Jun Zhou, Yeying Sun, Jian Yang, Ying Liu, Zunzhe Wang, Ning Tan, Jiyan Chen, Chunxiang Zhang
Both HIV and antiretroviral therapy could induce vascular aging with unclear mechanisms. In this study, via microarray analysis, we identified, for the first time, that miR-34a expression was significantly increased in both HIV-infected, and antiretroviral agents-treated vessels and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) from these vessels. In cultured ECs, miR-34a expression was significantly increased by HIV-Tat protein and by the antiretroviral agents, lopinavir/ritonavir. Both HIV-Tat protein and antiretroviral agents could induce EC senescence, which was inhibited by miR-34a inhibition...
November 26, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922818/age-related-changes-in-the-gene-expression-profile-of-antigen-specific-mouse-cd8-t-cells-can-be-partially-reversed-by-blockade-of-the-btla-cd160-pathways-during-vaccination
#9
Noor Dawany, Elizabeth M Parzych, Louise C Showe, Hildegund Cj Ertl
We analyzed gene expression profiles of young and aged mouse CD8(+) T cells specific for the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza A/PR8/34 virus. CD8(+) T cells were stimulated either by the NP antigen expressed in its native form or fused into the herpes virus (HSV)-1 glycoprotein D (gD) protein, which blocks signaling through the immunoinhibitory B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 pathways. We show that NP-specific CD8(+) T cells from aged mice exhibit numerous differences in gene expression compared to NP-specific CD8(+) T cells from young mice, including a significant reduction of expression in genes involved in T cell receptor (TcR) and CD28 signaling...
November 9, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824313/evidence-of-a-metabolic-reserve-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-elderly-people
#10
Gwenael Layec, Joel D Trinity, Corey R Hart, Yann Le Fur, Jacob R Sorensen, Eun-Kee Jeong, Russell S Richardson
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether mitochondrial function is limited by O2 availability or the intrinsic capacity of mitochondria to synthesize ATP in elderly individuals. To this aim, we examined, in comparison to free-flow conditions (FF), the effect of superimposing reactive hyperemia (RH), induced by a period of brief ischemia during the last min of exercise, on O2 availability and mitochondrial function in the calf muscle. 12 healthy, untrained, elderly subjects performed dynamic plantar flexion exercise and phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and Doppler ultrasound were used to assess muscle metabolism and peripheral hemodynamics...
November 6, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794564/human-exceptional-longevity-transcriptome-from-centenarians-is-distinct-from-septuagenarians-and-reveals-a-role-of-bcl-xl-in-successful-aging
#11
Consuelo Borras, Kheira M Abdelaziz, Juan Gambini, Eva Serna, Marta Inglés, Monica de la Fuente, Idoia Garcia, Ander Matheu, Paula Sanchís, Angel Belenguer, Alessandra Errigo, Juan-Antonio Avellana, Ana Barettino, Carla Lloret-Fernández, Nuria Flames, Gianni Pes, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Jose Viña
Centenarians not only enjoy an extraordinary aging, but also show a compression of morbidity. Using functional transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) we identified 1721 mRNAs differentially expressed by centenarians when compared with septuagenarians and young people. Sub-network analysis led us to identify Bcl - xL as an important gene up-regulated in centenarians. It is involved in the control of apoptosis, cellular damage protection and also in modulation of immune response, all associated to healthy aging...
October 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750210/novel-cellular-evidence-of-lipophagy-within-the-sertoli-cells-during-spermatogenesis-in-the-turtle
#12
Nisar Ahmed, Yi Liu, Hong Chen, Ping Yang, Yasir Waqas, Tengfei Liu, Jameel Ahmed Gandahi, Yufei Huang, Lingling Wang, Xuejing Song, Imran Rashid Rajput, Taozhi Wang, Qiusheng Chen
Spermatogenesis is a complex process producing haploid spermatozoa, and the formation of lipid droplets (LDs) within Sertoli cells is critical to maintaining normal spermatogenesis. However, the utilization of LDs within Sertoli cells is still largely unknown. In the present study, proliferation of spermatogonial cells had begun in May, whereas the meiotic cells occurred predominately in July and majority of spermiogenic cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules in October. However, TEM and Oil Red O staining demonstrated that a larger number of LDs had accumulated within the Sertoli cells in May compared to that in October...
October 16, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744419/transcriptional-regulation-of-pnpla3-and-its-impact-on-susceptibility-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-in-humans
#13
Wanqing Liu, Quentin M Anstee, Xiaoliang Wang, Samer Gawrieh, Eric R Gamazon, Shaminie Athinarayanan, Yang-Lin Liu, Rebecca Darlay, Heather J Cordell, Ann K Daly, Chris P Day, Naga Chalasani
The increased expression of PNPLA3(148M) leads to hepatosteatosis in mice. This study aims to investigate the genetic control of hepatic PNPLA3 transcription and to explore its impact on NAFLD risk in humans. Through a locus-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping in two human liver sample sets, a PNPLA3 intronic SNP, rs139051 A>G was identified as a significant eQTL (p = 6.6×10(-8)) influencing PNPLA3 transcription, with the A allele significantly associated with increased PNPLA3 mRNA. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay further demonstrated that the A allele has enhanced affinity to nuclear proteins than the G allele...
October 13, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638293/protective-effects-of-alpha-phenyl-tert-butyl-nitrone-and-ascorbic-acid-in-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-differently-aged-donors
#14
Adiv A Johnson, Yahaira Naaldijk, Christian Hohaus, Hans Jörg Meisel, Alexandra Stolzing
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent stem cells that promote therapeutic effects and are frequently used in autologous applications. Little is known about how ADSCs respond to genotoxic stress and whether or not donor age affects DNA damage and repair. In this study, we used the comet assay to assess DNA damage and repair in human ADSCs derived from young (20-40 years), middle-aged (41-60 years), and older (61+ years) donors following treatment with H2O2 or UV light. Tail lengths in H2O2-treated ADSCs were substantially higher than the tail lengths in UV-treated ADSCs...
September 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922820/rapamycin-treatment-benefits-glucose-metabolism-in-mouse-models-of-type-2-diabetes
#15
Peter C Reifsnyder, Kevin Flurkey, Austen Te, David E Harrison
Numerous studies suggest that rapamycin treatment promotes insulin resistance, implying that rapamycin could have negative effects on patients with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). New evidence, however, indicates that rapamycin treatment produces some benefits to energy metabolism, even in the context of T2D. Here, we survey 5 mouse models of T2D (KK, KK-Ay, NONcNZO10, BKS-db/db, TALLYHO) to quantify effects of rapamycin on well-recognized markers of glucose homeostasis within a wide range of T2D environments...
November 30, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922819/early-age-decline-in-dna-repair-capacity-in-the-liver-in-depth-profile-of-differential-gene-expression
#16
Avital Guedj, Anat Geiger-Maor, Eithan Galun, Hagai Amsalem, Jacob Rachmilewitz
Aging is associated with progressive decline in cell function and with increased damage to macromolecular components. DNA damage, in the form of double-strand breaks (DSBs), increases with age and in turn, contributes to the aging process and age-related diseases. DNA strand breaks triggers a set of highly orchestrated signaling events known as the DNA damage response (DDR), which coordinates DNA repair. However, whether the accumulation of DNA damage with age is a result of decreased repair capacity, remains to be determined...
November 30, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920407/biocomputing-drug-repurposing-toward-targeted-therapies
#17
Luca Cardone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902464/expression-of-rab1a-is-upregulated-in-human-lung-cancer-and-associated-with-tumor-size-and-t-stage
#18
Xinxin Wang, Feng Liu, Xiaoyu Qin, Tinglei Huang, Bo Huang, Yanjie Zhang, Bin Jiang
Rab1A expression is associated with malignant phenotypes in several human tumors; however, the role of Rab1A in lung cancer is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to establish the role of Rab1A in major human lung cancer subtypes. Rab1A expression in different histological types of human lung cancer was analyzed in lung cancer tissues with paired adjacent noncancerous tissues and a large panel of lung cancer cell lines. The effect of Rab1A expression on multiple cancer-associated signaling pathways was also examined...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902456/long-term-caloric-restriction-in-apoe-deficient-mice-results-in-neuroprotection-via-fgf21-induced-ampk-mtor-pathway
#19
Claire Rühlmann, Tjark Wölk, Tobias Blümel, Laura Stahn, Brigitte Vollmar, Angela Kuhla
Caloric restriction (CR) decelerates the aging process, extends lifespan and exerts neuroprotective effects in diverse species by so far unknown mechanisms. Based on known neuroprotective effects of fibroblastic growth factor 21 (Fgf21) we speculate that CR upregulates Fgf21, which phosphorylates neuronal AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), leading to a decrease of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling activity and an inhibition of tau-hyperphosphorylation. This in turn reduces the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer´s disease...
November 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899769/the-role-of-club-cell-phenoconversion-and-migration-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#20
Jutaro Fukumoto, Ramani Soundararajan, Joseph Leung, Ruan Cox, Sanjay Mahendrasah, Neha Muthavarapu, Travis Herrin, Alexander Czachor, Lee C Tan, Nima Hosseinian, Priyanshi Patel, Jayanthraj Gone, Mason T Breitzig, Young Cho, Andrew J Cooke, Lakshmi Galam, Venkata Ramireddy Narala, Yashwant Pathak, Richard F Lockey, Narasaiah Kolliputi
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related multifactorial disease featuring non-uniform lung fibrosis. The decisive cellular events at early stages of IPF are poorly understood. While the involvement of club cells in IPF pathogenesis is unclear, their migration has been associated with lung fibrosis. In this study, we labeled club cells immunohistochemically in IPF lungs using a club cell marker Claudin-10 (Cldn10), a unique protein based on the recent report which demonstrated that the appearance of Cldn10 in developing and repairing lungs precedes other club cell markers including club cell secretory protein (CCSP)...
November 29, 2016: Aging
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