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Andrew C Peifer, Patrick H Maxwell
Retrotransposons are abundant mobile DNA elements in eukaryotic genomes that are more active with age in diverse species. Details of the regulation and consequences of retrotransposon activity during aging remain to be determined. Ty1 retromobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more frequent in mother cells compared to daughter cells, and we found that Ty1 was more mobile in nonquiescent compared to quiescent subpopulations of stationary phase cells. This retromobility asymmetry was absent in mutant strains lacking BRP1 that have reduced expression of the essential Pma1p plasma membrane proton pump, lacking the mRNA decay gene LSM1 , and in cells exposed to a high concentration of calcium...
March 21, 2018: Aging
Eleni Petsalaki, George Zachos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Aging
Zhonghe Ke, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2018: Aging
Joung-Sun Park, Ho-Jun Jeon, Jung-Hoon Pyo, Young-Shin Kim, Mi-Ae Yoo
Stem cell dysfunction is closely linked to tissue and organismal aging and age-related diseases, and heavily influenced by the niche cells' environment. The DNA damage response (DDR) is a key pathway for tissue degeneration and organismal aging; however, the precise protective role of DDR in stem cell/niche aging is unclear. The Drosophila midgut is an excellent model to study the biology of stem cell/niche aging because of its easy genetic manipulation and its short lifespan. Here, we showed that deficiency of DDR in Drosophila enterocytes (ECs) accelerates intestinal stem cell (ISC) aging...
March 7, 2018: Aging
Yan Zhang, Kai-Uwe Saum, Ben Schöttker, Bernd Holleczek, Hermann Brenner
Survival predictors are of potential use for informing on biological age and targeting prevention of aging-related morbidity. We assessed associations of 2 novel methylomic survival indicators, a methylation-based mortality risk score (MRscore) and the epigenetic clock-derived age acceleration (AA), with a well-known survival predictor, frailty index (FI), and compared the 3 indicators in mortality prediction. In a large population-based cohort with 14-year follow-up, we found both MRscore and AA to be independently associated with FI, but the association was much stronger for MRscore than for AA...
March 6, 2018: Aging
Lu Han, Lu Dai, Yuan-Fei Zhao, Hai-Yang Li, Ou Liu, Feng Lan, Wen-Jian Jiang, Hong-Jia Zhang
Acute aortic dissection is one of the most lethal cardiovascular disease. The major histopathological feature of AAD is medial degradation, especially breakdown of elastin and collagen. However, the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. Platelets expressed CD40 Ligand (CD40L) is recently recognised as a key effector of cardiovascular disease development through its pro-inflammatory effect. To clarify the role of CD40L in AAD, we examined level of CD40L in human blood serum samples and found that it is significantly higher in AAD patients compared with healthy subjects (26...
March 4, 2018: Aging
Stéphane Fourcade, Tiago F Outeiro, Aurora Pujol
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Aging
Michael Garratt, Michael B Stout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Aging
Xin Wang, Justin Darcy, Chuan Cai, Junfei Jin, Andrzej Bartke, Deliang Cao
Hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate advantages of longevity, but little is known of their colon development and intestinal immunity. Herein we found that Ames dwarf mice have shorter colon and colonic crypts, but larger ratio of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) over body weight than age-matched wild type (WT) mice. In the colonic lamina propria (cLP) of juvenile Ames mice, more inflammatory neutrophils (Ā: 0.15% vs. 0.03% in WT mice) and monocytes (Ā: 7.97% vs. 5.15%) infiltrated, and antigen presenting cells CD11c+ dendritic cells (Ā: 1...
March 2, 2018: Aging
Yu-Lan Chu, Ya-Ru Xu, Wan-Xi Yang, Yi Sun
Most of the mammalian follicles undergo a degenerative process called "follicle atresia". Apoptosis of granulosa cells is the main characteristic of follicle atresia. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily have important regulatory functions in this process. FSH activates protein kinase A and cooperating with insulin receptor substrates, it promotes the PI3K/Akt pathway which weakens apoptosis. Both Smad or non-Smad signaling of the transforming growth factor β superfamily seem to be related to follicle atresia, and the effect of several important family members on follicle atresia is concluded in this article...
March 2, 2018: Aging
Stefan Kaluz, Chalet Tan, Erwin G Van Meir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Aging
Francesco Sessa, Valenzano Anna, Giovanni Messina, Giuseppe Cibelli, Vincenzo Monda, Gabriella Marsala, Maria Ruberto, Antonio Biondi, Orazio Cascio, Giuseppe Bertozzi, Daniela Pisanelli, Francesca Maglietta, Antonietta Messina, Maria P Mollica, Monica Salerno
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) represents about 25% of deaths in clinical cardiology. The identification of risk factors for SCD is the philosopher's stone of cardiology and the identification of non-invasive markers of risk of SCD remains one of the most important goals for the scientific community.The aim of this review is to analyze the state of the art around the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a predictor factor for SCD.HRV is probably the most analyzed index in cardiovascular risk stratification technical literature, therefore an important number of models and methods have been developed...
February 23, 2018: Aging
Bela Ozsvari, Federica Sotgia, Michael P Lisanti
Tri-phenyl-phosphonium (TPP) is a non-toxic chemical moiety that functionally behaves as a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS) in living cells. Here, we explored the hypothesis that TPP-related compounds could be utilized to inhibit mitochondria in cancer stem cells (CSCs). We randomly selected 9 TPP-related compounds for screening, using an ATP depletion assay. Based on this approach, five compounds were identified as "positive hits"; two had no detectable effect on ATP production. Remarkably, this represents a >50% hit rate...
February 19, 2018: Aging
Magdalena Spólnicka, Ewelina Pośpiech, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Ana Freire-Aradas, Beata Pepłońska, Renata Zbieć-Piekarska, Żanetta Makowska, Anna Pięta, Maria Victoria Lareu, Christopher Phillips, Rafał Płoski, Cezary Żekanowski, Wojciech Branicki
Recent progress in epigenomics has led to the development of prediction systems that enable accurate age estimation from DNA methylation data. Our objective was to track responses to intense physical exercise of individual age-correlated DNA methylation markers and to infer their potential impact on the aging processes. The study showed accelerated DNA hypermethylation for two CpG sites in TRIM59 and KLF14 . Both markers predicted the investigated elite athletes to be several years older than controls and this effect was more substantial in subjects involved in power sports...
February 15, 2018: Aging
Jin-Lan Huang, Mei-Chun Qin, Yan Zhou, Zhe-Hao Xu, Si-Man Yang, Fan Zhang, Jing Zhong, Ming-Kun Liang, Ben Chen, Wen-Yan Zhang, Deng-Pan Wu, Zhen-Guo Zhong
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel kind of non-coding RNA, have received increasing attention for their involvement in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, few studies have reported in the characterization and function of AD associated circRNAs. Here the expression profiles of circRNAs in 5- and 10-month-old SAMP8 mice were identified using circRNA microarray and found that 85 dysregulated circRNAs were observed in 10-month-old SAMP8 versus control mice and 231 circRNAs exhibited differential expression in 10-month-old SAMP8 versus 5-month-old SAMP8...
February 15, 2018: Aging
Daniela D Weber, Sepideh Aminazdeh-Gohari, Barbara Kofler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2018: Aging
Francesca E Duncan, Jennifer L Gerton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Aging
Yuan-Chao Sun, Yong-Yong Wang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Shun-Feng Cheng, Lan Li, Yong Zhao, Wei Shen, Hong Chen
It is generally accepted that significant germ cell loss occurs during the establishment of the primordial follicle pool in most mammalian ovaries around the time of birth. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for these processes remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we explored the role of autophagy during the establishment of the primordial follicle pool and found that autophagy was active in this process. Our data suggested that 17.5 dpc ovaries treated with rapamycin displayed a delay in germ cell cyst breakdown resulting in more oocytes at day 5 of treatment, while, ovaries that treated with 3-MA showed the opposite effect...
February 5, 2018: Aging
Alberto Montesanto, Anna Rita Bonfigli, Paolina Crocco, Paolo Garagnani, Maria De Luca, Massimo Boemi, Elena Marasco, Chiara Pirazzini, Cristina Giuliani, Claudio Franceschi, Giuseppe Passarino, Roberto Testa, Fabiola Olivieri, Giuseppina Rose
Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease associated with a number of micro- and macrovascular complications that increase the morbidity and mortality of patients. The risk of diabetic complications has a strong genetic component. To this end, we sought to evaluate the association of 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 candidate genes with T2D and its vascular complications in 503 T2D patients and 580 healthy controls. The genes were chosen because previously reported to be associated with T2D complications and/or with the aging process...
February 4, 2018: Aging
Eija K Laakkonen, Rabah Soliymani, Maciej Lalowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2018: Aging
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