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Aging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077804/the-complex-genetics-of-gait-speed-genome-wide-meta-analysis-approach
#1
Dan Ben-Avraham, David Karasik, Joe Verghese, Kathryn L Lunetta, Jennifer A Smith, John A Eicher, Rotem Vered, Joris Deelen, Alice M Arnold, Aron S Buchman, Toshiko Tanaka, Jessica D Faul, Maria Nethander, Myriam Fornage, Hieab H Adams, Amy M Matteini, Michele L Callisaya, Albert V Smith, Lei Yu, Philip L De Jager, Denis A Evans, Vilmundur Gudnason, Albert Hofman, Alison Pattie, Janie Corley, Lenore J Launer, Davis S Knopman, Neeta Parimi, Stephen T Turner, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian Beekman, Danielle Gutman, Lital Sharvit, Simon P Mooijaart, David C Liewald, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Claes Ohlsson, Matthijs Moed, Vincent J Verlinden, Dan Mellström, Jos N van der Geest, Magnus Karlsson, Dena Hernandez, Rebekah McWhirter, Yongmei Liu, Russell Thomson, Gregory J Tranah, Andre G Uitterlinden, David R Weir, Wei Zhao, John M Starr, Andrew D Johnson, M Arfan Ikram, David A Bennett, Steven R Cummings, Ian J Deary, Tamara B Harris, Sharon L R Kardia, Thomas H Mosley, Velandai K Srikanth, Beverly G Windham, Ann B Newman, Jeremy D Walston, Gail Davies, Daniel S Evans, Eline P Slagboom, Luigi Ferrucci, Douglas P Kiel, Joanne M Murabito, Gil Atzmon
Emerging evidence suggests that the basis for variation in late-life mobility is attributable, in part, to genetic factors, which may become increasingly important with age. Our objective was to systematically assess the contribution of genetic variation to gait speed in older individuals. We conducted a meta-analysis of gait speed GWASs in 31,478 older adults from 17 cohorts of the CHARGE consortium, and validated our results in 2,588 older adults from 4 independent studies. We followed our initial discoveries with network and eQTL analysis of candidate signals in tissues...
January 10, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077781/effects-of-an-unusual-poison-identify-a-lifespan-role-for-topoisomerase-2-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Gregory Tombline, Jonathan I Millen, Bogdan Polevoda, Matan Rapaport, Bonnie Baxter, Michael Van Meter, Matthew Gilbertson, Joe Madrey, Gary A Piazza, Lynn Rasmussen, Krister Wennerberg, E Lucile White, John L Nitiss, David S Goldfarb
A progressive loss of genome maintenance has been implicated as both a cause and consequence of aging. Here we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that an age-associated decay in genome maintenance promotes aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) due to an inability to sense or repair DNA damage by topoisomerase 2 (yTop2). We describe the characterization of LS1, identified in a high throughput screen for small molecules that shorten the replicative lifespan of yeast. LS1 accelerates aging without affecting proliferative growth or viability...
January 5, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070018/curcumin-supplementation-improves-vascular-endothelial-function-in-healthy-middle-aged-and-older-adults-by-increasing-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-and-reducing-oxidative-stress
#3
Jessica R Santos-Parker, Talia R Strahler, Candace J Bassett, Nina Z Bispham, Michel B Chonchol, Douglas R Seals
We hypothesized that curcumin would improve resistance and conduit artery endothelial function and large elastic artery stiffness in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-nine healthy men and postmenopausal women (45-74 yrs) were randomized to 12 weeks of curcumin (2000 mg/day Longvida®; n=20) or placebo (n=19) supplementation. Forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine infusions (FBFACh; resistance artery endothelial function) increased 37% following curcumin supplementation (107±13 vs. 84±11 AUC at baseline, P=0...
January 3, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039492/defining-good-health
#4
Susan E Erdman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 29, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039490/impaired-fasting-blood-glucose-is-associated-to-cognitive-impairment-and-cerebral-atrophy-in-middle-aged-non-human-primates
#5
Fathia Djelti, Marc Dhenain, Jérémy Terrien, Jean-Luc Picq, Isabelle Hardy, Delphine Champeval, Martine Perret, Esther Schenker, Jacques Epelbaum, Fabienne Aujard
Age-associated cognitive impairment is a major health and social issue because of increasing aged population. Cognitive decline is not homogeneous in humans and the determinants leading to differences between subjects are not fully understood. In middle-aged healthy humans, fasting blood glucose levels in the upper normal range are associated with memory impairment and cerebral atrophy. Due to a close evolutional similarity to Man, non-human primates may be useful to investigate the relationships between glucose homeostasis, cognitive deficits and structural brain alterations...
December 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039442/nrf2-not-lost-in-translation
#6
Robert G Hawley, Irene Riz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039441/muc1-c-drives-dna-methylation-in-cancer
#7
Hasan Rajabi, Ashujit Tagde, Donald Kufe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039440/delivery-of-sfit-1-engineered-mscs-in-combination-with-a-continuous-low-dose-doxorubicin-treatment-prevents-growth-of-liver-cancer
#8
Jian Niu, Yue Wang, Ji Wang, Liu Bin, Xin Hu
One important process in liver cancer growth and progression is angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has the significant role in liver cancer angiogenesis. sFlt1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) is the promising inhibitor of VEGF and can be used as the new method of inhibiting angiogenesis. MSCs (Mesenchymal stem cells) can infiltrate into tumor tissue and function as the efficient transgene delivery mediator. Here, we engineered murine MSCs to express sFlt1 and examined the anti-tumor effect of MSC- sFlt1 in combination with continues low-dose doxorubicin treatment...
December 28, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039491/sodium-fluoride-naf-induces-the-splenic-apoptosis-via-endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-pathway-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#9
Huidan Deng, Ping Kuang, Hengmin Cui, Lian Chen, Qin Luo, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Junliang Deng, Xun Wang, Ling Zhao
At present, there are no reports on the relationship between fluoride-induced apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ER stress) in the spleen of human and animals in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced apoptosis mediated by ER stress in the spleen of mice in vivo and in vitro. Apoptosis and expression levels of the ER stress-related proteins were detected by flow cytometry and western blot, respectively. The results showed that NaF treatment increased lymphocytes apoptosis, which was consistent with NaF-caused ER Stress...
December 27, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039439/hypothalamic-s1p-s1pr1-axis-controls-energy-homeostasis-in-middle-aged-rodents-the-reversal-effects-of-physical-exercise
#10
Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Carlos Kiyoshi Katashima, Carla G Bueno Silva, Luciene Lenhare, Thayana Oliveira Micheletti, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Ana Carolina Ghezzi, Juliana Alves Camargo, Alexandre Moura Assis, Natalia Tobar, Joseane Morari, Daniela S Razolli, Leandro Pereira Moura, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra, Lício Augusto Velloso, Mario J A Saad, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle
Recently, we demonstrated that the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis plays a critical role in the control of food consumption and energy expenditure in rodents. Here, we found that reduction of hypothalamic S1PR1 expression occurs in an age-dependent manner, and was associated with defective thermogenic signaling and weight gain. To address the physiological relevance of these findings, we investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise on the hypothalamic S1PR1/STAT3 axis. Chronic exercise increased S1PR1 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus, restoring the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals in middle-aged mice...
December 26, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025407/altered-s-nitrosylation-of-p53-is-responsible-for-impaired-antioxidant-response-in-skeletal-muscle-during-aging
#11
Sara Baldelli, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
p53 transcriptional activity has been proposed to regulate both homeostasis and sarcopenia of skeletal muscle during aging. However, the exact molecular function of p53 remains to be clearly defined. We demonstrated a requirement of nuclear p53 S-nitrosylation in inducing a nitric oxide/PGC-1α-mediated antioxidant pathway in skeletal muscle. Importantly, mutant form of p53-DNA binding domain (C124S) did not undergo nuclear S-nitrosylation and failed in inducing the expression of antioxidant genes (i.e. SOD2 and GCLC)...
December 20, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999185/early-and-progressive-deficit-of-neuronal-activity-patterns-in-a-model-of-local-amyloid-pathology-in-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#12
Fani Koukouli, Marie Rooy, Uwe Maskos
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The condition predominantly affects the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and is characterized by the spread of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). But soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have also been identified to accumulate in the brains of AD patients and correlate with cognitive dysfunction more than the extent of plaque deposition. Here, we developed an adeno-associated viral vector expressing the human mutated amyloid precursor protein (AAV-hAPP)...
December 20, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997360/salvia-miltiorrhiza-bunge-decreases-estrogen-level-without-side-effects-on-reproductive-tissues-in-immature-ovariectomized-mice
#13
Ying Xu, Ting Chen, Xin Li, Ya-Kun Qu, Jin-Na An, Hong-Xia Zheng, Zi-Jia Zhang, Na Lin
Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge(SM) is a popular herb for alleviating menopausal symptoms, although the scientific evidence of applying SM to estrogen replacement therapy is limited. In this study, we characterized the estrogenic activity of SM using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and performed in vitro studies focusing on the estrogen receptor (ER) pathway for further molecular characterizations. SM treatments demonstrated significant estrogenic activity by promoting the development of uterus and vagina in immature mice, restoring the estrus cycle and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice, as well as increasing the expressions of ERα and ERβ at protein and mRNA level in the reproductive tissues...
December 20, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997357/effect-of-the-micronutrient-iodine-in-thyroid-carcinoma-angiogenesis
#14
Kayla Daniell, Carmelo Nucera
Iodide is a micronutrient essential for thyroid hormone production. The uptake and metabolism of iodide by thyrocytes is crucial to proper thyroid function. Iodide ions are drawn into the thyroid follicular cell via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) in the cell membrane and become integrated into tyrosyl residues to ultimately form thyroid hormones. We sought to learn how an abnormal concentration of iodide within thyrocyte can have significant effects on the thyroid, specifically the surrounding vascular network...
December 20, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997361/association-of-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration-with-month-and-season-of-birth-in-italy
#15
Antonio Longo, Alessandra Casuccio, Luca Pani, Teresio Avitabile, Salvatore Cillino, Maurizio G Uva, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Andrea Russo, Guglielmo Parisi, Gilda Cennamo, Claudio Furino, Mariacristina Parravano, Entela Xoxi, Michele Reibaldi
In order to investigate the influence of season and month of birth on the risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD) in Italy, we evaluated the month birth and sex of all patients, recorded in the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monitoring registry of the Italian Medicines Agency, born between 1925-1944, who received intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for n-AMD between January 1, 2013 and July 29, 2015. The numbers of all births in Italy in the same years, extracted from the Italian National Institute of Statistics, were used to calculate the expected number of n-AMD cases...
December 19, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997359/naked-mole-rats-maintain-healthy-skeletal-muscle-and-complex-iv-mitochondrial-enzyme-function-into-old-age
#16
Elizabeth A Stoll, Nevena Karapavlovic, Hannah Rosa, Michael Woodmass, Karolina Rygiel, Kathryn White, Douglass M Turnbull, Chris G Faulkes
The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers...
December 19, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992857/tfeb-ameliorates-the-impairment-of-the-autophagy-lysosome-pathway-in-neurons-induced-by-doxorubicin
#17
Jose Felix Moruno-Manchon, Ndidi-Ese Uzor, Shelli R Kesler, Jeffrey S Wefel, Debra M Townley, Archana Sidalaghatta Nagaraja, Sunila Pradeep, Lingegowda S Mangala, Anil K Sood, Andrey S Tsvetkov
Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy agent, induces severe cardio- and neurotoxicity. Molecular mechanisms of cardiotoxicity have been extensively studied, but mechanisms by which doxorubicin exhibits its neurotoxic properties remain unclear. Here, we show that doxorubicin impairs neuronal autophagy, leading to the accumulation of an autophagy substrate p62. Neurons treated with doxorubicin contained autophagosomes, damaged mitochondria, and lipid droplets. The brains from mice treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin exhibited autophagosomes, often with mitochondria, lipofuscin, and lipid droplets...
December 16, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992858/proteins-that-accumulate-with-age-in-human-skeletal-muscle-aggregates-contribute-to-declines-in-muscle-mass-and-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Srinivas Ayyadevara, Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam, Pooja Suri, Samuel G Mackintosh, Alan J Tackett, Dennis H Sullivan, Robert J Shmookler Reis, Richard A Dennis
Protein aggregation increases with age in normal tissues, and with pathology and age in Alzheimer's hippocampus and mouse cardiac muscle. We now ask whether human skeletal muscle accumulates aggregates with age. Detergent-insoluble protein aggregates were isolated from vastus lateralis biopsies from 5 young (23-27 years of age) and 5 older (64-80 years) adults. Aggregates, quantified after gel electrophoresis, contain 2.1-fold more protein (P<0.0001) when isolated from older subjects relative to young. Of 515 proteins identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, 56 (11%) were significantly more abundant in older muscle, while 21 (4%) were depleted with age (each P<0...
December 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992856/induction-of-fibroblast-senescence-generates-a-non-fibrogenic-myofibroblast-phenotype-that-differentially-impacts-on-cancer-prognosis
#19
Massimiliano Mellone, Christopher J Hanley, Steve Thirdborough, Toby Mellows, Edwin Garcia, Jeongmin Woo, Joanne Tod, Steve Frampton, Veronika Jenei, Karwan A Moutasim, Tasnuva D Kabir, Peter A Brennan, Giulia Venturi, Kirsty Ford, Nicolas Herranz, Kue Peng Lim, James Clarke, Daniel W Lambert, Stephen S Prime, Timothy J Underwood, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Kevin W Eliceiri, Christopher Woelk, Emma V King, Jesus Gil, Christian H Ottensmeier, Gareth J Thomas
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) remain a poorly characterized, heterogeneous cell population. Here we characterized two previously described tumor-promoting CAF sub-types, smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive myofibroblasts and senescent fibroblasts, identifying a novel link between the two. Analysis of CAF cultured ex vivo, showed that senescent CAF are predominantly SMA-positive; this was confirmed by immunochemistry in head & neck (HNSCC) and esophageal (EAC) cancers. In vitro, we found that fibroblasts induced to senesce develop molecular, ultrastructural and contractile features typical of myofibroblasts and this is dependent on canonical TGF-β signaling...
December 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978509/nuclear-functions-of-%C3%AE-2-spectrin-in-genomic-stability
#20
Kalpana Mujoo, Clayton R Hunt, Tej K Pandita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2016: Aging
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