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Advances in Virology

Erdal Eroglu, Ankur Singh, Swapnil Bawage, Pooja M Tiwari, Komal Vig, Shreekumar R Pillai, Vida A Dennis, Shree R Singh
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe acute lower respiratory tract disease leading to numerous hospitalizations and deaths among the infant and elderly populations worldwide. There is no vaccine or a less effective drug available against RSV infections. Natural RSV infection stimulates the Th1 immune response and activates the production of neutralizing antibodies, while earlier vaccine trials that used UV-inactivated RSV exacerbated the disease due to the activation of the allergic Th2 response...
2016: Advances in Virology
Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects...
2016: Advances in Virology
Mohammed A Hamad, Ahmed M Al-Shammari, Shoni M Odisho, Nahi Y Yaseen
This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma...
2016: Advances in Virology
John F Arboleda, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Over the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the critical participation of vitamin D in the regulation of proinflammatory responses and protection against many infectious pathogens, including viruses. The activity of vitamin D is associated with microRNAs, which are fine tuners of immune activation pathways and provide novel mechanisms to avoid the damage that arises from excessive inflammatory responses. Severe symptoms of an ongoing dengue virus infection and disease are strongly related to highly altered production of proinflammatory mediators, suggesting impairment in homeostatic mechanisms that control the host's immune response...
2016: Advances in Virology
Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Despite of advances in diagnosis and treatment, biomarkers of RSV infection are still unclear. To understand the host response and propose signatures of RSV infection, previous studies evaluated the transcriptional profile of the human bronchial epithelial cell line-BEAS-2B-infected with different strains of this virus. However, the evolution of statistical methods and functional analysis together with the large amount of expression data provide opportunities to uncover novel biomarkers of inflammation and infections...
2016: Advances in Virology
Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye, Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Bamidele Atinuke Coker, Felix Yasha Nudamajo, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji
Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol...
2016: Advances in Virology
Felipe Alves Morais, Alexandre Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro Pereira, Marcos Lazaro Moreli, Luís Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Marcello Schiavo Nardi, Cristina Farah Tófoli, Jansen Araujo, Lilia Mara Dutra, Tatiana Lopes Ometto, Renata Hurtado, Fábio Carmona de Jesus Maués, Tiene Zingano Hinke, Sati Jaber Mahmud, Monica Correia Lima, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Edison Luiz Durigon
Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6...
2016: Advances in Virology
David H Adler, Melissa Wallace, Thola Bennie, Beau Abar, Tracy L Meiring, Anna-Lise Williamson, Linda-Gail Bekker
Infection with HIV is known to increase the risk of cervical cancer. In addition, evidence suggests that concurrent infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes increases the risk of cervical dysplasia more than infection with a single HPV genotype. However, the impact of the combination of HIV coinfection and presence of multiple concurrent HPV infections on the risk of cervical dysplasia is uncertain. We compared the results of HPV testing and Pap smears between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women to assess the cumulative impact of these two conditions...
2016: Advances in Virology
S V Cheresiz, E A Semenova, A A Chepurnov
Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups...
2016: Advances in Virology
Sin-Yeang Teow, Alif Che Nordin, Syed A Ali, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo
Nanometre-sized vesicles, also known as exosomes, are derived from endosomes of diverse cell types and present in multiple biological fluids. Depending on their cellular origins, the membrane-bound exosomes packed a variety of functional proteins and RNA species. These microvesicles are secreted into the extracellular space to facilitate intercellular communication. Collective findings demonstrated that exosomes from HIV-infected subjects share many commonalities with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) particles in terms of proteomics and lipid profiles...
2016: Advances in Virology
Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Mohd Hair Bejo, Muhammad Salisu Abubakar, Yusuf Abba
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems...
2016: Advances in Virology
Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, Comfort Oluladun Aiki-Raji, Emmanuel Chibuzor Umeh, Samat Odunayo Mustapha, Adebowale Idris Adebiyi
Akabane virus (AKAV) is recognized as an important pathogen that causes abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. However, it has not received adequate attention in Nigeria. Therefore, in investigating this disease, serum samples from 184 (abattoir and farm) head of cattle and 184 intensively reared sheep from two states in southwest Nigeria were screened for antibodies against AKAV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An overall seropositivity of 70.1% (129/184) was obtained with antibodies being detectable in 73...
2016: Advances in Virology
Shahla Shahsavandi, Mohammad Majid Ebrahimi, Shahin Masoudi, Hasan Izadi
A cDNA clone for factor 10 (FX) isolated from chicken embryo inserted into the mammalian cell expression vector pCDNA3.1 was transfected into the baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell line. The generated BHK-21 cells with inducible expression of FX were used to investigate the efficacy of the serine transmembrane protease to proteolytic activation of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) with monobasic cleavage site. Data showed that the BHK-21/FX stably expressed FX after ten serial passages. The cells could proteolytically cleave the HA of low pathogenic avian influenza virus at multiplicity of infection 0...
2015: Advances in Virology
Yusuf Abba, Hasliza Hassim, Hazilawati Hamzah, Mohamed Mustapha Noordin
Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well...
2015: Advances in Virology
B R Alkali, A I Daneji, A A Magaji, L S Bilbis
Rotavirus has been identified among the most important causes of infantile diarrhoea, especially in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and clinical symptoms of human rotavirus disease among children presenting with varying degree of diarrhoea in selected urban hospitals in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Diarrhoea samples were collected from 200 diarrheic children younger than 5 years of age and tested using a commercially available DAKO Rotavirus ELISA kit which detects the presence of human group A rotaviruses...
2015: Advances in Virology
Vivek Chandramohan, Anubhav Kaphle, Mamatha Chekuri, Sindhu Gangarudraiah, Gowrishankar Bychapur Siddaiah
Current combination therapy of PEG-INF and ribavirin against the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genotype-1 infections is ineffective in maintaining sustained viral response in 50% of the infection cases. New compounds in the form of protease inhibitors can complement the combination therapy. Asunaprevir is new to the drug regiment as the NS3-4A protease inhibitor, but it is susceptible to two mutations, namely, R155K and D168A in the protein. Thus, in our study, we sought to evaluate Andrographolide, a labdane-diterpenoid from the Andrographis paniculata plant as an effective compound for inhibiting the NS3-4A protease as well as its concomitant drug-resistant mutants by using molecular docking and dynamic simulations...
2015: Advances in Virology
Hasan Kweder, Michelle Ainouze, Joanna Brunel, Denis Gerlier, Evelyne Manet, Robin Buckland
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE), a rare lethal disease of children and young adults due to persistence of measles virus (MeV) in the brain, is caused by wild type (wt) MeV. Why MeV vaccine strains never cause SSPE is completely unknown. Hypothesizing that this phenotypic difference could potentially be represented by a molecular marker, we compared glycoprotein and matrix (M) genes from SSPE cases with those from the Moraten vaccine strain, searching for differential structural motifs. We observed that all known SSPE viruses have residues P64, E89, and A209 (PEA) in their M proteins whereas the equivalent residues for vaccine strains are either S64, K89, and T209 (SKT) as in Moraten or PKT...
2015: Advances in Virology
Soumyabrata Nag, Soma Sarkar, Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Sanjoy Bhattacharya, Rahul Biswas, Manideepa SenGupta
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the cause of most genital herpes while HSV-1 is responsible for orolabial and facial lesions. In immunocompromised individuals, like HIV patients, impaired immunity leads to more frequent symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV infection. Fifty-two blood samples from HIV patients with clinically diagnosed HSV infection were taken as cases, while 45 blood samples each from HIV-infected (HIV control) and noninfected patients without any herpetic lesion (non-HIV control) were taken as control...
2015: Advances in Virology
Pritom Chowdhury, Rashmee Topno, Siraj A Khan, Jagadish Mahanta
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a pathogenic arbovirus that belongs to genus Flavivirus under family Flaviviridae. Till now there are no approved vaccines against WNV for human use. In this study, the effect of two alkylating agents, formaldehyde and β-PL, generally used for inactivated vaccine preparation, was assessed on the basis of antigenic and immunogenic potential of the inactivated WNV. Lineage 5 WNV isolates were inactivated by both formalin and β-PL treatments. Inactivation was confirmed by repeated passage in BHK-21 cell line and infant mice...
2015: Advances in Virology
Judith M Ball, Fabricio Medina-Bolivar, Katelyn Defrates, Emily Hambleton, Megan E Hurlburt, Lingling Fang, Tianhong Yang, Luis Nopo-Olazabal, Richard L Atwill, Pooja Ghai, Rebecca D Parr
Rotavirus (RV) infections cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are available but cost prohibitive for many countries and only reduce severe symptoms. Vaccinated infants continue to shed infectious particles, and studies show decreased efficacy of the RV vaccines in tropical and subtropical countries where they are needed most. Continuing surveillance for new RV strains, assessment of vaccine efficacy, and development of cost effective antiviral drugs remain an important aspect of RV studies...
2015: Advances in Virology
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