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Advances in Virology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666644/questioning-the-extreme-neurovirulence-of-monkey-b-virus-macacine-alphaherpesvirus-1
#1
REVIEW
R Eberle, L Jones-Engel
Monkey B virus ( Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1; BV) occurs naturally in macaques of the genus Macaca, which includes rhesus and long-tailed (cynomolgus) monkeys that are widely used in biomedical research. BV is closely related to the human herpes simplex viruses (HSV), and BV infections in its natural macaque host are quite similar to HSV infections in humans. Zoonotic BV is extremely rare, having been diagnosed in only a handful of North American facilities with the last documented case occurring in 1998. However, BV is notorious for its neurovirulence since zoonotic infections are serious, usually involving the central nervous system, and are frequently fatal...
2018: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230245/adaptation-and-molecular-characterization-of-two-malaysian-very-virulent-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-isolates-adapted-in-bgm-70-cell-line
#2
Nafi'u Lawal, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris
Two Malaysian very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) strains UPM0081 and UPM190 (also known as UPMB00/81 and UPM04/190, respectively) isolated from local IBD outbreaks were serially passaged 12 times (EP12) in specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryonated eggs (CEE) by chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. The EP12 isolate was further adapted and serially propagated in BGM-70 cell line up to 20 passages (P20). Characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs) were subtly observed at P1 in both isolates 72 hours postinoculation (pi)...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081802/phage-displayed-peptides-selected-to-bind-envelope-glycoprotein-show-antiviral-activity-against-dengue-virus-serotype-2
#3
Carolina de la Guardia, Mario Quijada, Ricardo Lleonart
Dengue virus is a growing public health threat that affects hundreds of million peoples every year and leave huge economic and social damage. The virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and the incidence of the disease is increasing, among other causes, due to the geographical expansion of the vector's range and the lack of effectiveness in public health interventions in most prevalent countries. So far, no highly effective vaccine or antiviral has been developed for this virus. Here we employed phage display technology to identify peptides able to block the DENV2...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947901/evaluation-of-nxtag-respiratory-pathogen-panel-and-comparison-with-xtag-respiratory-viral-panel-fast-v2-and-film-array-respiratory-panel-for-detecting-respiratory-pathogens-in-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-and-swine-avian-origin-influenza-a-subtypes-in-culture-isolates
#4
K H Chan, K K W To, P T W Li, T L Wong, R Zhang, K K H Chik, G Chan, C C Y Yip, H L Chen, I F N Hung, J F W Chan, K Y Yuen
This study evaluated a new multiplex kit, Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel, for respiratory pathogens and compared it with xTAG RVP Fast v2 and FilmArray Respiratory Panel using nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens and culture isolates of different swine/avian-origin influenza A subtypes (H2N2, H5N1, H7N9, H5N6, and H9N2). NxTAG RPP gave sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 99.6%, PPV of 93.5%, and NPV of 99.7%. NxTAG RPP, xTAG RVP, and FilmArray RP had highly concordant performance among each other for the detection of respiratory pathogens...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386278/global-status-of-porcine-circovirus-type-2-and-its-associated-diseases-in-sub-saharan-africa
#5
REVIEW
Kayode O Afolabi, Benson C Iweriebor, Anthony I Okoh, Larry C Obi
Globally, Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a recognized viral pathogen of great economic value in pig farming. It is the major cause of ravaging postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and many other disease syndromes generally regarded as Porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD) in Europe. PCV2 infections, specifically PMWS, had impacted huge economic loss on swine production at different regions of the world. It has been studied and reported at different parts of the globe including: North and South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania, Middle East, and the Caribbean...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348590/patterns-of-human-respiratory-viruses-and-lack-of-mers-coronavirus-in-patients-with-acute-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-southwestern-province-of-saudi-arabia
#6
Ahmed A Abdulhaq, Vinod Kumar Basode, Anwar M Hashem, Ahmed S Alshrari, Nassrin A Badroon, Ahmed M Hassan, Tagreed L Alsubhi, Yahia Solan, Saleh Ejeeli, Esam I Azhar
We undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between November 2013 and January 2014 (winter time). Nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for MERS-CoV as well as other respiratory viruses using RT-PCR and multiplex microarray. A total of 75 (41.2%) of these patients had positive viral infection. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Human rhinovirus (hRV) was the most detected pathogen (40...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255301/herpes-simplex-virus-latency-the-dna-repair-centered-pathway
#7
REVIEW
Jay C Brown
Like all herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is able to produce lytic or latent infections depending on the host cell type. Lytic infections occur in a broad range of cells while latency is highly specific for neurons. Although latency suggests itself as an attractive target for novel anti-HSV1 therapies, progress in their development has been slowed due in part to a lack of agreement about the basic biochemical mechanisms involved. Among the possibilities being considered is a pathway in which DNA repair mechanisms play a central role...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191016/incidence-and-molecular-characterization-of-hepatitis-e-virus-from-swine-in-eastern-cape-south-africa
#8
Olusesan Adeyemi Adelabu, Benson Chuks Iweriebor, U U Nwodo, Larry Chikwelu Obi, Anthony Ifeanyi Okoh
Hepatitis E virus-mediated infection is a serious public health concern in economically developing nations of the world. Globally, four major genotypes of HEV have been documented. Hepatitis E has been suggested to be zoonotic owing to the increase of evidence through various studies. Thus far, this paper reports on prevalence of hepatitis E virus among swine herd in selected communal and commercial farms in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A total of 160 faecal samples were collected from swine herds in Amathole and Chris Hani District Municipalities of Eastern Cape Province for the presence of HEV...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833640/molecular-detection-of-torque-teno-sus-virus-and-coinfection-with-african-swine-fever-virus-in-blood-samples-of-pigs-from-some-slaughterhouses-in-nigeria
#9
Pam D Luka, Joseph Erume, Bitrus Yakubu, Olajide A Owolodun, David Shamaki, Frank N Mwiine
Torque teno sus virus 1 (TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b) infection is present in pig herds worldwide. This study investigated the prevalence of TTSuV1a/TTSuV1b infections in domestic pigs from some slaughterhouses in Nigeria as well as coinfection with African swine fever virus (ASFV) and described the phylogeny in relation to global strains. One hundred and eighty-one (181) blood samples from four slaughterhouses were used for the study and viral nucleic acid detection was carried out by PCR. Comparative sequence analysis was carried out to infer phylogeny...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688769/immunogenicity-of-rsv-f-dna-vaccine-in-balb-c-mice
#10
Erdal Eroglu, Ankur Singh, Swapnil Bawage, Pooja M Tiwari, Komal Vig, Shreekumar R Pillai, Vida A Dennis, Shree R Singh
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe acute lower respiratory tract disease leading to numerous hospitalizations and deaths among the infant and elderly populations worldwide. There is no vaccine or a less effective drug available against RSV infections. Natural RSV infection stimulates the Th1 immune response and activates the production of neutralizing antibodies, while earlier vaccine trials that used UV-inactivated RSV exacerbated the disease due to the activation of the allergic Th2 response...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597865/isolation-and-metagenomic-identification-of-avian-leukosis-virus-associated-with-mortality-in-broiler-chicken
#11
Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar
Avian leukosis virus (ALV) belongs to the family Retroviridae and causes considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Following an outbreak associated with high mortality in a broiler flock in northern part of Malaysia, kidney tissues from affected chickens were submitted for virus isolation and identification in chicken embryonated egg and MDCK cells. Evidence of virus growth was indicated by haemorrhage and embryo mortality in egg culture. While viral growth in cell culture was evidenced by the development of cytopathic effects...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413374/molecular-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-bovine-papillomavirus-type-1-first-report-in-iraqi-cattle
#12
Mohammed A Hamad, Ahmed M Al-Shammari, Shoni M Odisho, Nahi Y Yaseen
This study aimed to provide the first molecular characterization of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in Iraq. BPV is a widely spread oncogenic virus in Iraqi cattle and is associated with the formation of both benign and malignant lesions, resulting in notable economic losses in dairy and beef cattle. In the current study, 140 cutaneous papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in central Iraq. These samples were submitted to histopathological examination, PCR, and sequencing analysis. The histopathology revealed that the main lesion type among the specimens was fibropapilloma...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293435/vitamin-d-regulated-micrornas-are-they-protective-factors-against-dengue-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
John F Arboleda, Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima
Over the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the critical participation of vitamin D in the regulation of proinflammatory responses and protection against many infectious pathogens, including viruses. The activity of vitamin D is associated with microRNAs, which are fine tuners of immune activation pathways and provide novel mechanisms to avoid the damage that arises from excessive inflammatory responses. Severe symptoms of an ongoing dengue virus infection and disease are strongly related to highly altered production of proinflammatory mediators, suggesting impairment in homeostatic mechanisms that control the host's immune response...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274726/a-cross-study-biomarker-signature-of-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-infected-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#14
Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Despite of advances in diagnosis and treatment, biomarkers of RSV infection are still unclear. To understand the host response and propose signatures of RSV infection, previous studies evaluated the transcriptional profile of the human bronchial epithelial cell line-BEAS-2B-infected with different strains of this virus. However, the evolution of statistical methods and functional analysis together with the large amount of expression data provide opportunities to uncover novel biomarkers of inflammation and infections...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087810/direct-detection-and-identification-of-enteroviruses-from-faeces-of-healthy-nigerian-children-using-a-cell-culture-independent-rt-seminested-pcr-assay
#15
Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye, Moses Olubusuyi Adewumi, Bamidele Atinuke Coker, Felix Yasha Nudamajo, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji
Recently, a cell-culture independent protocol for detection of enteroviruses from clinical specimen was recommended by the WHO for surveillance alongside the previously established protocols. Here, we investigated whether this new protocol will show the same enterovirus diversity landscape as the established cell-culture dependent protocols. Faecal samples were collected from sixty apparently healthy children in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were resuspended in phosphate buffered saline, RNA was extracted, and the VP1 gene was amplified using WHO recommended RT-snPCR protocol...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034670/serological-survey-of-hantavirus-in-inhabitants-from-tropical-and-subtropical-areas-of-brazil
#16
Felipe Alves Morais, Alexandre Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro Pereira, Marcos Lazaro Moreli, Luís Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Marcello Schiavo Nardi, Cristina Farah Tófoli, Jansen Araujo, Lilia Mara Dutra, Tatiana Lopes Ometto, Renata Hurtado, Fábio Carmona de Jesus Maués, Tiene Zingano Hinke, Sati Jaber Mahmud, Monica Correia Lima, Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Edison Luiz Durigon
Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26997954/cumulative-impact-of-hiv-and-multiple-concurrent-human-papillomavirus-infections-on-the-risk-of-cervical-dysplasia
#17
David H Adler, Melissa Wallace, Thola Bennie, Beau Abar, Tracy L Meiring, Anna-Lise Williamson, Linda-Gail Bekker
Infection with HIV is known to increase the risk of cervical cancer. In addition, evidence suggests that concurrent infection with multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes increases the risk of cervical dysplasia more than infection with a single HPV genotype. However, the impact of the combination of HIV coinfection and presence of multiple concurrent HPV infections on the risk of cervical dysplasia is uncertain. We compared the results of HPV testing and Pap smears between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women to assess the cumulative impact of these two conditions...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989413/adapted-lethality-what-we-can-learn-from-guinea-pig-adapted-ebola-virus-infection-model
#18
REVIEW
S V Cheresiz, E A Semenova, A A Chepurnov
Establishment of small animal models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is important both for the study of genetic determinants involved in the complex pathology of EBOV disease and for the preliminary screening of antivirals, production of therapeutic heterologic immunoglobulins, and experimental vaccine development. Since the wild-type EBOV is avirulent in rodents, the adaptation series of passages in these animals are required for the virulence/lethality to emerge in these models. Here, we provide an overview of our several adaptation series in guinea pigs, which resulted in the establishment of guinea pig-adapted EBOV (GPA-EBOV) variants different in their characteristics, while uniformly lethal for the infected animals, and compare the virologic, genetic, pathomorphologic, and immunologic findings with those obtained in the adaptation experiments of the other research groups...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26981123/exosomes-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-i-pathogenesis-threat-or-opportunity
#19
REVIEW
Sin-Yeang Teow, Alif Che Nordin, Syed A Ali, Alan Soo-Beng Khoo
Nanometre-sized vesicles, also known as exosomes, are derived from endosomes of diverse cell types and present in multiple biological fluids. Depending on their cellular origins, the membrane-bound exosomes packed a variety of functional proteins and RNA species. These microvesicles are secreted into the extracellular space to facilitate intercellular communication. Collective findings demonstrated that exosomes from HIV-infected subjects share many commonalities with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) particles in terms of proteomics and lipid profiles...
2016: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26955391/pathogenesis-and-diagnostic-approaches-of-avian-infectious-bronchitis
#20
REVIEW
Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Mohd Hair Bejo, Muhammad Salisu Abubakar, Yusuf Abba
Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems...
2016: Advances in Virology
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