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Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry

Farhan Kamili, Hang Lu
Microfluidics has proven to be a key tool in quantitative biological research. The C. elegans research community in particular has developed a variety of microfluidic platforms to investigate sensory systems, development, aging, and physiology of the nematode. Critical for the growth of this field, however, has been the implementation of concurrent advanced microscopy, hardware, and software technologies that enable the discovery of novel biology. In this review, we highlight recent innovations in microfluidic platforms used for assaying C...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Elena E Ferapontova
Sensitive, specific, and fast analysis of nucleic acids (NAs) is strongly needed in medicine, environmental science, biodefence, and agriculture for the study of bacterial contamination of food and beverages and genetically modified organisms. Electrochemistry offers accurate, simple, inexpensive, and robust tools for the development of such analytical platforms that can successfully compete with other approaches for NA detection. Here, electrode reactions of DNA, basic principles of electrochemical NA analysis, and their relevance for practical applications are reviewed and critically discussed...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
R Graham Cooks, Xin Yan
Mass spectrometry is the science and technology of ions. As such, it is concerned with generating ions, measuring their properties, following their reactions, isolating them, and using them to build and transform materials. Instrumentation is an essential element of these activities, and analytical applications are one driving force. Work from the Aston Laboratories at Purdue University's Department of Chemistry is described here, with an emphasis on accelerated reactions of ions in solution and small-scale synthesis; ion/surface collision processes, including surface-induced dissociation (SID) and ion soft landing; and applications to tissue imaging...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Shudong Zhang, Mingzhi Li, Bin Su, Yuanhua Shao
This review summarizes progress in the fabrication, modification, characterization, and applications of nanopipettes since 2010. A brief history of nanopipettes is introduced, and the details of fabrication, modification, and characterization of nanopipettes are provided. Applications of nanopipettes in chemical analysis are the focus in several cases, including recent progress in imaging; in the study of single molecules, single nanoparticles, and single cells; in fundamental investigations of charge transfer (ion and electron) reactions at liquid/liquid interfaces; and as hyphenated techniques combined with other methods to study the mechanisms of complicated electrochemical reactions and to conduct bioanalysis...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
J Astor Ankney, Adil Muneer, Xian Chen
Mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics is a powerful tool for gaining insights into function and dynamics of biological systems. However, peptides with different sequences have different ionization efficiencies, and their intensities in a mass spectrum are not correlated with their abundances. Therefore, various label-free or stable isotope label-based quantitation methods have emerged to assist mass spectrometry to perform comparative proteomic experiments, thus enabling nonbiased identification of thousands of proteins differentially expressed in healthy versus diseased cells...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Johannes Thoma, K Tanuj Sapra, Daniel J Müller
Single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) has been widely applied to study the mechanical unfolding and folding of transmembrane proteins. Here, we review the recent progress in characterizing bacterial and human transmembrane β-barrel proteins by SMFS. First, we describe the mechanical unfolding of transmembrane β-barrels, which follows a general mechanism dictated by the sequential unfolding and extraction of individual β-strands and β-hairpins from membranes. Upon force relaxation, the unfolded polypeptide can insert stepwise into the membrane as single β-strands or β-hairpins to fold as the native β-barrel...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
David Gasperino, Ted Baughman, Helen V Hsieh, David Bell, Bernhard H Weigl
The performance, field utility, and low cost of lateral flow assays (LFAs) have driven a tremendous shift in global health care practices by enabling diagnostic testing in previously unserved settings. This success has motivated the continued improvement of LFAs through increasingly sophisticated materials and reagents. However, our mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes that drive the informed design of these systems has not received commensurate attention. Here, we review the principles underpinning LFAs and the historical evolution of theory to predict their performance...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Kaiyan Qiu, Ghazaleh Haghiashtiani, Michael C McAlpine
Medical errors are a major concern in clinical practice, suggesting the need for advanced surgical aids for preoperative planning and rehearsal. Conventionally, CT and MRI scans, as well as 3D visualization techniques, have been utilized as the primary tools for surgical planning. While effective, it would be useful if additional aids could be developed and utilized in particularly complex procedures involving unusual anatomical abnormalities that could benefit from tangible objects providing spatial sense, anatomical accuracy, and tactile feedback...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Samuel J Cobb, Zoe J Ayres, Julie V Macpherson
Boron doped diamond (BDD) is continuing to find numerous electrochemical applications across a diverse range of fields due to its unique properties, such as having a wide solvent window, low capacitance, and reduced resistance to fouling and mechanical robustness. In this review, we showcase the latest developments in the BDD electrochemical field. These are driven by a greater understanding of the relationship between material (surface) properties, required electrochemical performance, and improvements in synthetic growth/fabrication procedures, including material postprocessing...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Yi Wang, Allan Guan, Samanthi Wickramasekara, K Scott Phillips
In the United States, regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of all Food and Drug Administration-regulated products. Good regulatory science facilitates consumer access to innovative medical devices that are safe and effective throughout the Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC). Because the need to measure things is fundamental to the regulatory science of medical devices, analytical chemistry plays an important role, contributing to medical device technology in two ways: It can be an integral part of an innovative medical device (e...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Allister F McGuire, Francesca Santoro, Bianxiao Cui
Measurements of the intracellular state of mammalian cells often require probes or molecules to breach the tightly regulated cell membrane. Mammalian cells have been shown to grow well on vertical nanoscale structures in vitro, going out of their way to reach and tightly wrap the structures. A great deal of research has taken advantage of this interaction to bring probes close to the interface or deliver molecules with increased efficiency or ease. In turn, techniques have been developed to characterize this interface...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Cameron L Bentley, Alan M Bond, Jie Zhang
Nonhaloaluminate ionic liquids (ILs) have received considerable attention as alternatives to molecular solvents in diverse applications spanning the fields of physical, chemical, and biological science. One important and often overlooked aspect of the implementation of these designer solvents is how the properties of the IL formulation affect (electro)chemical reactivity. This aspect is emphasized herein, where recent (voltammetric) studies on the energetics of proton (H+ ) transfer and electrode reaction mechanisms of the H+ /H2 process in IL media are highlighted and discussed...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Xin Gu, Michael J Trujillo, Jacob E Olson, Jon P Camden
Owing to its extreme sensitivity and easy execution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) now finds application for a wide variety of problems requiring sensitive and targeted analyte detection. This widespread application has prompted a proliferation of different SERS-based sensors, suggesting the need for a framework to classify existing methods and guide the development of new techniques. After a brief discussion of the general SERS modalities, we classify SERS-based sensors according the origin of the signal...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Mathieu Odijk, Albert van den Berg
In this review, we summarize recent advances in nanoscale electrochemistry, including the use of nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanowires. Exciting developments are reported for nanoscale redox cycling devices, which can chemically amplify signal readout. We also discuss promising high-frequency techniques such as nanocapacitive CMOS sensor arrays or heterodyning. In addition, we review electrochemical microreactors for use in (drug) synthesis, biocatalysis, water treatment, or to electrochemically degrade urea for use in a portable artificial kidney...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Yangguang Ou, Rachael E Wilson, Stephen G Weber
Enzymes catalyze a variety of biochemical reactions in the body and, in conjunction with transporters and receptors, control virtually all physiological processes. There is great value in measuring enzyme activity ex vivo and in vivo. Spatial and temporal differences or changes in enzyme activity can be related to a variety of natural and pathological processes. Several analytical approaches have been developed to meet this need. They can be classified broadly as methods either based on artificial substrates, with the goal of creating images of diseased tissue, or based on natural substrates, with the goal of understanding natural processes...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Anisha N Patel, Christine Kranz
Incorporating functionality to atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain physical and chemical information has always been a strong focus in AFM research. Modifying AFM probes with specific molecules permits accessibility of chemical information via specific reactions and interactions. Fundamental understanding of molecular processes at the solid/liquid interface with high spatial resolution is essential to many emerging research areas. Nanoscale electrochemical imaging has emerged as a complementary technique to advanced AFM techniques, providing information on electrochemical interfacial processes...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Hunter J Sismaet, Edgar D Goluch
Advances in next-generation sequencing technology along with decreasing costs now allow the microbial population, or microbiome, of a location to be determined relatively quickly. This research reveals that microbial communities are more diverse and complex than ever imagined. New and specialized instrumentation is required to investigate, with high spatial and temporal resolution, the dynamic biochemical environment that is created by microbes, which allows them to exist in every corner of the Earth. This review describes how electrochemical probes and techniques are being used and optimized to learn about microbial communities...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Nicholas Winograd
Gas cluster ion beams (GCIBs) provide new opportunities for bioimaging and molecular depth profiling with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). These beams, consisting of clusters containing thousands of particles, initiate desorption of target molecules with high yield and minimal fragmentation. This review emphasizes the unique opportunities for implementing these sources, especially for bioimaging applications. Theoretical aspects of the cluster ion/solid interaction are developed to maximize conditions for successful mass spectrometry...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Hatice Ceylan Koydemir, Aydogan Ozcan
Mobile health technologies offer great promise for reducing healthcare costs and improving patient care. Wearable and implantable technologies are contributing to a transformation in the mobile health era in terms of improving healthcare and health outcomes and providing real-time guidance on improved health management and tracking. In this article, we review the biomedical applications of wearable and implantable medical devices and sensors, ranging from monitoring to prevention of diseases, as well as the materials used in the fabrication of these devices and the standards for wireless medical devices and mobile applications...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Scott T Retterer, Jennifer L Morrell-Falvey, Mitchel J Doktycz
Understanding and predicting how biosystems function require knowledge about the dynamic physicochemical environments with which they interact and alter by their presence. Yet, identifying specific components, tracking the dynamics of the system, and monitoring local environmental conditions without disrupting biosystem function present significant challenges for analytical measurements. Nanomaterials, by their very size and nature, can act as probes and interfaces to biosystems and offer solutions to some of these challenges...
June 12, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
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