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Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry

David Gasperino, Ted Baughman, Helen V Hsieh, David Bell, Bernhard H Weigl
The performance, field utility, and low cost of lateral flow assays (LFAs) have driven a tremendous shift in global health care practices by enabling diagnostic testing in previously unserved settings. This success has motivated the continued improvement of LFAs through increasingly sophisticated materials and reagents. However, our mechanistic understanding of the underlying processes that drive the informed design of these systems has not received commensurate attention. Here, we review the principles underpinning LFAs and the historical evolution of theory to predict their performance...
March 29, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Samuel J Cobb, Zoe J Ayres, Julie V Macpherson
Boron doped diamond (BDD) is continuing to find numerous electrochemical applications across a diverse range of fields due to its unique properties, such as having a wide solvent window, low capacitance, and reduced resistance to fouling and mechanical robustness. In this review, we showcase the latest developments in the BDD electrochemical field. These are driven by a greater understanding of the relationship between material (surface) properties, required electrochemical performance, and improvements in synthetic growth/fabrication procedures, including material postprocessing...
March 26, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Yi Wang, Allan Guan, Samanthi Wickramasekara, K Scott Phillips
In the United States, regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of all Food and Drug Administration-regulated products. Good regulatory science facilitates consumer access to innovative medical devices that are safe and effective throughout the Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC). Because the need to measure things is fundamental to the regulatory science of medical devices, analytical chemistry plays an important role, contributing to medical device technology in two ways: It can be an integral part of an innovative medical device (e...
March 26, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Allister F McGuire, Francesca Santoro, Bianxiao Cui
Measurements of the intracellular state of mammalian cells often require probes or molecules to breach the tightly regulated cell membrane. Mammalian cells have been shown to grow well on vertical nanoscale structures in vitro, going out of their way to reach and tightly wrap the structures. A great deal of research has taken advantage of this interaction to bring probes close to the interface or deliver molecules with increased efficiency or ease. In turn, techniques have been developed to characterize this interface...
March 23, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Cameron L Bentley, Alan M Bond, Jie Zhang
Nonhaloaluminate ionic liquids (ILs) have received considerable attention as alternatives to molecular solvents in diverse applications spanning the fields of physical, chemical, and biological science. One important and often overlooked aspect of the implementation of these designer solvents is how the properties of the IL formulation affect (electro)chemical reactivity. This aspect is emphasized herein, where recent (voltammetric) studies on the energetics of proton (H+ ) transfer and electrode reaction mechanisms of the H+ H2 process in IL media are highlighted and discussed...
March 19, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Xin Gu, Michael J Trujillo, Jacob E Olson, Jon P Camden
Owing to its extreme sensitivity and easy execution, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) now finds application for a wide variety of problems requiring sensitive and targeted analyte detection. This widespread application has prompted a proliferation of different SERS-based sensors, suggesting the need for a framework to classify existing methods and guide the development of new techniques. After a brief discussion of the general SERS modalities, we classify SERS-based sensors according the origin of the signal...
March 16, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Mathieu Odijk, Albert van den Berg
In this review, we summarize recent advances in nanoscale electrochemistry, including the use of nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and nanowires. Exciting developments are reported for nanoscale redox cycling devices, which can chemically amplify signal readout. We also discuss promising high-frequency techniques such as nanocapacitive CMOS sensor arrays or heterodyning. In addition, we review electrochemical microreactors for use in (drug) synthesis, biocatalysis, water treatment, or to electrochemically degrade urea for use in a portable artificial kidney...
March 8, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Yangguang Ou, Rachael E Wilson, Stephen G Weber
Enzymes catalyze a variety of biochemical reactions in the body, and in conjunction with transporters and receptors, control virtually all physiological processes. There is great value in measuring enzyme activity ex vivo and in vivo. Spatial and temporal differences or changes in enzyme activity can be related to a variety of natural and pathological processes. Several analytical approaches have been developed to meet this need. They can be classified broadly as methods either based on artificial substrates, with the goal of creating images of diseased tissue, or based on natural substrates, with the goal of understanding natural processes...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Anisha N Patel, Christine Kranz
Incorporating functionality to atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain physical and chemical information has always been a strong focus in AFM research. Modifying AFM probes with specific molecules permits accessibility of chemical information via specific reactions and interactions. Fundamental understanding of molecular processes at the solid/liquid interface with high spatial resolution is essential to many emerging research areas. Nanoscale electrochemical imaging has emerged as a complementary technique to advanced AFM techniques, providing information on electrochemical interfacial processes...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Hunter J Sismaet, Edgar D Goluch
Advances in next-generation sequencing technology along with decreasing costs now allow the microbial population, or microbiome, of a location to be determined relatively quickly. This research reveals that microbial communities are more diverse and complex than ever imagined. New and specialized instrumentation is required to investigate, with high spatial and temporal resolution, the dynamic biochemical environment that is created by microbes, which allows them to exist in every corner of the Earth. This review describes how electrochemical probes and techniques are being used and optimized to learn about microbial communities...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Nicholas Winograd
Gas cluster ion beams (GCIBs) provide new opportunities for bioimaging and molecular depth profiling with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). These beams, consisting of clusters containing thousands of particles, initiate desorption of target molecules with high yield and minimal fragmentation. This review emphasizes the unique opportunities for implementing these sources, especially for bioimaging applications. Theoretical aspects of the cluster ion/solid interaction are developed to maximize conditions for successful mass spectrometry...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Hatice Ceylan Koydemir, Aydogan Ozcan
Mobile health technologies offer great promise for reducing healthcare costs and improving patient care. Wearable and implantable technologies are contributing to a transformation in the mobile health era in terms of improving healthcare and health outcomes and providing real-time guidance on improved health management and tracking. In this article, we review the biomedical applications of wearable and implantable medical devices and sensors, ranging from monitoring to prevention of diseases, as well as the materials used in the fabrication of these devices and the standards for wireless medical devices and mobile applications...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Scott T Retterer, Jennifer L Morrell-Falvey, Mitchel J Doktycz
Understanding and predicting how biosystems function require knowledge about the dynamic physicochemical environments with which they interact and alter by their presence. Yet, identifying specific components, tracking the dynamics of the system, and monitoring local environmental conditions without disrupting biosystem function present significant challenges for analytical measurements. Nanomaterials, by their very size and nature, can act as probes and interfaces to biosystems and offer solutions to some of these challenges...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Dekai Ye, Xiaolei Zuo, Chunhai Fan
Biosensors represent biomimetic analytical tools for addressing increasing needs in medical diagnosis, environmental monitoring, security, and biodefense. Nevertheless, widespread real-world applications of biosensors remain challenging due to limitations of performance, including sensitivity, specificity, speed, and reproducibility. In this review, we present a DNA nanotechnology-enabled interfacial engineering approach for improving the performance of biosensors. We first introduce the main challenges of the biosensing interfaces, especially under the context of controlling the DNA interfacial assembly...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
A A Heller, S Y Lockwood, T M Janes, D M Spence
The creation of a pharmacokinetic (PK) curve, which follows the plasma concentration of an administered drug as a function of time, is a critical aspect of the drug development process and includes such information as the drug's bioavailability, clearance, and elimination half-life. Prior to a drug of interest gaining clearance for use in human clinical trials, research is performed during the preclinical stages to establish drug safety and dosing metrics from data obtained from the PK studies. Both in vivo animal models and in vitro platforms have limitations in predicting human reaction to a drug due to differences in species and associated simplifications, respectively...
January 11, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Sharon E Ashbrook, John M Griffin, Karen E Johnston
The sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to the local atomic-scale environment offers great potential for the characterization of a diverse range of solid materials. Despite offering more information than its solution-state counterpart, solid-state NMR has not yet achieved a similar level of recognition, owing to the anisotropic interactions that broaden the spectral lines and hinder the extraction of structural information. Here, we describe the methods available to improve the resolution of solid-state NMR spectra and the continuing research in this area...
January 11, 2018: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Karen Trentelman
Objects of cultural heritage significance are created using a wide variety of materials, or mixtures of materials, and often exhibit heterogeneity on multiple length scales. The effective study of these complex constructions thus requires the use of a suite of complementary analytical technologies. Moreover, because of the importance and irreplaceability of most cultural heritage objects, researchers favor analytical techniques that can be employed noninvasively, i.e., without having to remove any material for analysis...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Anna Nix Davis, Adam R Travis, Dusty R Miller, David E Cliffel
Advances in scientific instrumentation have allowed experimentalists to evaluate well-known systems in new ways and to gain insight into previously unexplored or poorly understood phenomena. Within the growing field of multianalyte physiometry (MAP), microphysiometers are being developed that are capable of electrochemically measuring changes in the concentration of various metabolites in real time. By simultaneously quantifying multiple analytes, these devices have begun to unravel the complex pathways that govern biological responses to ischemia and oxidative stress while contributing to basic scientific discoveries in bioenergetics and neurology...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Seon-Yeong Kwak, Min Hao Wong, Tedrick Thomas Salim Lew, Gili Bisker, Michael A Lee, Amir Kaplan, Juyao Dong, Albert Tianxiang Liu, Volodymyr B Koman, Rosalie Sinclair, Catherine Hamann, Michael S Strano
An understanding of plant biology is essential to solving many long-standing global challenges, including sustainable and secure food production and the generation of renewable fuel sources. Nanosensor platforms, sensors with a characteristic dimension that is nanometer in scale, have emerged as important tools for monitoring plant signaling pathways and metabolism that are nondestructive, minimally invasive, and capable of real-time analysis. This review outlines the recent advances in nanotechnology that enable these platforms, including the measurement of chemical fluxes even at the single-molecule level...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Christian Bleiholder, Michael T Bowers
Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) methods are increasingly used to study noncovalent assemblies of peptides and proteins. This review focuses on the noncovalent self-assembly of amino acids and peptides, systems at the heart of the amyloid process that play a central role in a number of devastating diseases. Three different systems are discussed in detail: the 42-residue peptide amyloid-β42 implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, several amyloid-forming peptides with 6-11 residues, and the assembly of individual amino acids...
June 12, 2017: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
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