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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

Bin Li, Lucas A Lane
Despite massive growth in nanomedicine research to date, the field still lacks fundamental understanding of how certain physical and chemical features of a nanoparticle affect its ability to overcome biological obstacles in vivo and reach its intended target. To gain fundamental understanding of how physical and chemical parameters affect the biological outcomes of administered nanoparticles, model systems that can systematically manipulate a single parameter with minimal influence on others are needed. Gold nanoparticles are particularly good model systems in this case as one can synthetically control the physical dimensions and surface chemistry of the particles independently and with great precision...
August 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Padmanaban Sivakumar, Sumin Kim, Han Chang Kang, Min Suk Shim
The sequence-specific gene-silencing ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been exploited as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, efficient and safe delivery of siRNA into target cells is still a challenge in the clinical development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Recently, nucleic acid-based aptamers that target cell surface proteins have emerged as a new class of targeting moieties due to their high specificity and avidity. To date, various aptamer-mediated siRNA delivery systems have been developed to enhance the RNA interference (RNAi) efficacy of siRNA via targeted delivery...
August 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Benjamin Cline, Ian Delahunty, Jin Xie
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an attractive option for cancer treatment. However, conventional PDT is activated by light that has poor tissue penetration depths, limiting its applicability in the clinic. Recently the idea of using X-ray sources to activate PDT and overcome the shallow penetration issue has garnered significant interest. This can be achieved by external beam irradiation and using a nanoparticle scintillator as transducer. Alternatively, research on exploiting Cherenkov radiation from radioisotopes to activate PDT has also begun to flourish...
July 31, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Megan K DeBari, Rosalyn D Abbott
Silk is an especially appealing biomaterial due to its adaptable mechanical properties, allowing it to be used in a wide range of tissue engineering applications. However, processing conditions play a critical role in determining silk's mechanical properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. While bulk properties of silk have been widely explored, focusing on microscopic features is becoming increasingly important, as modifications at this scale largely affect the resulting regenerative properties of the biomaterial...
June 25, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Blanka Halamoda-Kenzaoui, Uwe Holzwarth, Gert Roebben, Alessia Bogni, Susanne Bremer-Hoffmann
Appropriate documentary standards and reference materials are crucial building blocks for the development of innovative products. In order to support the emerging sector of nanomedicine, relevant standards must be identified and/or developed before the products will enter into the regulatory approval process. The anticipation of standardization needs requires a good understanding on the regulatory information requirements that can be triggered by the particularities of nanomedicines. However, robust datasets allowing firm conclusions on regulatory demands are not yet available due to a lack of regulatory experience with innovative products...
June 20, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Fernanda Rodriguez-Otormin, Aroa Duro-Castano, Inmaculada Conejos-Sánchez, María J Vicent
The growing incidence of brain-related pathologies and the problems that undermine the development of efficient and effective treatments have prompted both researchers and the pharmaceutical industry to search for novel therapeutic alternatives. Polymer therapeutics (PT) display properties well suited to the treatment of neuro-related disorders, which help to overcome the many hidden obstacles on the journey to the central nervous system (CNS). The inherent features of PT, derived from drug(s) conjugation, in parallel with the progress in synthesis and analytical methods, the increasing knowledge in molecular basis of diseases, and collected clinical data through the last four decades, have driven the translation from "bench to bedside" for various biomedical applications...
June 14, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Aniruddha M Kaushik, Kuangwen Hsieh, Tza-Huei Wang
Biomarkers are nucleic acids, proteins, single cells, or small molecules in human tissues or biological fluids whose reliable detection can be used to confirm or predict disease and disease states. Sensitive detection of biomarkers is therefore critical in a variety of applications including disease diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug screening. Unfortunately for many diseases, low abundance of biomarkers in human samples and low sample volumes render standard benchtop platforms like 96-well plates ineffective for reliable detection and screening...
May 24, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Dan Stefan Petrescu, Amy Szuchmacher Blum
Over the last decade, viruses have established themselves as a powerful tool in nanotechnology. Their proteinaceous capsids benefit from biocompatibility, chemical addressability, and a variety of sizes and geometries, while their ability to encapsulate, scaffold, and self-assemble enables their use for a wide array of purposes. Moreover, the scaling up of viral-based nanotechnologies is facilitated by high capsid production yield and speed, which is particularly advantageous when compared with slower and costlier lithographic techniques...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Martin Humenik, Gregor Lang, Thomas Scheibel
Natural silk fibers represent one of the most advanced blueprints for (bio)polymer scientists, displaying highly optimized mechanical properties due to their hierarchical structures. Biotechnological production of silk proteins and implementation of advanced processing methods enabled harnessing the potential of these biopolymer not just based on the mechanical properties. In addition to fibers, diverse morphologies can be produced, such as nonwoven meshes, films, hydrogels, foams, capsules and particles. Among them, nanoscale fibrils and fibers are particularly interesting concerning medical and technical applications due to their biocompatibility, environmental and mechanical robustness as well as high surface-to-volume ratio...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Brittany A Weldon, William C Griffith, Tomomi Workman, David K Scoville, Terrance J Kavanagh, Elaine M Faustman
Engineered nanomaterials are currently under review for their potential toxicity; however, their use in consumer/commercial products has continued to outpace risk assessments. In vitro methods may be utilized as tools to improve the efficiency of risk assessment approaches. We propose a framework to compare relationships between previously published in vitro and in vivo toxicity assessments of cadmium-selenium containing quantum dots (QDs) using benchmark dose (BMD) and dosimetric assessment methods. Although data were limited this approach was useful for identifying sensitive assays and strains...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Yu-Qing Xie, Lixia Wei, Li Tang
Cancer immunotherapy has recently shown dramatic clinical success inducing durable response in patients of a wide variety of malignancies. Further improvement of the clinical outcome with immune related cancer treatment requests more exquisite manipulation of a patient's immune system with increased immunity against diseases while mitigating the toxicities. To meet this challenge, biomaterials applied to immunoengineering are being developed to achieve tissue- and/or cell-specific immunomodulation and thus could potentially enhance both the efficacy and safety of current cancer immunotherapies...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Andrew J Ford, Padmavathy Rajagopalan
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a critical role in regulating cell behavior during tissue homeostasis and in disease progression. Through a combination of adhesion, contraction, alignment of ECM proteins and subsequent degradation, cells change the chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of their surrounding matrix. Other contributing factors to matrix remodeling are the de novo synthesis of ECM proteins, post-translational modifications and receptor-mediated internalization. In this review, we highlight how each of these processes contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis and in disease conditions such as cancer and liver fibrosis...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Sudip Mondal, Sergy V Dorozhkin, Umapada Pal
Through this brief review, we provide a comprehensive historical background of the development of nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHAp), and its application potentials for controlled drug delivery, drug conjugation, and other biomedical treatments. Aspects associated with efficient utilization of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanostructures such as their synthesis, interaction with drug molecules, and other concerns, which need to be resolved before they could be used as a potential drug carrier in body system, are discussed...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Carly Pellow, David E Goertz, Gang Zheng
The development of encapsulated microbubbles (~1-6 μm) has expanded the utility of ultrasound from soft tissue anatomical imaging to not only functional intravascular imaging, but therapeutic interventions, with compelling studies of elicited biological effects. The large diameter of these bubbles has confined their utility to the vasculature, but converging interdisciplinary research pathways are giving rise to new submicron ultrasound contrast agents capable of extending their effects beyond the vascular compartment...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Haixia Wang, Youhui Lin, Karin Nienhaus, G Ulrich Nienhaus
Most surfaces of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are reactive toward biomolecules. Therefore, whenever NPs become immersed in biological fluids, proteins and other biomolecules bind to the NP surface, forming an adsorption layer (biomolecular corona) that modifies the NPs' physicochemical properties and subsequent interactions with living systems. Its exploration is a formidable endeavor owing to the enormous diversity of engineered NPs in terms of their physicochemical properties and the vast number of biomolecules available in biofluids that may bind to NPs with widely different strengths...
July 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Bin Li, Xinfu Zhang, Yizhou Dong
Messenger RNA (mRNA) has become a promising class of drugs for diverse therapeutic applications in the past few years. A series of clinical trials are ongoing or will be initiated in the near future for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Currently, mRNA-based therapeutics mainly focuses on ex vivo transfection and local administration in clinical studies. Efficient and safe delivery of therapeutically relevant mRNAs remains one of the major challenges for their broad applications in humans. Thus, effective delivery systems are urgently needed to overcome this limitation...
May 4, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Yiting Qiao, Jianqin Wan, Liqian Zhou, Wen Ma, Yuanyuan Yang, Weixuan Luo, Zhiqiang Yu, Hangxiang Wang
Cancer remains one of the world's leading causes of death. However, most conventional chemotherapeutic drugs only show a narrow therapeutic window in patients because of their inability to discriminate cancer cells from healthy cells. Nanoparticle-based therapeutics (termed nanotherapeutics) have emerged as potential solutions to mitigate many obstacles posed by these free drugs. Deep insights into knowledge of the tumor microenvironment and materials science make it possible to construct nanotherapeutics that are able to release cargoes in response to a variety of internal stimuli and external triggers...
May 4, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Xiaoqing Miao, Wuwei Yang, Tao Feng, Jing Lin, Peng Huang
Drug nanocrystals (NCs) with fascinating physicochemical properties have attracted great attention in drug delivery. High drug-loading efficiency, great structural stability, steady dissolution, and long circulation time are a few examples of these properties, which makes drug NCs an excellent formulation for efficient cancer therapy. In the last two decades, there are a lot of hydrophobic or lipophilic drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), camptothecin (CPT), thymectacin, busulfan, cyclosporin A, 2-devinyl-2-(1-hexyloxyethyl) pyropheophorbide (HPPH), and so on, which have been formulated into drug NCs for cancer therapy...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Katherine S Duke, James C Bonner
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with numerous beneficial applications. However, they could pose a risk to human health from occupational or consumer exposures. Rodent models demonstrate that exposure to CNTs via inhalation, instillation, or aspiration results in pulmonary fibrosis. The severity of the fibrogenic response is determined by various physicochemical properties of the nanomaterial such as residual metal catalyst content, rigidity, length, aggregation status, or surface charge...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Jun Zhao, Eugene J Koay, Tingting Li, Xiaoxia Wen, Chun Li
Chemotherapy for cancer treatment is limited by the excessive toxicity to normal tissues. The design of chemodrug-loaded nanoformulations provides a unique approach to improve the treatment efficacy while minimizing toxicity. Despite the numerous publications of nanomedicine for the last several decades, however, only a small fraction of the developed nanoformulations have entered clinical trials, with even fewer being approved for clinical application. Poly(l-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel (PG-TXL) belongs to the few formulations that reached phase III clinical trials...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
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