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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

Yaoying Wu, Joel H Collier
Self-assembling coiled coils, which occur commonly in native proteins, have received significant interest for the design of new biomaterials-based medical therapies. Considerable effort over recent years has led to a detailed understanding of the self-assembly process of coiled coils, and a diverse collection of strategies have been developed for designing functional materials using this motif. The ability to engineer the interface between coiled coils allows one to achieve variously connected components, leading to precisely defined structures such as nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, networks, gels, and combinations of these...
September 6, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a class of diverse biodegradable polyesters that can be produced either by natural bioconversion process or by chemical synthesis via the ring-opening polymerization of β-lactones. Because of the excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility, the development of PHA-based nanovehicles as therapeutic delivery carriers, including nanoparticles, micelles, liposomes, and vesicles, has received considerable attention in recent years, and these sophisticated materials have demonstrated significant impact on the drug bioavailability, better encapsulation, and less toxic properties of biodegradable polymers...
September 6, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Bálint Botz, Kata Bölcskei, Zsuzsanna Helyes
Chronic inflammatory diseases and persistent pain of different origin represent common medical, social, and economic burden, and their pharmacotherapy is still an unresolved issue. Therefore, there is a great and urgent need to develop anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents with novel mechanisms of action, but it is a very challenging task. The main problem is the relatively large translational gap between the preclinical experimental data and the clinical results due to characteristics of the models, difficulties with the investigational techniques particularly for pain, as well as species differences in the mechanisms...
August 31, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Ian A Kent, Tanmay P Lele
Microtubules are vital to many important cell processes, such as cell division, transport of cellular cargo, organelle positioning, and cell migration. Owing to their diverse functions, understanding microtubule function is an important part of cell biological research that can help in combating various diseases. For example, microtubules are an important target of chemotherapeutic drugs such as paclitaxel because of their pivotal role in cell division. Many functions of microtubules relate to the generation of mechanical forces...
August 25, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Chad Curtis, Mengying Zhang, Rick Liao, Thomas Wood, Elizabeth Nance
Neurological diseases account for 13% of the global burden of disease. As a result, treating these diseases costs $750 billion a year. Nanotechnology, which consists of small (~1-100 nm) but highly tailorable platforms, can provide significant opportunities for improving therapeutic delivery to the brain. Nanoparticles can increase drug solubility, overcome the blood-brain and brain penetration barriers, and provide timed release of a drug at a site of interest. Many researchers have successfully used nanotechnology to overcome individual barriers to therapeutic delivery to the brain, yet no platform has translated into a standard of care for any neurological disease...
August 25, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Tomoki Nishimura, Kazunari Akiyoshi
Interest in amylose and its hybrids has grown over many decades, and a great deal of work has been devoted to developing methods for designing functional amylose hybrids. In this context, phosphorylase-catalyzed polymerization shows considerable promise as a tool for preparing diverse amylose hybrids. Recently, advances have been made in the chemoenzymatic synthesis and characterization of amylose-block-polymers, amylose-graft-polymers, amylose-modified surfaces, hetero-oligosaccharides, and cellodextrin hybrids...
August 10, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Flavia Fontana, Dongfei Liu, Jouni Hirvonen, Hélder A Santos
The application of nanotechnology to the treatment of cancer or other diseases has been boosted during the last decades due to the possibility to precise deliver drugs where needed, enabling a decrease in the drug's side effects. Nanocarriers are particularly valuable for potentiating the simultaneous co-delivery of multiple drugs in the same particle for the treatment of heavily burdening diseases like cancer. Immunotherapy represents a new concept in the treatment of cancer and has shown outstanding results in patients treated with check-point inhibitors...
July 29, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Yulan Fu, Cary A Tippets, Eugenii U Donev, Rene Lopez
Structural coloration has attracted great interest from scientists and engineers in recent years, owing to fascination with various brilliant examples displayed in nature as well as to promising applications of bio-inspired functional photonic structures and materials. Much research has been done to reveal and emulate the physical mechanisms that underlie the structural colors found in nature. In this article, we review the fundamental physics of many natural structural colors displayed by living organisms as well as their bio-inspired artificial counterparts, with emphasis on their connections, tunability strategies, and proposed applications, which aim to maximize the technological benefits one could derive from these photonic nanostructures...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Elena V Batrakova, Myung Soo Kim
Recently, various innovative therapies involving the ex vivo manipulation and subsequent reintroduction of exosome-based therapeutics into humans have been developed and validated, although no exosome-based therapeutics have yet to be brought into the clinic. Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by many cells that utilize them for cell-to-cell communications to facilitate transport of proteins and genetic material. Comprised of cellular membranes with multiple adhesive proteins on their surface, exosomes offer distinct advantages that exceptionally position them as highly effective drug carriers...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Yang Lu, Jiangnan Huang, Guoqiang Yu, Romel Cardenas, Suying Wei, Evan K Wujcik, Zhanhu Guo
Coelectrospinning and emulsion electrospinning are two main methods for preparing core-sheath electrospun nanofibers in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Here, physical phenomena and the effects of solution and processing parameters on the coaxial fibers are introduced. Coaxial fibers with specific drugs encapsulated in the core can exhibit a sustained and controlled release. Their exhibited high surface area and three-dimensional nanofibrous network allows the electrospun fibers to resemble native extracellular matrices...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Xiaopin Duan, Chunbai He, Stephen J Kron, Wenbin Lin
The genotoxic agent cisplatin, used alone or in combination with radiation and/or other chemotherapeutic agents, is an important first-line chemotherapy for a broad range of cancers. The clinical utility of cisplatin is limited both by intrinsic and acquired resistance and dose-limiting normal tissue toxicity. That cisplatin shows little selectivity for tumor versus normal tissue may be a critical factor limiting its value. To overcome the low therapeutic ratio of the free drug, macromolecular, liposomal, and nanoparticle drug delivery systems have been explored toward leveraging the enhanced permeability and retention effect and promoting delivery of cisplatin to tumors...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Andrew T Lucas, Andrew J Madden, William C Zamboni
Major advances in carrier-mediated agents (CMAs), which include nanoparticles and conjugates, have revolutionized drug delivery capabilities over the past decade. While providing numerous advantages over their small-molecule counterparts, there is substantial variability in how individual CMA formulations and patient characteristics affect the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) (efficacy and toxicity) of these agents. Development or selection of animal models is used to predict the effects within a particular human disease...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Hamid Feyzizarnagh, Do-Young Yoon, Mark Goltz, Dong-Shik Kim
Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Michael C DeSantis, Wei Cheng
In the past several years, there have been significant advances in the field of nanoparticle detection for various biological applications. Of considerable interest are synthetic nanoparticles being designed as potential drug delivery systems as well as naturally occurring or biological nanoparticles, including viruses and extracellular vesicles. Many infectious diseases and several human cancers are attributed to individual virions. Because these particles likely display different degrees of heterogeneity under normal physiological conditions, characterization of these natural nanoparticles with single-particle sensitivity is necessary for elucidating information on their basic structure and function as well as revealing novel targets for therapeutic intervention...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Mahdi Karimi, Masoud Eslami, Parham Sahandi-Zangabad, Fereshteh Mirab, Negar Farajisafiloo, Zahra Shafaei, Deepanjan Ghosh, Mahnaz Bozorgomid, Fariba Dashkhaneh, Michael R Hamblin
In recent years miscellaneous smart micro/nanosystems that respond to various exogenous/endogenous stimuli including temperature, magnetic/electric field, mechanical force, ultrasound/light irradiation, redox potentials, and biomolecule concentration have been developed for targeted delivery and release of encapsulated therapeutic agents such as drugs, genes, proteins, and metal ions specifically at their required site of action. Owing to physiological differences between malignant and normal cells, or between tumors and normal tissues, pH-sensitive nanosystems represent promising smart delivery vehicles for transport and delivery of anticancer agents...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Efstathios Karathanasis, Ketan B Ghaghada
Despite advancements in surgery and radiotherapy, the aggressive forms of brain tumors, such as gliomas, are still uniformly lethal with current therapies offering only palliation complicated by significant toxicities. Gliomas are characteristically diffuse with infiltrating edges, resistant to drugs and nearly inaccessible to systemic therapies due to the brain-tumor barrier. Currently, aggressive efforts are underway to further understand brain-tumor's microenvironment and identify brain tumor cell-specific regulators amenable to pharmacologic interventions...
September 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Yumiao Zhang, Jonathan F Lovell
With high extinction coefficients and long absorption wavelengths in the near infrared region, phthalocyanines (Pcs) and naphthalocyanines (Ncs) are well-suited for optical imaging and phototherapies in biological tissues. Pcs and Ncs have been used in a range of theranostic applications. Peripheral and axial substituents can be introduced to Pcs and Ncs for chemical modification. Seamless metal chelation of Pcs or Ncs can expand their possibilities as medical therapeutic and imaging agents. Nanoparticulate approaches enable unique ways to deliver Pcs and Ncs to target tissues and improve their solubility, biocompatibility, biodistribution and stability...
July 20, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Dandan Chen, Nancy A Monteiro-Riviere, Leshuai W Zhang
Metallic nanoparticles (NP) have been used for biomedical applications especially for imaging. Compared to nonmetallic NP, metallic NP provide high contrast images because of their optical light scattering, magnetic resonance, X-ray absorption, or other physicochemical properties. In this review, a series of in vitro imaging techniques for metallic NP will be introduced, meanwhile their strengths and weaknesses will be discussed. By utilizing these imaging methods, the cellular uptake of metallic NP can be easily visualized to better understand the endocytic mechanisms of NP intracellular delivery...
July 15, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Giuseppe Ferrauto, Daniela Delli Castelli, Enza Di Gregorio, Enzo Terreno, Silvio Aime
From the early days of CEST agents' disclosure, it was evident that their potential for in vivo applications was strongly hampered by the intrinsic low sensitivity. Therefore, much work has been devoted to seek out suitable routes to achieve strong CEST contrast enhancement. The use of nanosized systems turned out to be a strategic choice, because a very large amount of CEST agents can be delivered at the site of interest. However, the breakthrough innovation in term of increase of sensitivity was found by designing the lipoCEST agents...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Shankar Swaminathan, Roberta Cavalli, Francesco Trotta
Nanosponges (NSs) are a new age branched cyclodextrin (CD) polymeric systems exhibiting tremendous potential in pharmaceutical, agro science, and biomedical applications. Over the past decade, different varieties of NS based on the type of CD and the crosslinker have been developed tailored for specific applications. NS technology has been instrumental in achieving solubilization, stabilization, sustained release, enhancement of activity, permeability enhancement, protein delivery, ocular delivery, stimuli sensitive drug release, enhancement of bioavailability, etc...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
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