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Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439980/nanophotonic-trapping-precise-manipulation-and-measurement-of-biomolecular-arrays
#1
REVIEW
James E Baker, Ryan P Badman, Michelle D Wang
Optical trapping is a powerful and widely used laboratory technique in the biological and materials sciences that enables rapid manipulation and measurement at the nanometer scale. However, expanding the analytical throughput of this technique beyond the serial capabilities of established single-trap microscope-based optical tweezers remains a current goal in the field. In recent years, advances in nanotechnology have been leveraged to create innovative optical trapping methods that increase the number of available optical traps and permit parallel manipulation and measurement of arrays of optically trapped targets...
April 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425224/nanocarrier-mediated-retinal-drug-delivery-overcoming-ocular-barriers-to-treat-posterior-eye-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Rohit Bisht, Abhirup Mandal, Jagdish K Jaiswal, Ilva D Rupenthal
Effective drug delivery to the retina still remains a challenge due to ocular elimination mechanisms and complex barriers that selectively limit the entry of drugs into the eye. To overcome these barriers, frequent intravitreal injections are currently used to achieve high drug concentrations in vitreous and retina. However, these repetitive injections may result in several side effects. Recent advancements in the field of nanoparticle-based drug delivery could overcome some of these unmet needs and various preclinical studies conducted to date have demonstrated promising results of nanotherapies in the treatment of retinal diseases...
April 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398013/magnetic-resonance-relaxation-induced-by-superparamagnetic-particles-used-as-contrast-agents-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-theoretical-review
#3
REVIEW
Quoc Lam Vuong, Pierre Gillis, Alain Roch, Yves Gossuin
Superparamagnetic nanoparticles are used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging and allow, for example, the detection of tumors or the tracking of stem cells in vivo. By producing magnetic inhomogeneities, they influence the nuclear magnetic relaxation times, which results in a darkening, on the image, of the region containing these particles. A great number of studies have been devoted to their magnetic properties, to their synthesis and to their influence on nuclear magnetic relaxation. The theoretical and fundamental understanding of the behavior of these particles is a necessary step in predicting their efficiency as contrast agents, or to be able to experimentally obtain some of their properties from a nuclear magnetic resonance measurement...
April 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398005/nanotherapy-for-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#4
REVIEW
Michael E Nance, Chady H Hakim, N Nora Yang, Dongsheng Duan
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked childhood muscle wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Nanobiotechnology-based therapies (such as synthetic nanoparticles and naturally existing viral and nonviral nanoparticles) hold great promise to replace and repair the mutated dystrophin gene and significantly change the disease course. While a majority of DMD nanotherapies are still in early preclinical development, several [such as adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated systemic micro-dystrophin gene therapy] are advancing for phase I clinical trials...
April 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398001/an-update-on-carbon-nanotube-enabled-x-ray-sources-for-biomedical-imaging
#5
REVIEW
Connor Puett, Christina Inscoe, Allison Hartman, Jabari Calliste, Dora K Franceschi, Jianping Lu, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
A new imaging technology has emerged that uses carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the electron emitter (cathode) for the X-ray tube. Since the performance of the CNT cathode is controlled by simple voltage manipulation, CNT-enabled X-ray sources are ideal for the repetitive imaging steps needed to capture three-dimensional information. As such, they have allowed the development of a gated micro-computed tomography (CT) scanner for small animal research as well as stationary tomosynthesis, an experimental technology for large field-of-view human imaging...
April 11, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387452/targeted-nanoparticle-for-head-and-neck-cancers-overview-and-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Yuying Zhao, Haolin Chen, Xing Chen, Geoffrey Hollett, Zhipeng Gu, Jun Wu, Xiqiang Liu
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is common in several regions and is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review summarizes the recent progress in the development of targeted nanoparticle systems for HNC therapy. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
April 7, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382729/gold-nanoparticles-in-cardiovascular-imaging
#7
REVIEW
Mariana Varna, Hoa V Xuan, Emmanuel Fort
Although originally applied in the field of oncology, recent results have illustrated the considerable potential of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the imaging of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs represent the leading cause of mortality and disability in the world. The principal cause underpinning CVDs is atherosclerosis, which develops into mid and large blood vessels, often leading to severe complications. Thanks to their unique physicochemical properties, GNPs have drawn much attention from the research community in cardiovascular imaging...
April 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382713/ultra-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxides-for-metastatic-lymph-node-detection-back-on-the-block
#8
REVIEW
Ansje S Fortuin, Roger Brüggemann, Janine van der Linden, Ilia Panfilov, Bas Israël, Tom W J Scheenen, Jelle O Barentsz
In the past 15 years, encouraging clinical results for the detection of small lymph node metastases was obtained by the use of Combidex-enhanced MRI (CEM, also known as magnetic resonance lymphography). Withdrawal of the European Medicines Agency approval application by the manufacturer made it impossible for patients to benefit from this agent; a loss, especially for men with prostate cancer. Current conventional imaging techniques are not as accurate as CEM is, thus a surgical diagnostic exploration (extended lymph node dissection) is still the preferred technique to evaluate the lymph nodes, resulting in peri- and postoperative complications...
April 6, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345261/antibodies-from-plants-for-bionanomaterials
#9
REVIEW
Gueven Edgue, Richard M Twyman, Veronique Beiss, Rainer Fischer, Markus Sack
Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as 'green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of antibodies, ranging from laboratory-scale expression to industrial-scale manufacturing...
March 27, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299903/multifunctional-nanoparticle-composites-progress-in-the-use-of-soft-and-hard-nanoparticles-for-drug-delivery-and-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Ajmeeta Sangtani, Okhil K Nag, Lauren D Field, Joyce C Breger, James B Delehanty
With continued advancements in nanoparticle (NP) synthesis and in the interfacing of NPs with biological systems has come the exponential growth in the use of NPs for therapeutic drug delivery and imaging applications. In recent years, the advent of NP multifunctionality-the ability to perform multiple, disparate functions on a single NP platform-has garnered much excitement for the potential realization of highly functional NP-mediated drug delivery for use in the clinical setting. This Overview will survey the current state of the art (reports published within the last 5 years) of multifunctional NPs for therapeutic drug delivery, imaging or a combination thereof...
March 16, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296346/protein-corona-and-nanoparticles-how-can-we-investigate-on
#11
REVIEW
Francesca Pederzoli, Giovanni Tosi, Maria Angela Vandelli, Daniela Belletti, Flavio Forni, Barbara Ruozi
Nanoparticles (NPs) represent one of the most promising tools for drug-targeting and drug-delivery. However, a deeper understanding of the complex dynamics that happen after their in vivo administration is required. Particularly, plasma proteins tend to associate to NPs, forming a new surface named the 'protein corona' (PC). This surface is the most exposed as the 'visible side' of NPs and therefore, can have a strong impact on NP biodistribution, targeting efficacy and also toxicity. The PC consists of two poorly delimited layers, known as 'hard corona' (HC) and 'soft corona' (SC), that are affected by the complexity of the environment and the formed protein-surface equilibrium during in vivo blood circulation...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296287/bio-inspired-nanomedicine-strategies-for-artificial-blood-components
#12
REVIEW
Anirban Sen Gupta
Blood is a fluid connective tissue where living cells are suspended in noncellular liquid matrix. The cellular components of blood render gas exchange (RBCs), immune surveillance (WBCs) and hemostatic responses (platelets), and the noncellular components (salts, proteins, etc.) provide nutrition to various tissues in the body. Dysfunction and deficiencies in these blood components can lead to significant tissue morbidity and mortality. Consequently, transfusion of whole blood or its components is a clinical mainstay in the management of trauma, surgery, myelosuppression, and congenital blood disorders...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294555/promise-and-peril-in-nanomedicine-the-challenges-and-needs-for-integrated-systems-biology-approaches-to-define-health-risk
#13
REVIEW
Sabina Halappanavar, Ulla Vogel, Hakan Wallin, Carole L Yauk
In the 1966s visionary film 'Fantastic Voyage' a submarine crew was shrunk to 100 nm in size and injected into the body of an injured scientist to repair his damaged brain. The movie (written by Harry Kleiner; directed by Richard Fleischer; novel by Isaac Asimov) drew attention to the potential power of engineered nanoscale structures and devices to construct, monitor, control, treat, and repair individual cells. Even more interesting was the fact that the film elegantly noted that the structure had to be miniaturized to a size that is not detected by the body's immune surveillance system, and highlighted the many physiological barriers that are encountered on the submarine's long journey to the target...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296286/nanomedicine-approaches-to-improve-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Hui Qiu, Yuanzeng Min, Zach Rodgers, Longzhen Zhang, Andrew Z Wang
Significant advances have been made in the field of cancer immunotherapy by orchestrating the body's immune system to eradicate cancer cells. However, safety and efficacy concerns stemming from the systemic delivery of immunomodulatory compounds limits cancer immunotherapies expansion and application. In this context, nanotechnology presents a number of advantages, such as targeted delivery to immune cells, enhanced clinical outcomes, and reduced adverse events, which may aid in the delivery of cancer vaccines and immunomodulatory agents...
March 10, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294582/pioneering-medical-advances-through-nanofluidic-implantable-technologies
#15
REVIEW
R Lyle Hood, Gold Darr Hood, Mauro Ferrari, Alessandro Grattoni
Nanofluidic implantables represent a recent advance in a broad effort for developing personalized, point-of-care medical technologies. Such systems have unprecedented potential when matched with the newest developments in robotics, microprocessing, and tissue engineering. In this review, we present their emergence in medicine within the fields of diagnostics, biosensing, therapeutics, and theranostics. Discussion includes current limitations and future directions for these systems, as commensurate advances in power density and electronic processing are continually redefining the possible...
March 10, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220651/elisa-type-assays-of-trace-biomarkers-using-microfluidic-methods
#16
REVIEW
Jinhua Dong, Hiroshi Ueda
Recently, great progress has been achieved for analytical technologies for biological substances. Traditionally, detection methods for analytes mainly rely on large instrumental analyses. These methods require costly equipment, skilled operators and long measurement time despite their generally low sensitivity. In contrast, immunoassays are becoming more and more popular for it is powerful, inexpensive, and convenient nature. Immunoassay has a range of applications, because it employs antibody, a protein produced by plasma cells in the acquired immune system to identify and neutralize diverse pathogens and other exogenous substances...
February 20, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198148/stimuli-responsive-liposomes-for-drug-delivery
#17
REVIEW
Y Lee, D H Thompson
The ultimate goal of drug delivery is to increase the bioavailability and reduce the toxic side effects of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) by releasing them at a specific site of action. In the case of antitumor therapy, association of the therapeutic agent with a carrier system can minimize damage to healthy, nontarget tissues, while limit systemic release and promoting long circulation to enhance uptake at the cancerous site due to the enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR). Stimuli-responsive systems have become a promising way to deliver and release payloads in a site-selective manner...
February 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198106/in-vitro-microfluidic-models-of-tumor-microenvironment-to-screen-transport-of-drugs-and-nanoparticles
#18
REVIEW
Altug Ozcelikkale, Hye-Ran Moon, Michael Linnes, Bumsoo Han
Advances in nanotechnology have enabled numerous types of nanoparticles (NPs) to improve drug delivery to tumors. While many NP systems have been proposed, their clinical translation has been less than anticipated primarily due to failure of current preclinical evaluation techniques to adequately model the complex interactions between the NP and physiological barriers of tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on microfluidic tumor models for characterization of delivery efficacy and toxicity of cancer nanomedicine...
February 14, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185424/deconstruction-of-complex-protein-signaling-switches-a-roadmap-toward-engineering-higher-order-gene-regulators
#19
REVIEW
James A Davey, Corey J Wilson
The control of gene expression is an important tool for metabolic engineering, the design of synthetic gene networks, gene-function analysis, and protein manufacturing. The most successful approaches to date are based on modulating messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis via their inducible coupling to transcriptional effectors, which requires biosensing functionality. A hallmark of biological sensing is the conversion of an exogenous signal, usually a small molecule or environmental cue such as a protein-ligand interaction, into a useful output or response...
February 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160452/nanoescapology-progress-toward-understanding-the-endosomal-escape-of-polymeric-nanoparticles
#20
REVIEW
Laura I Selby, Christina M Cortez-Jugo, Georgina K Such, Angus P R Johnston
Using nanoparticles to deliver drugs to cells has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of many diseases, including HIV, cancer, and diabetes. One of the major challenges facing this field is controlling where the drug is trafficked once the nanoparticle is taken up into the cell. In particular, if drugs remain localized in an endosomal or lysosomal compartment, the therapeutic can be rendered completely ineffective. To ensure the design of more effective delivery systems we must first develop a better understanding of how nanoparticles and their cargo are trafficked inside cells...
February 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
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