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Beneficial Microbes

A U Happel, S L Barnabas, R Froissart, J S Passmore
Probiotics are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of several conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and colic in infants. Despite the long history of probiotic use in humans, there is still significant debate about their efficacy and safety, particularly in HIV-infected and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we reviewed the safety and adverse event (AE) reporting from clinical trials that have tested probiotics in at risk populations, including HIV-infected individuals, the terminally ill and elderly, and neonates...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
K Mokkala, P Pussinen, N Houttu, E Koivuniemi, T Vahlberg, K Laitinen
A disruption in intestinal barrier integrity may predispose individuals to metabolic aberrations, particularly during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. We investigated whether intestinal permeability, as measured by serum zonulin concentration, changes over the duration of pregnancy and whether this change is reflected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity. Second, we tested in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the impact of consuming dietary probiotics and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplements in lowering serum zonulin concentration and LPS activity...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
T Nagino, C Kaga, M Kano, N Masuoka, M Anbe, K Moriyama, K Maruyama, S Nakamura, K Shida, K Miyazaki
Several clinical studies have shown that isoflavones and Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) have beneficial effects on skin condition and the gut microbiota, respectively. Thus, we investigated the effects of consecutive intake of fermented soymilk (FSM) with LcS on skin condition and the gut microbiota, as well as isoflavone bioavailability, in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial as a pilot study. Sixty healthy premenopausal Japanese women received FSM containing a moderate level of isoflavone aglycones and a probiotic LcS, or soymilk (SM) containing neither of them, twice a day for 8 weeks...
December 21, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
S Tillmann, G Wegener
Probiotic administration to rodents is typically achieved using oral gavage or water bottles, but both approaches may compromise animal welfare, bacterial viability, dosing accuracy, or ease of administration. Oral gavage dosing may induce stress, especially when given daily over several weeks, and cannot be performed by inexperienced personnel. Delivery in water bottles does not take multiple co-housed animals into account, leading to inaccurate dosing of individual rats. Moreover, slow consumption of the solutions over several hours may lead to variability in bacterial stability, and potential leftovers or clogging of the bottle further threaten the reliability of this method...
December 21, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
M K Keller, E Brandsborg, K Holmstrøm, S Twetman
The aim of the study was to investigate clinical and microbial effects of probiotic candidate strains in patients with moderate gingivitis. The null hypothesis was that the clinical measurements with treatment would not differ from placebo. 47 adult patients were enrolled in a randomised placebo-controlled trial with a 4-week intervention of tablets containing a mix of Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM 14869 and Lactobacillus curvatus EB10, DSM 32307 or placebo. Clinical examinations and samplings were done at baseline and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks...
December 21, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
D Arredondo, L Castelli, M P Porrini, P M Garrido, M J Eguaras, P Zunino, K Antúnez
Due to their social behaviour, honey bees can be infected by a wide range of pathogens including the microsporidia Nosema ceranae and the bacteria Paenibacillus larvae. The use of probiotics as food additives for the control or prevention of infectious diseases is a widely used approach to improve human and animal health. In this work, we generated a mixture of four Lactobacillus kunkeei strains isolated from the gut microbial community of bees, and evaluated its potential beneficial effect on larvae and adult bees...
December 21, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
G M Moloney, M F Viola, A E Hoban, T G Dinan, J F Cryan
The enteric microbiota is characterised by a balance and composition that is unique to the host. It is important to understand the mechanisms through which the host can maintain the composition of the gut microbiota. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are implicated in intercellular communication and have been isolated from bodily fluids including stool. Recent findings suggest that miRNA produced by the host's intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) participate in shaping the microbiota. To investigate whether miRNA expression was influenced by the gut microbiota we measured the expression of miRNAs expressed by intestinal epithelial cells in faeces...
December 21, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
M Novicov Fanciotti, M Tejerina, M R Benítez-Ahrendts, M C Audisio
The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius A3iob, a honey bee gut-associated strain (GenBank code access KX198010), on honey yield. Independent assays were conducted from May to September 2014 and 2015, in three commercial apiaries: Tilquiza, El Carmen and Yala, all located in north-western Argentina. Local Apis mellifera L. bees were kept in standard Langstroth hives; treated hives were fed once a month with 1×105 cfu/ml viable Lactobacillus cells, administered to the bees through a Doolittle-type feeder in 125 g/l sucrose syrup...
December 21, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
M R Chacón, J Lozano-Bartolomé, M Portero-Otín, M M Rodríguez, G Xifra, J Puig, G Blasco, W Ricart, F J Chaves, J M Fernández-Real
The mycobiotic component of the microbiota comprises an integral, yet under-researched, part of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present a preliminary study of the possible contribution of gut mycobiota to sub-clinical atherosclerosis in a well-characterised group of obese and non-obese subjects in association with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). From all taxa identified, the relative abundance of the phylum Zygomycota, comprising the family Mucoraceae and genus Mucor, was negatively associated with cIMT and this association remained significant after controlling for false discovery rate...
November 10, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
J M Lemme-Dumit, M A Polti, G Perdigón, C Maldonado Galdeano
The effect of oral administration of probiotic bacteria cell walls (PBCWs) in the stimulation of the immune system in healthy BALB/c mice was evaluated. We focused our investigation mainly on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) which are essential for coordinating an adequate mucosal immune response and on the functionality of macrophages. The probiotic bacteria and their cell walls were able to stimulate the IECs exhibiting an important activation and cytokine releases. Supplementation with PBCWs promoted macrophage activation from peritoneum and spleen, indicating that the PBCWs oral administration was able to improve the functionality of the macrophages...
November 10, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
P Berríos, J A Fuentes, D Salas, A Carreño, P Aldea, F Fernández, A N Trombert
Biofilms correspond to complex communities of microorganisms embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix. Biofilm lifestyle predominates in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic Gram negative pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of infections in humans, plants and animals. In this context, anti-biofilm can be considered a key strategy to control P. aeruginosa infections, thereby more research in the field is required. On the other hand, Lactobacillus species have been described as beneficial due to their anti-biofilm properties and their consequent effect against a wide spectrum of pathogens...
November 10, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
C Laue, E Papazova, A Liesegang, A Pannenbeckers, P Arendarski, B Linnerth, K J Domig, W Kneifel, L Petricevic, J Schrezenmeir
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterised by a depletion of lactobacilli in favour of an overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria. It is associated with increased risk for urogenital infections and abortion. In this study we assessed the effect of a yoghurt drink containing Lactobacillus strains on BV. The strains had been isolated from healthy pregnant women and selected for acidification capacity, production of H2O2, glycogen utilisation, bile salt tolerance and inhibition of pathogens. Using Amsel criteria BV was diagnosed in 36 women aged ≥18 years with stable menstrual cycle or menopause...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
L Paparo, R Aitoro, R Nocerino, C Fierro, C Bruno, R Berni Canani
Cow's milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 (FM-CBAL74) exerts a preventive effect against infectious diseases in children. We evaluated if this effect is at least in part related to a direct modulation of non-immune and immune defence mechanisms in human enterocytes. Human enterocytes (Caco-2) were stimulated for 48 h with FM-CBAL74 at different concentrations. Cell growth was assessed by colorimetric assay; cell differentiation (assessed by lactase expression), tight junction proteins (zonula occludens1 and occludin), mucin 2, and toll-like receptor (TRL) pathways were analysed by real-time PCR; innate immunity peptide synthesis, beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and cathelicidin (LL-37) were evaluated by ELISA...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
S Kusuhara, M Ito, T Sato, W Yokoi, Y Yamamoto, K Harada, H Ikemura, K Miyazaki
Streptococcus thermophilus YIT 2001 (ST-1), a lactic acid bacterial strain, was shown to have inhibitory effects on the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the development of aortic fatty lesions in an animal model, and lower the serum levels of malondialdehyde-modified LDL, an oxidative modification product of LDL, in a clinical trial. This study aimed to identify the intracellular active component of ST-1 associated with anti-oxidative activity against LDL oxidation. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry analysis after fractionation of the cellular extract by reversed-phase chromatography demonstrated that the active fraction contained reduced glutathione (GSH)...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
A S-Y Lau, N Yanagisawa, Y-Y Hor, L-C Lew, J-S Ong, L-O Chuah, Y-Y Lee, S-B Choi, F Rashid, N Wahid, H Sugahara, J-Z Xiao, M-T Liong
This 10-months randomised, double-blind, parallel and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on diarrhoea and/or upper respiratory illnesses in 520 healthy Malaysian pre-school children aged 2-6 years old. The subjects randomly received a one-gram sachet containing either BB536 (5×109 cfu) or placebo daily. Data analysis was performed on 219 subjects who fully complied over 10-months (placebo n=110, BB536 n=109). While BB536 did not exert significant effects against diarrhoea in children, Poisson regression with generalised estimating equations model indicated significant intergroup difference in the mean number of times of respiratory illnesses over 10 months...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
X Yin, D Heeney, Y Srisengfa, B Golomb, S Griffey, M Marco
Plantaricin EF (PlnEF) is a class IIb bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum. We compared L. plantarum NCIMB8826 and LM0419, a plnEFI deletion mutant of that strain lacking plnEF and the gene for the cognate immunity protein plnI, in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced mouse model of acute inflammatory bowel disease. Mice fed either L. plantarum NCIMB8826 or LM0419 were not protected against TNBS according to either disease activity or histology (Ameho) scores. Mice consuming NCIMB8826 exhibited intermediate (non-significant) levels of colonic tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) that ranged between the TNBS-treated animals and healthy controls...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
G Rossi, A Jergens, M Cerquetella, S Berardi, E Di Cicco, G Bassotti, G Pengo, J S Suchodolski
Chronic constipation (CC) and idiopathic megacolon (IMC) occur frequently in cats. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a multi-strain probiotic (SLAB51™) in constipated cats (n=7) and in patients with megacolon and constipation (n=3). Ten pet cats with a diagnosis of chronic constipation, non-responsive to medical management received orally 2×10(11) bacteria daily for 90 days. For microbiota analysis, selected bacterial groups were analysed by qPCR. Histological samples in megacolons were evaluated for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), enteric neurons, and neuronal apoptosis...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
J Kim, B S Lee, B Kim, I Na, J Lee, J Y Lee, M R Park, H Kim, I Sohn, K Ahn
The therapeutic effect of probiotics in atopic dermatitis (AD) remains controversial and varies according to the individual patient. We aimed to identify a population of AD patients with a good clinical response to probiotic treatment. We recruited 76 children with a median age of 7.1 years who suffered from moderate to severe AD. After a 2-week washout period, all patients were given Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 at a dosage of 1×10(10) colony-forming units once a day for 12 weeks. We measured eosinophil counts in the peripheral blood, the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in CD4(+) T cells, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and specific IgE against common allergens before the start of the treatment (T1) and at discontinuation (T2)...
October 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
G Riezzo, A Orlando, B D'Attoma, M Linsalata, M Martulli, F Russo
Dysbiosis may contribute to constipation and its symptoms, therefore probiotic administration could improve significantly gut health and functions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a long-lasting administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR DSM 17938) on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) score in patients with functional constipation (FC). 56 FC patients with normal colonic transit time and without anorectal disorders and pelvic floor dysfunctions completed the study. LR DSM 17938 was administered for 105 days in a randomised double-blind clinical trial (28 patients per arm)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
K Adamberg, K Kolk, M Jaagura, R Vilu, S Adamberg
The metabolic activity of colon microbiota is specifically affected by fibres with various monomer compositions, degree of polymerisation and branching. The supply of a variety of dietary fibres assures the diversity of gut microbial communities considered important for the well-being of the host. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of different oligo- and polysaccharides (galacto- and fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, levan, inulin, arabinogalactan, xylan, pectin and chitin), and a glycoprotein mucin on the growth and metabolism of faecal microbiota in vitro by using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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