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ASN Neuro

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768946/neuroprotective-role-of-astroglia-in-parkinson-disease-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-dopamine-induced-activation-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#1
Kyoko Mashima, Shinichi Takahashi, Kazushi Minami, Yoshikane Izawa, Takato Abe, Naoki Tsukada, Takako Hishiki, Makoto Suematsu, Mayumi Kajimura, Norihiro Suzuki
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of Parkinson disease. Although released dopamine at the synaptic terminal is mostly reabsorbed by dopaminergic neurons, some dopamine is presumably taken up by astroglia. This study examined the dopamine-induced astroglial protective function through the activation of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro experiments were performed using striatal neurons and cortical or striatal astroglia prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats or C57BL/6 mice...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741097/metabolic-and-structural-imaging-at-7-tesla-after-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-immature-rats
#2
Emin Fidan, Lesley M Foley, Lee Ann New, Henry Alexander, Patrick M Kochanek, T Kevin Hitchens, Hülya Bayır
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children is a common and serious public health problem. Traditional neuroimaging findings in children who sustain mTBI are often normal, putting them at risk for repeated mTBI (rmTBI). There is a need for more sensitive imaging techniques capable of detecting subtle neurophysiological alterations after injury. We examined neurochemical and white matter changes using diffusion tensor imaging of the whole brain and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampi at 7 Tesla in 18-day-old male rats at 7 days after mTBI and rmTBI...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673258/methylglyoxal-disrupts-paranodal-axoglial-junctions-via-calpain-activation
#3
Ryan B Griggs, Leonid M Yermakov, Domenica E Drouet, Duc V M Nguyen, Keiichiro Susuki
Nodes of Ranvier and associated paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains along myelinated axons are essential for normal function of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Disruption of these domains as well as increases in the reactive carbonyl species methylglyoxal are implicated as a pathophysiology common to a wide variety of neurological diseases. Here, using an ex vivo nerve exposure model, we show that increasing methylglyoxal produces paranodal disruption, evidenced by disorganized immunostaining of axoglial cell-adhesion proteins, in both sciatic and optic nerves from wild-type mice...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357681/corrigendum
#4
(no author information available yet)
Lavezzi, A. M., Ferrero, S., Roncati, L., Piscioli, F., Matturri, L. & Pusiol, T. (2017). Nicotinic receptor abnormalities in the cerebellar cortex of sudden unexplained fetal and infant death victims-possible correlation with maternal smoking. ASN Neuro, 9, 1-10. DOI: 10.1177/1759091417720582 In figure 4, one of the labels mentioned at the bottom of graph is incorrect. Instead of "BDNF-index classes", the label should be " nAChR-index". The correct figure is shown below.
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357675/stuck-in-a-state-of-inattention-functional-hyperconnectivity-as-an-indicator-of-disturbed-intrinsic-brain-dynamics-in-adolescents-with-concussion-a-pilot-study
#5
Angela M Muller, Naznin Virji-Babul
Sports-related concussion in youth is a major public health issue. Evaluating the diffuse and often subtle changes in structure and function that occur in the brain, particularly in this population, remains a significant challenge. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the relationship between the intrinsic dynamics of the brain using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and relate these findings to structural brain correlates from diffusion tensor imaging in a group of adolescents with sports-related concussions ( n = 6) and a group of healthy adolescent athletes ( n = 6)...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243938/iron-deficiency-affects-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-time-and-sex-specific-manner
#6
Michael Rudy, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Iron deficiency (ID) affects more than three billion people worldwide making it the most common micronutrient deficiency. ID is most prevalent during gestation and early life, which is of particular concern since its impact on the developing central nervous system is associated with an increased risk of a wide range of different psychiatric disorders later in life. The cause for this association is not known, but many of these same disorders are also associated with an imbalance between excitation and inhibition (E/I) within the brain...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228786/oxidative-stress-induces-disruption-of-the-axon-initial-segment
#7
Kareem Clark, Brooke A Sword, Jeffrey L Dupree
The axon initial segment (AIS), the domain responsible for action potential initiation and maintenance of neuronal polarity, is targeted for disruption in a variety of central nervous system pathological insults. Previous work in our laboratory implicates oxidative stress as a potential mediator of structural AIS alterations in two separate mouse models of central nervous system inflammation, as these effects were attenuated following reactive oxygen species scavenging and NADPH oxidase-2 ablation. While these studies suggest a role for oxidative stress in modulation of the AIS, the direct effects of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) on the stability of this domain remain unclear...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198136/hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-gene-expression-changes-in-the-cell-types-of-the-brain
#8
Erica M Weekman, Abigail E Woolums, Tiffany L Sudduth, Donna M Wilcock
High plasma levels of homocysteine, termed hyperhomocysteinemia, are a risk factor for vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, which is the second leading cause of dementia. While hyperhomocysteinemia induces microhemorrhages and cognitive decline in mice, the specific effect of hyperhomocysteinemia on each cell type remains unknown. We took separate cultures of astrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells and treated each with moderate levels of homocysteine for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198135/tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-3-promotes-schwann-cell-myelination
#9
Jihyun Kim, Anthony Elias, Taeweon Lee, Patrice Maurel, Haesun A Kim
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) inhibits the activities of various metalloproteinases including matrix metalloproteinases and ADAM family proteins. In the peripheral nervous system, ADAM17, also known as TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), cleaves the extracellular domain of Nrg1 type III, an axonal growth factor that is essential for Schwann cell myelination. The processing by ADAM17 attenuates Nrg1 signaling and inhibits Schwann cell myelination. TIMP-3 targets ADAM17, suggesting a possibility that TIMP-3 may elicit a promyelinating function in Schwann cells by relieving ADAM17-induced myelination block...
November 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870089/mitogen-and-stress-activated-protein-kinase-1-regulates-status-epilepticus-evoked-cell-death-in-the-hippocampus
#10
Yun-Sik Choi, Paul Horning, Sydney Aten, Kate Karelina, Diego Alzate-Correa, J Simon C Arthur, Kari R Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling has been implicated in a wide range of neuronal processes, including development, plasticity, and viability. One of the principal downstream targets of both the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK pathway and the p38 MAPK pathway is Mitogen- and Stress-activated protein Kinase 1 (MSK1). Here, we sought to understand the role that MSK1 plays in neuroprotection against excitotoxic stimulation in the hippocampus. To this end, we utilized immunohistochemical labeling, a MSK1 null mouse line, cell viability assays, and array-based profiling approaches...
September 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840755/an-alternative-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-and-remyelination-mouse-model
#11
Wei Zhen, Ailian Liu, Jiaqi Lu, Wandong Zhang, David Tattersall, Jianfei Wang
The cuprizone model is a well-established and investigated paradigm to study demyelination and remyelination in rodents. Cuprizone is usually administrated by mixing in the powdered or pelleted rodent chow. However, since cuprizone is sensitive to the environment and the consumption of it varies between different animals, the major issue is the discrepancy in demyelination of the animals. This study reports the development of the cuprizone model by gavage administrations in mice. Following testing a series of doses of cuprizone, 400 mg/kg/day was found to be the best dosage to induce dramatic and consistent demyelination after 5 weeks of administration; while remyelination quickly occurred after 9 days of cuprizone withdrawal...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817954/dissecting-amyloid-beta-deposition-using-distinct-strains-of-the-neurotropic-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-as-a-novel-tool
#12
Carla M Cabral, Kathryn E McGovern, Wes R MacDonald, Jenna Franco, Anita A Koshy
Genetic and pathologic data suggest that amyloid beta (Aβ), produced by processing of the amyloid precursor protein, is a major initiator of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To gain new insights into Aβ modulation, we sought to harness the power of the coevolution between the neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the mammalian brain. Two prior studies attributed Toxoplasma-associated protection against Aβ to increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β and IL-10) and infiltrating phagocytic monocytes. These studies only used one Toxoplasma strain making it difficult to determine if the noted changes were associated with Aβ protection or simply infection...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735559/effects-of-intron-1-sequences-on-human-plp1-expression-implications-for-plp1-related-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Patricia A Wight
Alterations in the myelin proteolipid protein gene ( PLP1) may result in rare X-linked disorders in humans such as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and spastic paraplegia type 2. PLP1 expression must be tightly regulated since null mutations, as well as elevated PLP1 copy number, both lead to disease. Previous studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice have demonstrated that mouse Plp1 ( mPlp1) intron 1 DNA (which accounts for slightly more than half of the gene) is required for the mPlp1 promoter to drive significant levels of reporter gene expression in brain...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735558/nicotinic-receptor-abnormalities-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-of-sudden-unexplained-fetal-and-infant-death-victims-possible-correlation-with-maternal-smoking
#14
Anna M Lavezzi, Stefano Ferrero, Luca Roncati, Francesco Piscioli, Luigi Matturri, Teresa Pusiol
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are cationic channels of the neuronal cell membrane, differentially expressed in the central nervous system which, when activated by endogenous acetylcholine or exogenous nicotine, are able to enhance cholinergic transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate in human perinatal age the immunohistochemical expression of the α7-nAChR subtype, given its involvement in neuronal differentiation and its significant vulnerability to the toxic effects of nicotine...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707482/peripheral-inflammation-apolipoprotein-e4-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-interact-to-induce-cognitive-and-cerebrovascular-dysfunction
#15
Felecia M Marottoli, Yuriko Katsumata, Kevin P Koster, Riya Thomas, David W Fardo, Leon M Tai
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is rapidly reemerging as a major process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is, therefore, crucial to delineate the roles of AD risk factors in cerebrovascular dysfunction. While apolipoprotein E4 ( APOE4), Amyloid-β (Aβ), and peripheral inflammation independently induce cerebrovascular damage, their collective effects remain to be elucidated. The goal of this study was to determine the interactive effect of APOE4, Aβ, and chronic repeated peripheral inflammation on cerebrovascular and cognitive dysfunction in vivo...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683563/modulation-of-hematopoietic-lineage-specification-impacts-trem2-expression-in-microglia-like-cells-derived-from-human-stem-cells
#16
Peter J Amos, Susan Fung, Amanda Case, Jerusalem Kifelew, Leah Osnis, Carole L Smith, Kevin Green, Alipi Naydenov, Macarena Aloi, Jesse J Hubbard, Aravind Ramakrishnan, Gwenn A Garden, Suman Jayadev
Microglia are the primary innate immune cell type in the brain, and their dysfunction has been linked to a variety of central nervous system disorders. Human microglia are extraordinarily difficult to obtain for experimental investigation, limiting our ability to study the impact of human genetic variants on microglia functions. Previous studies have reported that microglia-like cells can be derived from human monocytes or pluripotent stem cells. Here, we describe a reproducible relatively simple method for generating microglia-like cells by first deriving embryoid body mesoderm followed by exposure to microglia relevant cytokines...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#17
REVIEW
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604057/heterogeneity-of-d-serine-distribution-in-the-human-central-nervous-system
#18
Masataka Suzuki, Nobuaki Imanishi, Masashi Mita, Kenji Hamase, Sadakazu Aiso, Jumpei Sasabe
D-serine is an endogenous ligand for N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Accumulating evidence including genetic associations of D-serine metabolism with neurological or psychiatric diseases suggest that D-serine is crucial in human neurophysiology. However, distribution and regulation of D-serine in humans are not well understood. Here, we found that D-serine is heterogeneously distributed in the human central nervous system (CNS). The cerebrum contains the highest level of D-serine among the areas in the CNS...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#19
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266222/conditional-depletion-of-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-exacerbates-neuropathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
David J Braun, Sergey Kalinin, Douglas L Feinstein
Damage occurring to noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) contributes to the evolution of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in a variety of conditions and diseases. One cause of LC damage may be loss of neurotrophic support from LC target regions. We tested this hypothesis by conditional unilateral knockout of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adult mice. To evaluate the consequences of BDNF loss in the context of neurodegeneration, the mice harbored familial mutations for human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1...
March 2017: ASN Neuro
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