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ASN Neuro

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870089/mitogen-and-stress-activated-protein-kinase-1-regulates-status-epilepticus-evoked-cell-death-in-the-hippocampus
#1
Yun-Sik Choi, Paul Horning, Sydney Aten, Kate Karelina, Diego Alzate-Correa, J Simon C Arthur, Kari R Hoyt, Karl Obrietan
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling has been implicated in a wide range of neuronal processes, including development, plasticity, and viability. One of the principal downstream targets of both the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK pathway and the p38 MAPK pathway is Mitogen- and Stress-activated protein Kinase 1 (MSK1). Here, we sought to understand the role that MSK1 plays in neuroprotection against excitotoxic stimulation in the hippocampus. To this end, we utilized immunohistochemical labeling, a MSK1 null mouse line, cell viability assays, and array-based profiling approaches...
September 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840755/an-alternative-cuprizone-induced-demyelination-and-remyelination-mouse-model
#2
Wei Zhen, Ailian Liu, Jiaqi Lu, Wandong Zhang, David Tattersall, Jianfei Wang
The cuprizone model is a well-established and investigated paradigm to study demyelination and remyelination in rodents. Cuprizone is usually administrated by mixing in the powdered or pelleted rodent chow. However, since cuprizone is sensitive to the environment and the consumption of it varies between different animals, the major issue is the discrepancy in demyelination of the animals. This study reports the development of the cuprizone model by gavage administrations in mice. Following testing a series of doses of cuprizone, 400 mg/kg/day was found to be the best dosage to induce dramatic and consistent demyelination after 5 weeks of administration; while remyelination quickly occurred after 9 days of cuprizone withdrawal...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817954/dissecting-amyloid-beta-deposition-using-distinct-strains-of-the-neurotropic-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-as-a-novel-tool
#3
Carla M Cabral, Kathryn E McGovern, Wes R MacDonald, Jenna Franco, Anita A Koshy
Genetic and pathologic data suggest that amyloid beta (Aβ), produced by processing of the amyloid precursor protein, is a major initiator of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To gain new insights into Aβ modulation, we sought to harness the power of the coevolution between the neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the mammalian brain. Two prior studies attributed Toxoplasma-associated protection against Aβ to increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-β and IL-10) and infiltrating phagocytic monocytes. These studies only used one Toxoplasma strain making it difficult to determine if the noted changes were associated with Aβ protection or simply infection...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735559/effects-of-intron-1-sequences-on-human-plp1-expression-implications-for-plp1-related-disorders
#4
Patricia A Wight
Alterations in the myelin proteolipid protein gene ( PLP1) may result in rare X-linked disorders in humans such as Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and spastic paraplegia type 2. PLP1 expression must be tightly regulated since null mutations, as well as elevated PLP1 copy number, both lead to disease. Previous studies with Plp1-lacZ transgenic mice have demonstrated that mouse Plp1 ( mPlp1) intron 1 DNA (which accounts for slightly more than half of the gene) is required for the mPlp1 promoter to drive significant levels of reporter gene expression in brain...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735558/nicotinic-receptor-abnormalities-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-of-sudden-unexplained-fetal-and-infant-death-victims-possible-correlation-with-maternal-smoking
#5
Anna M Lavezzi, Stefano Ferrero, Luca Roncati, Francesco Piscioli, Luigi Matturri, Teresa Pusiol
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are cationic channels of the neuronal cell membrane, differentially expressed in the central nervous system which, when activated by endogenous acetylcholine or exogenous nicotine, are able to enhance cholinergic transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate in human perinatal age the immunohistochemical expression of the α7-nAChR subtype, given its involvement in neuronal differentiation and its significant vulnerability to the toxic effects of nicotine...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707482/peripheral-inflammation-apolipoprotein-e4-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-interact-to-induce-cognitive-and-cerebrovascular-dysfunction
#6
Felecia M Marottoli, Yuriko Katsumata, Kevin P Koster, Riya Thomas, David W Fardo, Leon M Tai
Cerebrovascular dysfunction is rapidly reemerging as a major process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is, therefore, crucial to delineate the roles of AD risk factors in cerebrovascular dysfunction. While apolipoprotein E4 ( APOE4), Amyloid-β (Aβ), and peripheral inflammation independently induce cerebrovascular damage, their collective effects remain to be elucidated. The goal of this study was to determine the interactive effect of APOE4, Aβ, and chronic repeated peripheral inflammation on cerebrovascular and cognitive dysfunction in vivo...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683563/modulation-of-hematopoietic-lineage-specification-impacts-trem2-expression-in-microglia-like-cells-derived-from-human-stem-cells
#7
Peter J Amos, Susan Fung, Amanda Case, Jerusalem Kifelew, Leah Osnis, Carole L Smith, Kevin Green, Alipi Naydenov, Macarena Aloi, Jesse J Hubbard, Aravind Ramakrishnan, Gwenn A Garden, Suman Jayadev
Microglia are the primary innate immune cell type in the brain, and their dysfunction has been linked to a variety of central nervous system disorders. Human microglia are extraordinarily difficult to obtain for experimental investigation, limiting our ability to study the impact of human genetic variants on microglia functions. Previous studies have reported that microglia-like cells can be derived from human monocytes or pluripotent stem cells. Here, we describe a reproducible relatively simple method for generating microglia-like cells by first deriving embryoid body mesoderm followed by exposure to microglia relevant cytokines...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629225/cortical-plasticity-in-depression
#8
Mariagiovanna Cantone, Alessia Bramanti, Giuseppe Lanza, Manuela Pennisi, Placido Bramanti, Giovanni Pennisi, Rita Bella
Neural plasticity is considered the neurophysiological correlate of learning and memory, although several studies have also noted that it plays crucial roles in a number of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Indeed, impaired brain plasticity may be one of the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlies both cognitive decline and major depression. Moreover, a degree of cognitive impairment is frequently observed throughout the clinical spectrum of mood disorders, and the relationship between depression and cognition is often bidirectional...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604057/heterogeneity-of-d-serine-distribution-in-the-human-central-nervous-system
#9
Masataka Suzuki, Nobuaki Imanishi, Masashi Mita, Kenji Hamase, Sadakazu Aiso, Jumpei Sasabe
D-serine is an endogenous ligand for N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Accumulating evidence including genetic associations of D-serine metabolism with neurological or psychiatric diseases suggest that D-serine is crucial in human neurophysiology. However, distribution and regulation of D-serine in humans are not well understood. Here, we found that D-serine is heterogeneously distributed in the human central nervous system (CNS). The cerebrum contains the highest level of D-serine among the areas in the CNS...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#10
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266222/conditional-depletion-of-hippocampal-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-exacerbates-neuropathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
David J Braun, Sergey Kalinin, Douglas L Feinstein
Damage occurring to noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) contributes to the evolution of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in a variety of conditions and diseases. One cause of LC damage may be loss of neurotrophic support from LC target regions. We tested this hypothesis by conditional unilateral knockout of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adult mice. To evaluate the consequences of BDNF loss in the context of neurodegeneration, the mice harbored familial mutations for human amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1...
March 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090790/loss-of-interneuron-derived-collagen-xix-leads-to-a-reduction-in-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mammalian-telencephalon
#12
Jianmin Su, James Cole, Michael A Fox
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are lattice-like supramolecular assemblies of extracellular glycoproteins that surround subsets of neuronal cell bodies in the mammalian telencephalon. PNNs emerge at the end of the critical period of brain development, limit neuronal plasticity in the adult brain, and are lost in a variety of complex brain disorders diseases, including schizophrenia. The link between PNNs and schizophrenia led us to question whether neuronally expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules associated with schizophrenia contribute to the assembly of these specialized supramolecular ECM assemblies...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078912/unaltered-glutamate-transporter-1-protein-levels-in-aquaporin-4-knockout-mice
#13
Jacqueline A Hubbard, Devin K Binder
Maintenance of glutamate and water homeostasis in the brain is crucial to healthy brain activity. Astrocytic glutamate transporter-1 (GLT1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are the main regulators of extracellular glutamate and osmolarity, respectively. Several studies have reported colocalization of GLT1 and AQP4, but the existence of a physical interaction between the two has not been well studied. Therefore, we used coimmunoprecipitation to determine whether a strong interaction exists between these two important molecules in mice on both a CD1 and C57BL/6 background...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078911/c5a-increases-the-injury-to-primary-neurons-elicited-by-fibrillar-amyloid-beta
#14
Michael X Hernandez, Pouya Namiranian, Eric Nguyen, Maria I Fonseca, Andrea J Tenner
C5aR1, the proinflammatory receptor for C5a, is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, endothelial cells, and neurons. Previous work demonstrated that the C5aR1 antagonist, PMX205, decreased amyloid pathology and suppressed cognitive deficits in two Alzheimer's Disease (AD) mouse models. However, the cellular mechanisms of this protection have not been definitively demonstrated. Here, primary cultured mouse neurons treated with exogenous C5a show reproducible loss of MAP-2 staining in a dose-dependent manner within 24 hr of treatment, indicative of injury to neurons...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879349/ncam1-polysialylation-the-prion-protein-s-elusive-reason-for-being
#15
REVIEW
Mohadeseh Mehrabian, Herbert Hildebrandt, Gerold Schmitt-Ulms
Much confusion surrounds the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). It is, however, anticipated that knowledge of its function will shed light on its contribution to neurodegenerative diseases and suggest ways to interfere with the cellular toxicity central to them. Consequently, efforts to elucidate its function have been all but exhaustive. Building on earlier work that uncovered the evolutionary descent of the prion founder gene from an ancestral ZIP zinc transporter, we recently investigated a possible role of PrP(C) in a morphogenetic program referred to as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872270/hiv-glycoprotein-gp120-impairs-fast-axonal-transport-by-activating-tak1-signaling-pathways
#16
Sarah H Berth, Nichole Mesnard-Hoaglin, Bin Wang, Hajwa Kim, Yuyu Song, Maria Sapar, Gerardo Morfini, Scott T Brady
Sensory neuropathies are the most common neurological complication of HIV. Of these, distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is directly caused by HIV infection and characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Mechanisms for axonal degeneration in DSP remain unclear, but recent experiments revealed that the HIV glycoprotein gp120 is internalized and localized within axons of DRG neurons. Based on these findings, we investigated whether intra-axonal gp120 might impair fast axonal transport (FAT), a cellular process critical for appropriate maintenance of the axonal compartment...
December 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815336/assessment-of-neuroprotective-properties-of-melissa-officinalis-in-combination-with-human-umbilical-cord-blood-stem-cells-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Seyed Ruhollah Hosseini, Gholamreza Kaka, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Mehdi Hooshmandi, Seyed Homayoon Sadraie, Kayvan Yaghoobi, Alireza Mohammadi
INTRODUCTION: The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) has a classically bad prognosis. It has been demonstrated that human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSCs) and Melissa officinalis (MO) are useful for the prevention of neurological disease. METHODS: Thirty-six adult male rats were randomly divided into intact, sham, control (SCI), MO, hUCBSC, and MO-hUCBSC groups. Intraperitoneal injection of MO (150 mg/kg) was commenced 24 hr post-SCI and continued once a day for 14 days...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789613/grafted-neural-precursors-integrate-into-mouse-striatum-differentiate-and-promote-recovery-of-function-through-release-of-erythropoietin-in-mptp-treated-mice
#18
Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Cristina Viaggi, Zuzana Gombalova, Elisa Latorre, Massimiliano Mazza, Francesca Vaglini, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Alfredo Gorio
Erythropoietin-releasing neural precursor cells (Er-NPCs) are a subclass of subventricular zone-derived neural progenitors, capable of surviving for 6 hr after death of donor. They present higher neural differentiation. Here, Er-NPCs were studied in animal model of Parkinson's disease. Dopaminergic degeneration was caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intraperitoneal administration in C57BL/6 mice. The loss of function was evaluated by specific behavioral tests. Er-NPCs (2.5 × 10(5)) expressing the green fluorescent protein were administered by stereotaxic injection unilaterally in the left striatum...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697884/photoperiod-modulates-fast-delayed-rectifier-potassium-currents-in-the-mammalian-circadian-clock
#19
Sahar Farajnia, Johanna H Meijer, Stephan Michel
One feature of the mammalian circadian clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is its ability to measure day length and thereby contribute to the seasonal adaptation of physiology and behavior. The timing signal from the SCN, namely the 24 hr pattern of electrical activity, is adjusted according to the photoperiod being broader in long days and narrower in short days. Vasoactive intestinal peptide and gamma-aminobutyric acid play a crucial role in intercellular communication within the SCN and contribute to the seasonal changes in phase distribution...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683879/enhanced-histochemical-detection-of-iron-in-paraffin-sections-of-mouse-central-nervous-system-tissue-application-in-the-app-ps1-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Scott A Sands, Regis Leung-Toung, Yingsheng Wang, John Connelly, Steven M LeVine
Histochemical methods of detecting iron in the rodent brain result mainly in the labeling of oligodendrocytes, but as all cells utilize iron, this observation suggests that much of the iron in the central nervous system goes undetected. Paraffin embedding of tissue is a standard procedure that is used to prepare sections for microscopic analysis. In the present study, we questioned whether we could modify the iron histochemical procedure to enable a greater detection of iron in paraffin sections. Indeed, various modifications led to the widespread labeling of iron in mouse brain tissue (for instance, labeling of neurons and neuropil)...
October 2016: ASN Neuro
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