Read by QxMD icon Read

F1000 Medicine Reports

Judith A Brebner, Robert A Stockley
Free light chains are proteins produced by B lymphocytes during the process of antibody synthesis. Their production, as a reflection of B cell activation, can give insight into the activity of the adaptive immune system. In recent years, an automated immunoassay that provides quantitative measurement of free light chains in the serum has been developed. This assay has not only revolutionised the investigation of monoclonal light chain overproduction in plasma cell diseases, but has also allowed for the quantification of polyclonal free light chains in serum...
2013: F1000 Medicine Reports
Daniel Kook, Anselm Kampik, Alois K Dexl, Nicole Zimmermann, Adrian Glasser, Martin Baumeister, Thomas Kohnen
Cataract surgery is one of the oldest and the most frequent outpatient clinic operations in medicine performed worldwide. The clouded human crystalline lens is replaced by an artificial intraocular lens implanted into the capsular bag. During the last six decades, cataract surgery has undergone rapid development from a traumatic, manual surgical procedure with implantation of a simple lens to a minimally invasive intervention increasingly assisted by high technology and a broad variety of implants customized for each patient's individual requirements...
2013: F1000 Medicine Reports
Suzanne H Gage, Stanley Zammit, Matthew Hickman
Schizophrenia is a debilitating but poorly understood condition with very few known modifiable risk factors. Cannabis use can acutely induce psychotic experiences, but its causal relationship to schizophrenia is less well understood. Longitudinal cohort studies suggest that the association between cannabis and psychotic outcomes is not due to chance or reverse causation. However, the association could be due to bias or residual confounding. Methods that can test alternative explanations in greater depth are required...
2013: F1000 Medicine Reports
David J Castle
Converging lines of evidence suggest that cannabinoids can produce a full range of transient schizophrenia-like positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cannabinoids also produce some psychophysiological deficits also known to be present in schizophrenia. It is also clear that, in individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Increasing evidence suggests that early and heavy cannabis exposure may increase the risk of developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia...
2013: F1000 Medicine Reports
Hywel C Williams, Joanne R Chalmers, Eric L Simpson
Atopic dermatitis now affects one in five children, and may progress to asthma and hay fever. In the absence of effective treatments that influence disease progression, prevention is a highly desirable goal. The evidence for most existing disease prevention strategies, such as avoidance of allergens and dietary interventions, has been unconvincing and inconsistent. Fresh approaches to prevention include trying to induce tolerance to allergens in early life, and enhancing the defective skin barrier to reduce skin inflammation, sensitisation and subsequent allergic disease...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Jin Young Oh, Don D Sin
COPD is characterized by lung inflammation, which intensifies with disease progression. Recent studies suggest that COPD has multiple phenotypes, each with a distinct molecular pathway. Proteolytic enzymes may have a prominent role in the emphysematous phenotype, while nitric oxide pathways may be more relevant for pulmonary vessel remodelling in COPD. This article provides a synopsis of the possible role that lung inflammation plays in the pathogenesis of COPD.
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Paul E Holtzheimer, Helen S Mayberg
Treatment-resistant depression affects at least 1-3% of the US population. This article reviews the current state of focal neuromodulation therapies for treatment-resistant depression, focusing on those treatments published clinical data. These include transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy, vagus nerve stimulation, direct cortical stimulation, and deep brain stimulation among others. Of these, only two (transcranial magnetic stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation) currently have US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of depression...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Joanna M Togami, Elizabeth Brown, J Christian Winters
Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition that can cause significant symptoms that affect a woman's quality of life. It is the result of defects in the supporting structures of the vagina and, depending on the location and size, can alter the functions of the organs contained within the female pelvis. Approximately 11% of women will undergo surgical intervention for their prolapse or for incontinence in their lifetime. Unfortunately, one third of these will require reoperation for failed procedures. Pelvic floor surgeons have sought to improve these outcomes...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Stasa D Tadic, Gert Holstege, Derek J Griffiths
The brain's role in the development and maintenance of bladder control is critical, although its precise role in patient-reported complaints such as urgency and urine leakage is unknown. Functional brain imaging studies have advanced our knowledge of brain activity during the micturition cycle, showing multiple neuronal circuits involved as parts of a 'brain-bladder control network.' Yet, new advances need to be made in order to incorporate this knowledge into existing models of neuroanatomy and of clinical syndromes of bladder dysfunction and related clinical practice...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
James A Madura, John K Dibaise
The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number of bariatric, or weight loss, operations performed. This trend is likely to continue, mirroring the epidemic of obesity around the world and its rising prevalence among children. Bariatric surgery is considered by many to be the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of maintenance of long-term weight loss and improvement in obesity-related comorbid conditions. Although overly simplified, the primary mechanisms of the surgical interventions currently utilized to treat obesity are the creation of a restrictive or malabsorptive bowel anatomy...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Brenda Auffinger, Bart Thaci, Pragati Nigam, Esther Rincon, Yu Cheng, Maciej S Lesniak
Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous, diffuse and highly infiltrating by nature. Despite wide surgical resection and improvements in radio- and chemotherapies, the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme remains extremely poor, with a median survival time of only 14.5 months from diagnosis to death. Particular challenges for glioblastoma multiforme therapy are posed by limitations in the extent of feasible surgical resections, distinct tumor heterogeneity, difficulties in drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier and low drug distribution within the tumor...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Pawan Sinha, Richard Held
Cases of sight onset after extended periods of congenital blindness provide windows into visual development and brain plasticity. Such cases are extremely rare in the developed world. Here, we make the argument that in meeting a public health challenge in the developing world, that of providing treatment to curably blind children, we have the opportunity to have a beneficial impact on science and society simultaneously. A recent initiative, Project Prakash, is motivated by these twin goals. We briefly describe this effort, some of its early results, and also the caveats that need to be kept in mind when interpreting the findings...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Laurence Klotz
Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer entails initial expectant management rather than immediate therapy, with "curative-intent" treatment deferred until there is evidence that the patient is at increased risk for disease progression. This is a response to the clearly documented risks of over diagnosis and overtreatment of low-risk prostate cancer, which in most cases poses little or no threat to the patient. It is based upon the prolonged natural history of prostate cancer and is an attempt to balance the risks and side effects of overtreatment against the possibility of disease progression and a lost opportunity for cure...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Adrianne L Wong, Albert Hwa, Dov Hellman, Julia L Greenstein
Diabetes, a large and growing worldwide health concern, affects the functional mass of the pancreatic beta cell, which in turn affects the glucose regulation of the body. Successful transplantation of cadaveric islets and pancreata for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes has provided proof-of-concept for the development of commercial cell therapy approaches to treat diabetes. Three broad issues must be addressed before surrogate insulin-producing cells can become a reality: the development of a surrogate beta-cell source, immunoprotection, and translation...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Dennis P Wall, Peter J Tonellato
The recent advances in technology and the promise of cheap and fast whole genomic data offer the possibility to revolutionise the discipline of pathology. This should allow pathologists in the near future to diagnose disease rapidly and early to change its course, and to tailor treatment programs to the individual. This review outlines some of these technical advances and the changes needed to make this revolution a reality.
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Ethan J Anderson, David A Taylor
Despite their clear therapeutic effects in coronary heart disease, use of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to treat other types of cardiovascular disease remains controversial, and serious obstacles exist in implementing them as a reliable and consistent drug therapy. The foremost of these is that a molecular mechanism and relevant dosages have not been firmly established in other forms of cardiovascular disease. In this brief review, we highlight the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms behind n-3 PUFA action in the cardiovascular system...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Susan Swindells
Tuberculosis (TB) has been a leading cause of death for more than a century. While effective therapies exist, treatment is long and cumbersome. Tuberculosis control is complicated by the overlapping problems created by global inadequacy of public health infrastructures, the interaction of the TB and human immunodeficiency virus epidemics, and the emergence of drug-resistant TB. After a long period of neglect, there is now significant progress in development of TB diagnostics and therapeutics. Focusing on treatment for active TB, we review the new pathways to TB regimen development, and the new and repurposed anti-TB agents in clinical development...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Andrea Gulia, Cesare Massone
Over the last 30 years dermatological approaches to diagnosis and management of melanocytic lesions have been revolutionized by the introduction of dermoscopy. Continuous improvements are being made in applying the technique, mostly in melanoma diagnosis, follow-up of melanocytic lesions and nevogenesis. Identification of new dermoscopic criteria, such as the dermoscopic island and the blue-black color for thin and nodular melanoma, respectively, further add two new weapons in the dermoscopical armamentarium for diagnosis of otherwise featureless melanoma...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Sanjay Tyagi, Fred Russell Kramer
Recent technical advances have begun to realize the potential of molecular beacons to test for diverse infections in clinical diagnostic laboratories. These include the ability to test for, and quantify, multiple pathogens in the same clinical sample, and to detect antibiotic resistant strains within hours. The design principles of molecular beacons have also spawned a variety of allied technologies.
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Victor F Tapson
Over the past two decades, considerable progress in technology and clinical research methods have led to advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute venous thromboembolism. Despite this, however, the diagnosis is still often missed and preventive methods are often ignored. Published guidelines are useful, but are limited by the existing evidence base so that controversies remain with regard to topics such as duration of anticoagulation, indications for placement and removal of inferior vena caval filters, and when and how to administer thrombolytic therapy...
2012: F1000 Medicine Reports
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"