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Topics in Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#1
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481476/computational-investigations-of-multiword-chunks-in%C3%A2-language-learning
#2
Stewart M McCauley, Morten H Christiansen
Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481471/analogy-lays-the-foundation-for-two-crucial-aspects-of-symbolic-development-intention-and-correspondence
#3
Lei Yuan, David H Uttal
We argue that analogical reasoning, particularly Gentner's (1983, 2010) structure-mapping theory, provides an integrative theoretical framework through which we can better understand the development of symbol use. Analogical reasoning can contribute both to the understanding of others' intentions and the establishment of correspondences between symbols and their referents, two crucial components of symbolic understanding. We review relevant research on the development of symbolic representations, intentionality, comparison, and similarity, and demonstrate how structure-mapping theory can shed light on several ostensibly disparate findings in the literature...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422451/multiunit-sequences-in-first-language-acquisition
#4
Anna Theakston, Elena Lieven
Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the computational modeling of children's grammars...
April 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371430/the-cognitive-science-of-sketch-worksheets
#5
Kenneth D Forbus, Maria Chang, Matthew McLure, Madeline Usher
Computational modeling of sketch understanding is interesting both scientifically and for creating systems that interact with people more naturally. Scientifically, understanding sketches requires modeling aspects of visual processing, spatial representations, and conceptual knowledge in an integrated way. Software that can understand sketches is starting to be used in classrooms, and it could have a potentially revolutionary impact as the models and technologies become more advanced. This paper looks at one such effort, Sketch Worksheets, which have been used in multiple classroom experiments already, with students ranging from elementary school to college...
March 29, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328077/why-sketching-may-aid-learning-from-science-texts-contrasting-sketching-with-written-explanations
#6
Katharina Scheiter, Katrin Schleinschok, Shaaron Ainsworth
The goal of this study was to explore two accounts for why sketching during learning from text is helpful: (1) sketching acts like other constructive strategies such as self-explanation because it helps learners to identify relevant information and generate inferences; or (2) that in addition to these general effects, sketching has more specific benefits due to the pictorial representation that is constructed. Seventy-three seventh-graders (32 girls, M = 12.82 years) were first taught how to either create sketches or self-explain while studying science texts...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328029/structure-mapping-for-social-learning
#7
Stella Christie
Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318151/idiom-variation-experimental-data-and-a-blueprint-of-a-computational-model
#8
Kristina Geeraert, John Newman, R Harald Baayen
Corpus surveys have shown that the exact forms with which idioms are realized are subject to variation. We report a rating experiment showing that such alternative realizations have varying degrees of acceptability. Idiom variation challenges processing theories associating idioms with fixed multi-word form units (Bobrow & Bell, 1973), fixed configurations of words (Cacciari & Tabossi, 1988), or fixed superlemmas (Sprenger, Levelt, & Kempen, 2006), as they do not explain how it can be that speakers produce variant forms that listeners can still make sense of...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318146/allen-newell-s-program-of-research-the-video-game-test
#9
Fernand Gobet
Newell (1973) argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in detail, such as chess; and to build computational models that can account for multiple tasks...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296290/game-xp-action-games-as-experimental-paradigms-for-cognitive-science
#10
Wayne D Gray
Why games? How could anyone consider action games an experimental paradigm for Cognitive Science? In 1973, as one of three strategies he proposed for advancing Cognitive Science, Allen Newell exhorted us to "accept a single complex task and do all of it." More specifically, he told us that rather than taking an "experimental psychology as usual approach," we should "focus on a series of experimental and theoretical studies around a single complex task" so as to demonstrate that our theories of human cognition were powerful enough to explain "a genuine slab of human behavior" with the studies fitting into a detailed theoretical picture...
March 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266811/multiword-constructions-in-the-grammar
#11
Peter W Culicover, Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
There is ample evidence that speakers' linguistic knowledge extends well beyond what can be described in terms of rules of compositional interpretation stated over combinations of single words. We explore a range of multiword constructions (MWCs) to get a handle both on the extent of the phenomenon and on the grammatical constraints that may govern it. We consider idioms of various sorts, collocations, compounds, light verbs, syntactic nuts, and assorted other constructions, as well as morphology. Our conclusion is that MWCs highlight the central role that grammar plays in licensing MWCs in the lexicon and the creation of novel MWCs, and they help to clarify how the lexicon articulates with the rest of the grammar...
March 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452202/games-for-psychological-science
#12
Andrew Howes
How does the cognitive system, as a whole, act to generate behaviour? A crucial requirement for science aimed at answering this question is that any empirical paradigm is developed hand in hand with robust theoretical models that explain the emergence of behavioural strategies. Complex games have the potential to be one such paradigm.
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452201/six-suggestions-for-research-on-games-in-cognitive-science
#13
Christopher F Chabris
Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts...
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452200/introduction-to-volume-9-issue-2-of-topics
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382679/a-simple-heuristic-successfully-used-by-humans-animals-and-machines-the-story-of-the-raf-and-luftwaffe-hawks-and-ducks-dogs-and-frisbees-baseball-outfielders-and-sidewinder-missiles-oh-my
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176450/what-has-the-study-of-digital-games-contributed-to-the-science-of-expert-behavior
#16
Neil Charness
I review the historical context for modeling skilled performance in games. Using Newell's (1990) concept of time bands for explaining cognitive behavior, I categorize the current papers in terms of time scales, type of data, and analysis methodologies. I discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for describing skill acquisition and why the study of digital games can address the challenges of replication and generalizability. Cognitive science needs to pay closer attention to population representativeness to enhance generalizability of findings, and to the social band of explanation, in order to explain why so few individuals reach expert levels of performance...
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233939/thinking-about-multiword-constructions-usage-based-approaches-to-acquisition-and-processing
#17
Nick C Ellis, Dave C Ogden
Usage-based approaches to language hold that we learn multiword expressions as patterns of language from language usage, and that knowledge of these patterns underlies fluent language processing. This paper explores these claims by focusing upon verb-argument constructions (VACs) such as "V(erb) about n(oun phrase)." These are productive constructions that bind syntax, lexis, and semantics. It presents (a) analyses of usage patterns of English VACs in terms of their grammatical form, semantics, lexical constituency, and distribution patterns in large corpora; (b) patterns of VAC usage in child-directed speech and child language acquisition; and (c) investigations of VAC free-association and psycholinguistic studies of online processing...
February 24, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220988/-the-gaze-heuristic-biography-of-an-adaptively-rational-decision-process
#18
Robert P Hamlin
This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input (deviation from a constant angle of approach) repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command just prior to World War II...
February 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198108/formulaic-sequences-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-for-cognitive-perturbations-during-the-achievement-of-social-goals
#19
Alison Wray
This paper explores two questions central to understanding the nature of formulaic sequences: (1) What are they for? and (2) What determines how many there are? The "Communicative Impact" model draws into a single account how language is shaped by cognitive processing on the one hand and socio-interactional function on the other: Formulaic sequences play a range of coordinated roles in neutralizing unanticipated perturbations in the cognitive management of language, so the speaker's socio-interactional goals can still be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198102/master-maker-understanding-gaming-skill-through-practice-and-habit-from-gameplay-behavior
#20
Jeff Huang, Eddie Yan, Gifford Cheung, Nachiappan Nagappan, Thomas Zimmermann
The study of expertise is difficult to do in a laboratory environment due to the challenge of finding people at different skill levels and the lack of time for participants to acquire mastery. In this paper, we report on two studies that analyze naturalistic gameplay data using cohort analysis to better understand how skill relates to practice and habit. Two cohorts are analyzed, each from two different games (Halo Reach and StarCraft 2). Our work follows skill progression through 7 months of Halo matches for a holistic perspective, but also explores low-level in-game habits when controlling game units in StarCraft 2...
February 15, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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