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Topics in Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218788/alternative-solutions-to-a-language-design-problem-the-role-of-adjectives-and-gender-marking-in-efficient-communication
#1
Melody Dye, Petar Milin, Richard Futrell, Michael Ramscar
A central goal of typological research is to characterize linguistic features in terms of both their functional role and their fit to social and cognitive systems. One long-standing puzzle concerns why certain languages employ grammatical gender. In an information theoretic analysis of German noun classification, Dye, Milin, Futrell, and Ramscar (2017) enumerated a number of important processing advantages gender confers. Yet this raises a further puzzle: If gender systems are so beneficial to processing, what does this mean for languages that make do without them? Here, we compare the communicative function of gender marking in German (a deterministic system) to that of prenominal adjectives in English (a probabilistic one), finding that despite their differences, both systems act to efficiently smooth information over discourse, making nouns more equally predictable in context...
December 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214731/perception-of-human-interaction-based-on-motion-trajectories-from-aerial-videos-to-decontextualized-animations
#2
Tianmin Shu, Yujia Peng, Lifeng Fan, Hongjing Lu, Song-Chun Zhu
People are adept at perceiving interactions from movements of simple shapes, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have often used object movements defined by experimenters. The present study used aerial videos recorded by drones in a real-life environment to generate decontextualized motion stimuli. Motion trajectories of displayed elements were the only visual input. We measured human judgments of interactiveness between two moving elements and the dynamic change in such judgments over time...
December 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214726/curb-your-embodiment
#3
Diane Pecher
To explain how abstract concepts are grounded in sensory-motor experiences, several theories have been proposed. I will discuss two of these proposals, Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Situated Cognition, and argue why they do not fully explain grounding. A central idea in Conceptual Metaphor Theory is that image schemas ground abstract concepts in concrete experiences. Image schemas might themselves be abstractions, however, and therefore do not solve the grounding problem. Moreover, image schemas are too simple to explain the full richness of abstract concepts...
December 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152904/creating-time-social-collaboration-in-music-improvisation
#4
Ashley E Walton, Auriel Washburn, Peter Langland-Hassan, Anthony Chemero, Heidi Kloos, Michael J Richardson
Musical collaboration emerges from the complex interaction of environmental and informational constraints, including those of the instruments and the performance context. Music improvisation in particular is more like everyday interaction in that dynamics emerge spontaneously without a rehearsed score or script. We examined how the structure of the musical context affords and shapes interactions between improvising musicians. Six pairs of professional piano players improvised with two different backing tracks while we recorded both the music produced and the movements of their heads, left arms, and right arms...
November 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152886/a-contrast-based-computational-model-of-surprise-and-its-applications
#5
Luis Macedo, Amílcar Cardoso
We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs...
November 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152883/preemption-in-singular-causation-judgments-a-computational-model
#6
Simon Stephan, Michael R Waldmann
Causal queries about singular cases are ubiquitous, yet the question of how we assess whether a particular outcome was actually caused by a specific potential cause turns out to be difficult to answer. Relying on the causal power framework (Cheng, ), Cheng and Novick () proposed a model of causal attribution intended to help answer this question. We challenge this model, both conceptually and empirically. We argue that the central problem of this model is that it treats causal powers that are probabilistically sufficient to generate the effect on a particular occasion as actual causes of the effect, and thus neglects that sufficient causal powers can be preempted in their efficacy...
November 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143472/mindreading-and-psycholinguistic-approaches-to-perspective-taking-establishing-common-ground
#7
Ian Apperly
In this commentary on "Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use," I draw attention to relevant work on mindreading. The concerns of research on common ground and mindreading have significant overlap, but these literatures have worked in relative isolation of each other. I attempt an assimilation, pointing out shared and distinctive concerns and mutually informative results.
November 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131524/multi-scale-contingencies-during-individual-and-joint-action
#8
J Scott Jordan, Daniel S Schloesser, Jiuyang Bai, Drew Abney
The present paper describes a joint action paradigm in which individuals or pairs utilized two computer keys to keep a dot stimulus moving inside a larger rectangle. Members of a pair could neither see nor hear each other. This paradigm allowed us to combine the discrete-trial type dependent variables (e.g., reaction time) commonly utilized by representational theorists, with the continuous, temporal dependence variables (e.g., RQA) utilized by dynamical theorists. Analysis revealed that individuals kept the dot in the rectangle longer than dyads and did so by moving it back and forth within the rectangle...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131516/performance-in-a-collaborative-search-task-the-role-of-feedback-and-alignment
#9
Moreno I Coco, Rick Dale, Frank Keller
When people communicate, they coordinate a wide range of linguistic and non-linguistic behaviors. This process of coordination is called alignment, and it is assumed to be fundamental to successful communication. In this paper, we question this assumption and investigate whether disalignment is a more successful strategy in some cases. More specifically, we hypothesize that alignment correlates with task success only when communication is interactive. We present results from a spot-the-difference task in which dyads of interlocutors have to decide whether they are viewing the same scene or not...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131512/the-role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-prediction-error-and-signaling-surprise
#10
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown
In the past two decades, reinforcement learning (RL) has become a popular framework for understanding brain function. A key component of RL models, prediction error, has been associated with neural signals throughout the brain, including subcortical nuclei, primary sensory cortices, and prefrontal cortex. Depending on the location in which activity is observed, the functional interpretation of prediction error may change: Prediction errors may reflect a discrepancy in the anticipated and actual value of reward, a signal indicating the salience or novelty of a stimulus, and many other interpretations...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115065/editor-s-introduction-and-review-coordination-and-context-in-cognitive-science
#11
Christopher T Kello
The role of coordination in cognitive science has been on the rise in recent years, in terms of coordination among neurons, coordination among sensory and motor systems, and coordination among individuals. Research has shown that coordination patterns corresponding to cognitive activities depend on the various contexts in which the underlying interactions are situated. The present issue of Topics in Cognitive Science centers on studies of coordination that address the role of context in shaping or interpreting dynamical patterns of human behavior...
November 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105374/from-adult-finger-tapping-to-fetal-heart-beating-retracing-the-role-of-coordination-in-constituting-agency
#12
Alessandro Solfo, Cees van Leeuwen
Sense of agency can be defined as the self-awareness of bodily movement, whereas extended agency as the self-awareness of affecting, through movement, events concomitant with movement. As a distinctive manifestation of agency, we review Spizzo's effect. This effect arises when agents coordinate their rhythmic movements with visual pulses. Once coordination is established, agents feel controlling the onset or the offset of the pulses through their movements. Spizzo's effect, therefore, constitutes a manifest case of extended agency, in which agents are aware of controlling, through movement, the pulses temporally concomitant with movement...
November 3, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105308/first-encounters-repair-sequences-in-cross-signing
#13
Kang-Suk Byun, Connie de Vos, Anastasia Bradford, Ulrike Zeshan, Stephen C Levinson
Most human communication is between people who speak or sign the same languages. Nevertheless, communication is to some extent possible where there is no language in common, as every tourist knows. How this works is of some theoretical interest (Levinson, ). A nice arena to explore this capacity is when deaf signers of different languages meet for the first time and are able to use the iconic affordances of sign to begin communication. Here we focus on other-initiated repair (OIR), that is, where one signer makes clear he or she does not understand, thus initiating repair of the prior conversational turn...
November 3, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063714/factorization-of-force-and-timing-in-sensorimotor-performance-long-range-correlation-properties-of-two-different-task-goals
#14
Ramesh Balasubramaniam, Michael J Hove, Butovens Médé
Long-range correlations are often manifested in the form of 1/f(β) noise in a series of repeated measurements of the same neural or behavioral variable. Recent work has demonstrated that the magnitude and nature of these long-range correlations reliably capture individual differences and variation in task performance. In sensorimotor timing experiments, task characteristics such as tapping or circle drawing affect these long-range correlations during the production of isochronous time intervals. Such correlations are highly reproducible across multiple trials for the same task but do not correlate between tasks...
October 24, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941131/promoting-sketching-in-introductory-geoscience-courses-cogsketch-geoscience-worksheets
#15
Bridget Garnier, Maria Chang, Carol Ormand, Bryan Matlen, Basil Tikoff, Thomas F Shipley
Research from cognitive science and geoscience education has shown that sketching can improve spatial thinking skills and facilitate solving spatially complex problems. Yet sketching is rarely implemented in introductory geosciences courses, due to time needed to grade sketches and lack of materials that incorporate cognitive science research. Here, we report a design-centered, collaborative effort, between geoscientists, cognitive scientists, and artificial intelligence (AI) researchers, to characterize spatial learning challenges in geoscience and to design sketch activities that use a sketch-understanding program, CogSketch...
September 23, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940761/the-cognitive-evolutionary-model-of-surprise-a-review-of-the-evidence
#16
Rainer Reisenzein, Gernot Horstmann, Achim Schützwohl
Research on surprise relevant to the cognitive-evolutionary model of surprise proposed by Meyer, Reisenzein, and Schützwohl (1997) is reviewed. The majority of the assumptions of the model are found empirically supported. Surprise is evoked by unexpected (schema-discrepant) events and its intensity is determined by the degree if schema-discrepancy, whereas the novelty and the valence of the eliciting events probably do not have an independent effect. Unexpected events cause an automatic interruption of ongoing mental processes that is followed by an attentional shift and attentional binding to the events, which is often followed by causal and other event analysis processes and by schema revision...
September 23, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068169/editors-introduction-sketching-and-cognition
#17
Kenneth D Forbus, Shaaron Ainsworth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068168/acknowledgment-guest-reviewers
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068167/introduction-to-volume-9-issue-4-of-topics
#19
Wayne D Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635122/sketching-the-invisible-to-predict-the-visible-from-drawing-to-modeling-in-chemistry
#20
Melanie M Cooper, Mike Stieff, Dane DeSutter
Sketching as a scientific practice goes beyond the simple act of inscribing diagrams onto paper. Scientists produce a wide range of representations through sketching, as it is tightly coupled to model-based reasoning. Chemists in particular make extensive use of sketches to reason about chemical phenomena and to communicate their ideas. However, the chemical sciences have a unique problem in that chemists deal with the unseen world of the atomic-molecular level. Using sketches, chemists strive to develop causal mechanisms that emerge from the structure and behavior of molecular-level entities, to explain observations of the macroscopic visible world...
October 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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