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Topics in Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635155/representation-and-computation-in-cognitive-models
#1
Kenneth D Forbus, Chen Liang, Irina Rabkina
One of the central issues in cognitive science is the nature of human representations. We argue that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities. We start by examining some common misconceptions found in discussions of representations and models. Next we examine evidence that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities, drawing on the analogy literature. Then we examine fundamental limitations of feature vectors and other distributed representations that, despite their recent successes on various practical problems, suggest that they are insufficient to capture many aspects of human cognition...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635122/sketching-the-invisible-to-predict-the-visible-from-drawing-to-modeling-in-chemistry
#2
Melanie M Cooper, Mike Stieff, Dane DeSutter
Sketching as a scientific practice goes beyond the simple act of inscribing diagrams onto paper. Scientists produce a wide range of representations through sketching, as it is tightly coupled to model-based reasoning. Chemists in particular make extensive use of sketches to reason about chemical phenomena and to communicate their ideas. However, the chemical sciences have a unique problem in that chemists deal with the unseen world of the atomic-molecular level. Using sketches, chemists strive to develop causal mechanisms that emerge from the structure and behavior of molecular-level entities, to explain observations of the macroscopic visible world...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635107/new-space-time-metaphors-foster-new-nonlinguistic-representations
#3
Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like "breakfast is above dinner" or "breakfast is below dinner" (depending on condition). In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left-right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627011/when-gesture-becomes-analogy
#4
Kensy Cooperrider, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Analogy researchers do not often examine gesture, and gesture researchers do not often borrow ideas from the study of analogy. One borrowable idea from the world of analogy is the importance of distinguishing between attributes and relations. Gentner (, ) observed that some metaphors highlight attributes and others highlight relations, and called the latter analogies. Mirroring this logic, we observe that some metaphoric gestures represent attributes and others represent relations, and propose to call the latter analogical gestures...
June 18, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621480/analogy-and-abstraction
#5
Dedre Gentner, Christian Hoyos
A central question in human development is how young children gain knowledge so fast. We propose that analogical generalization drives much of this early learning and allows children to generate new abstractions from experience. In this paper, we review evidence for analogical generalization in both children and adults. We discuss how analogical processes interact with the child's changing knowledge base to predict the course of learning, from conservative to domain-general understanding. This line of research leads to challenges to existing assumptions about learning...
June 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621472/the-role-of-multiword-building-blocks-in-explaining-l1-l2-differences
#6
Inbal Arnon, Morten H Christiansen
Why are children better language learners than adults despite being worse at a range of other cognitive tasks? Here, we explore the role of multiword sequences in explaining L1-L2 differences in learning. In particular, we propose that children and adults differ in their reliance on such multiword units (MWUs) in learning, and that this difference affects learning strategies and outcomes, and leads to difficulty in learning certain grammatical relations. In the first part, we review recent findings that suggest that MWUs play a facilitative role in learning...
June 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574645/structure-mapping-and-vocabularies-for-thinking
#7
Jeffrey Loewenstein
While extremes tend to capture attention, the ordinary is often most of the story. So it may be with the structure-mapping process. The structure-mapping process can account for such pinnacles of thinking as analogy and metaphor, which can lead to overlooking the mundane, incremental use of structure mapping. Consequently, the current discussion shifts focus to the value of close comparisons between literally similar items for the development of knowledge. The intent is to foster greater integration between process and content as well as between individuals and collectives...
June 2, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557374/introduction-2016-rumelhart-prize-issue-honoring-dedre-gentner
#8
Jeffrey Loewenstein, Arthur B Markman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#9
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481476/computational-investigations-of-multiword-chunks-in%C3%A2-language-learning
#10
Stewart M McCauley, Morten H Christiansen
Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481471/analogy-lays-the-foundation-for-two-crucial-aspects-of-symbolic-development-intention-and-correspondence
#11
Lei Yuan, David H Uttal
We argue that analogical reasoning, particularly Gentner's (1983, 2010) structure-mapping theory, provides an integrative theoretical framework through which we can better understand the development of symbol use. Analogical reasoning can contribute both to the understanding of others' intentions and the establishment of correspondences between symbols and their referents, two crucial components of symbolic understanding. We review relevant research on the development of symbolic representations, intentionality, comparison, and similarity, and demonstrate how structure-mapping theory can shed light on several ostensibly disparate findings in the literature...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422451/multiunit-sequences-in-first-language-acquisition
#12
Anna Theakston, Elena Lieven
Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the computational modeling of children's grammars...
April 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371430/the-cognitive-science-of-sketch-worksheets
#13
Kenneth D Forbus, Maria Chang, Matthew McLure, Madeline Usher
Computational modeling of sketch understanding is interesting both scientifically and for creating systems that interact with people more naturally. Scientifically, understanding sketches requires modeling aspects of visual processing, spatial representations, and conceptual knowledge in an integrated way. Software that can understand sketches is starting to be used in classrooms, and it could have a potentially revolutionary impact as the models and technologies become more advanced. This paper looks at one such effort, Sketch Worksheets, which have been used in multiple classroom experiments already, with students ranging from elementary school to college...
March 29, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452202/games-for-psychological-science
#14
Andrew Howes
How does the cognitive system, as a whole, act to generate behaviour? A crucial requirement for science aimed at answering this question is that any empirical paradigm is developed hand in hand with robust theoretical models that explain the emergence of behavioural strategies. Complex games have the potential to be one such paradigm.
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452201/six-suggestions-for-research-on-games-in-cognitive-science
#15
Christopher F Chabris
Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts...
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452200/introduction-to-volume-9-issue-2-of-topics
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382679/a-simple-heuristic-successfully-used-by-humans-animals-and-machines-the-story-of-the-raf-and-luftwaffe-hawks-and-ducks-dogs-and-frisbees-baseball-outfielders-and-sidewinder-missiles-oh-my
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176450/what-has-the-study-of-digital-games-contributed-to-the-science-of-expert-behavior
#18
Neil Charness
I review the historical context for modeling skilled performance in games. Using Newell's (1990) concept of time bands for explaining cognitive behavior, I categorize the current papers in terms of time scales, type of data, and analysis methodologies. I discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for describing skill acquisition and why the study of digital games can address the challenges of replication and generalizability. Cognitive science needs to pay closer attention to population representativeness to enhance generalizability of findings, and to the social band of explanation, in order to explain why so few individuals reach expert levels of performance...
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328077/why-sketching-may-aid-learning-from-science-texts-contrasting-sketching-with-written-explanations
#19
Katharina Scheiter, Katrin Schleinschok, Shaaron Ainsworth
The goal of this study was to explore two accounts for why sketching during learning from text is helpful: (1) sketching acts like other constructive strategies such as self-explanation because it helps learners to identify relevant information and generate inferences; or (2) that in addition to these general effects, sketching has more specific benefits due to the pictorial representation that is constructed. Seventy-three seventh-graders (32 girls, M = 12.82 years) were first taught how to either create sketches or self-explain while studying science texts...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328029/structure-mapping-for-social-learning
#20
Stella Christie
Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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