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Topics in Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328077/why-sketching-may-aid-learning-from-science-texts-contrasting-sketching-with-written-explanations
#1
Katharina Scheiter, Katrin Schleinschok, Shaaron Ainsworth
The goal of this study was to explore two accounts for why sketching during learning from text is helpful: (1) sketching acts like other constructive strategies such as self-explanation because it helps learners to identify relevant information and generate inferences; or (2) that in addition to these general effects, sketching has more specific benefits due to the pictorial representation that is constructed. Seventy-three seventh-graders (32 girls, M = 12.82 years) were first taught how to either create sketches or self-explain while studying science texts...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328029/structure-mapping-for-social-learning
#2
Stella Christie
Analogical reasoning is a foundational tool for human learning, allowing learners to recognize relational structures in new events and domains. Here I sketch some grounds for understanding and applying analogical reasoning in social learning. The social world is fundamentally characterized by relations between people, with common relational structures-such as kinships and social hierarchies-forming social units that dictate social behaviors. Just as young learners use analogical reasoning for learning relational structures in other domains-spatial relations, verbs, relational categories-analogical reasoning ought to be a useful cognitive tool for acquiring social relations and structures...
March 22, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318151/idiom-variation-experimental-data-and-a-blueprint-of-a-computational-model
#3
Kristina Geeraert, John Newman, R Harald Baayen
Corpus surveys have shown that the exact forms with which idioms are realized are subject to variation. We report a rating experiment showing that such alternative realizations have varying degrees of acceptability. Idiom variation challenges processing theories associating idioms with fixed multi-word form units (Bobrow & Bell, 1973), fixed configurations of words (Cacciari & Tabossi, 1988), or fixed superlemmas (Sprenger, Levelt, & Kempen, 2006), as they do not explain how it can be that speakers produce variant forms that listeners can still make sense of...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318146/allen-newell-s-program-of-research-the-video-game-test
#4
Fernand Gobet
Newell (1973) argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in detail, such as chess; and to build computational models that can account for multiple tasks...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296290/game-xp-action-games-as-experimental-paradigms-for-cognitive-science
#5
Wayne D Gray
Why games? How could anyone consider action games an experimental paradigm for Cognitive Science? In 1973, as one of three strategies he proposed for advancing Cognitive Science, Allen Newell exhorted us to "accept a single complex task and do all of it." More specifically, he told us that rather than taking an "experimental psychology as usual approach," we should "focus on a series of experimental and theoretical studies around a single complex task" so as to demonstrate that our theories of human cognition were powerful enough to explain "a genuine slab of human behavior" with the studies fitting into a detailed theoretical picture...
March 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266811/multiword-constructions-in-the-grammar
#6
Peter W Culicover, Ray Jackendoff, Jenny Audring
There is ample evidence that speakers' linguistic knowledge extends well beyond what can be described in terms of rules of compositional interpretation stated over combinations of single words. We explore a range of multiword constructions (MWCs) to get a handle both on the extent of the phenomenon and on the grammatical constraints that may govern it. We consider idioms of various sorts, collocations, compounds, light verbs, syntactic nuts, and assorted other constructions, as well as morphology. Our conclusion is that MWCs highlight the central role that grammar plays in licensing MWCs in the lexicon and the creation of novel MWCs, and they help to clarify how the lexicon articulates with the rest of the grammar...
March 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233939/thinking-about-multiword-constructions-usage-based-approaches-to-acquisition-and-processing
#7
Nick C Ellis, Dave C Ogden
Usage-based approaches to language hold that we learn multiword expressions as patterns of language from language usage, and that knowledge of these patterns underlies fluent language processing. This paper explores these claims by focusing upon verb-argument constructions (VACs) such as "V(erb) about n(oun phrase)." These are productive constructions that bind syntax, lexis, and semantics. It presents (a) analyses of usage patterns of English VACs in terms of their grammatical form, semantics, lexical constituency, and distribution patterns in large corpora; (b) patterns of VAC usage in child-directed speech and child language acquisition; and (c) investigations of VAC free-association and psycholinguistic studies of online processing...
February 24, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220988/-the-gaze-heuristic-biography-of-an-adaptively-rational-decision-process
#8
Robert P Hamlin
This article is a case study that describes the natural and human history of the gaze heuristic. The gaze heuristic is an interception heuristic that utilizes a single input (deviation from a constant angle of approach) repeatedly as a task is performed. Its architecture, advantages, and limitations are described in detail. A history of the gaze heuristic is then presented. In natural history, the gaze heuristic is the only known technique used by predators to intercept prey. In human history the gaze heuristic was discovered accidentally by Royal Air Force (RAF) fighter command just prior to World War II...
February 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198108/formulaic-sequences-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-for-cognitive-perturbations-during-the-achievement-of-social-goals
#9
Alison Wray
This paper explores two questions central to understanding the nature of formulaic sequences: (1) What are they for? and (2) What determines how many there are? The "Communicative Impact" model draws into a single account how language is shaped by cognitive processing on the one hand and socio-interactional function on the other: Formulaic sequences play a range of coordinated roles in neutralizing unanticipated perturbations in the cognitive management of language, so the speaker's socio-interactional goals can still be achieved...
February 15, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198102/master-maker-understanding-gaming-skill-through-practice-and-habit-from-gameplay-behavior
#10
Jeff Huang, Eddie Yan, Gifford Cheung, Nachiappan Nagappan, Thomas Zimmermann
The study of expertise is difficult to do in a laboratory environment due to the challenge of finding people at different skill levels and the lack of time for participants to acquire mastery. In this paper, we report on two studies that analyze naturalistic gameplay data using cohort analysis to better understand how skill relates to practice and habit. Two cohorts are analyzed, each from two different games (Halo Reach and StarCraft 2). Our work follows skill progression through 7 months of Halo matches for a holistic perspective, but also explores low-level in-game habits when controlling game units in StarCraft 2...
February 15, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176483/using-video-game-telemetry-data-to-research-motor-chunking-action-latencies-and-complex-cognitive-motor-skill-learning
#11
Joseph J Thompson, C M McColeman, Ekaterina R Stepanova, Mark R Blair
Many theories of complex cognitive-motor skill learning are built on the notion that basic cognitive processes group actions into easy-to-perform sequences. The present work examines predictions derived from laboratory-based studies of motor chunking and motor preparation using data collected from the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. We examined 996,163 action sequences in the telemetry data of 3,317 players across seven levels of skill. As predicted, the latency to the first action (thought to be the beginning of a chunked sequence) is delayed relative to the other actions in the group...
February 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176450/what-has-the-study-of-digital-games-contributed-to-the-science-of-expert-behavior
#12
Neil Charness
I review the historical context for modeling skilled performance in games. Using Newell's (1990) concept of time bands for explaining cognitive behavior, I categorize the current papers in terms of time scales, type of data, and analysis methodologies. I discuss strengths and weaknesses of these approaches for describing skill acquisition and why the study of digital games can address the challenges of replication and generalizability. Cognitive science needs to pay closer attention to population representativeness to enhance generalizability of findings, and to the social band of explanation, in order to explain why so few individuals reach expert levels of performance...
February 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176449/mario-becomes-cognitive
#13
Fabian Schrodt, Jan Kneissler, Stephan Ehrenfeld, Martin V Butz
In line with Allen Newell's challenge to develop complete cognitive architectures, and motivated by a recent proposal for a unifying subsymbolic computational theory of cognition, we introduce the cognitive control architecture SEMLINCS. SEMLINCS models the development of an embodied cognitive agent that learns discrete production rule-like structures from its own, autonomously gathered, continuous sensorimotor experiences. Moreover, the agent uses the developing knowledge to plan and control environmental interactions in a versatile, goal-directed, and self-motivated manner...
February 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083920/introduction-to-the-issue-on-computational-models-of-memory-selected-papers-from-the-international-conference-on-cognitive-modeling
#14
David Reitter, Frank E Ritter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067469/visual-working-memory-resources-are-best-characterized-as-dynamic-quantifiable-mnemonic-traces
#15
Bella Z Veksler, Rachel Boyd, Christopher W Myers, Glenn Gunzelmann, Hansjörg Neth, Wayne D Gray
Visual working memory (VWM) is a construct hypothesized to store a small amount of accurate perceptual information that can be brought to bear on a task. Much research concerns the construct's capacity and the precision of the information stored. Two prominent theories of VWM representation have emerged: slot-based and continuous-resource mechanisms. Prior modeling work suggests that a continuous resource that varies over trials with variable capacity and a potential to make localization errors best accounts for the empirical data...
January 9, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054470/color-relationalism-and-relativism
#16
Alex Byrne, David R Hilbert
This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems.
January 5, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054458/a-neural-dynamic-model-generates-descriptions-of-object-oriented-actions
#17
Mathis Richter, Jonas Lins, Gregor Schöner
Describing actions entails that relations between objects are discovered. A pervasively neural account of this process requires that fundamental problems are solved: the neural pointer problem, the binding problem, and the problem of generating discrete processing steps from time-continuous neural processes. We present a prototypical solution to these problems in a neural dynamic model that comprises dynamic neural fields holding representations close to sensorimotor surfaces as well as dynamic neural nodes holding discrete, language-like representations...
January 5, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054453/an-account-of-interference-in-associative-memory-learning-the-fan-effect
#18
Robert Thomson, Anthony M Harrison, J Gregory Trafton, Laura M Hiatt
Associative learning is an essential feature of human cognition, accounting for the influence of priming and interference effects on memory recall. Here, we extend our account of associative learning that learns asymmetric item-to-item associations over time via experience (Thomson, Pyke, Trafton, & Hiatt, 2015) by including link maturation to balance associations between longer-term stability while still accounting for short-term variability. This account, combined with an existing account of activation strengthening and decay, predicts both human response times and error rates for the fan effect (Anderson, 1974; Anderson & Reder, 1999) for both target and foil stimuli...
January 5, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039931/encoding-and-accessing-linguistic-representations-in-a-dynamically-structured-holographic-memory-system
#19
Dan Parker, Daniel Lantz
This paper presents a computational model that integrates a dynamically structured holographic memory system into the ACT-R cognitive architecture to explain how linguistic representations are encoded and accessed in memory. ACT-R currently serves as the most precise expression of the moment-by-moment working memory retrievals that support sentence comprehension. The ACT-R model of sentence comprehension is able to capture a range of linguistic phenomena, but there are cases where the model makes the wrong predictions, such as the over-prediction of retrieval interference effects during sentence comprehension...
December 31, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019687/improving-with-practice-a-neural-model-of-mathematical-development
#20
Sean Aubin, Aaron R Voelker, Chris Eliasmith
The ability to improve in speed and accuracy as a result of repeating some task is an important hallmark of intelligent biological systems. Although gradual behavioral improvements from practice have been modeled in spiking neural networks, few such models have attempted to explain cognitive development of a task as complex as addition. In this work, we model the progression from a counting-based strategy for addition to a recall-based strategy. The model consists of two networks working in parallel: a slower basal ganglia loop and a faster cortical network...
December 26, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
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