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Topics in Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653371/sculpting-computational-level-models
#1
Mark Blokpoel
In this commentary, I advocate for strict relations between Marr's levels of analysis. Under a strict relationship, each level is exactly implemented by the subordinate level. This yields two benefits. First, it brings consistency for multilevel explanations. Second, similar to how a sculptor chisels away superfluous marble, a modeler can chisel a computational-level model by applying constraints. By sculpting the model, one restricts the (potentially infinitely large) set of possible algorithmic- and implementational-level theories...
June 27, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649727/grammatical-constructions-as-relational-categories
#2
Micah B Goldwater
This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically...
June 26, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635155/representation-and-computation-in-cognitive-models
#3
Kenneth D Forbus, Chen Liang, Irina Rabkina
One of the central issues in cognitive science is the nature of human representations. We argue that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities. We start by examining some common misconceptions found in discussions of representations and models. Next we examine evidence that symbolic representations are essential for capturing human cognitive capabilities, drawing on the analogy literature. Then we examine fundamental limitations of feature vectors and other distributed representations that, despite their recent successes on various practical problems, suggest that they are insufficient to capture many aspects of human cognition...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635122/sketching-the-invisible-to-predict-the-visible-from-drawing-to-modeling-in-chemistry
#4
Melanie M Cooper, Mike Stieff, Dane DeSutter
Sketching as a scientific practice goes beyond the simple act of inscribing diagrams onto paper. Scientists produce a wide range of representations through sketching, as it is tightly coupled to model-based reasoning. Chemists in particular make extensive use of sketches to reason about chemical phenomena and to communicate their ideas. However, the chemical sciences have a unique problem in that chemists deal with the unseen world of the atomic-molecular level. Using sketches, chemists strive to develop causal mechanisms that emerge from the structure and behavior of molecular-level entities, to explain observations of the macroscopic visible world...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635107/new-space-time-metaphors-foster-new-nonlinguistic-representations
#5
Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
What is the role of language in constructing knowledge? In this article, we ask whether learning new relational language can create new ways of thinking. In Experiment 1, we taught English speakers to talk about time using new vertical linguistic metaphors, saying things like "breakfast is above dinner" or "breakfast is below dinner" (depending on condition). In Experiment 2, rather than teaching people new metaphors, we relied on the left-right representations of time that our American college student participants have already internalized through a lifetime of visuospatial experience reading and writing text from left to right...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635003/anchoring-on-self-and-others-during-social-inferences
#6
Daniel F X Willard, Arthur B Markman
When making inferences about similar others, people anchor and adjust away from themselves (Tamir & Mitchell, 2013). However, research on relational self theory (Andersen & Chen, 2002) suggests the possibility of using knowledge about others as an anchor when they are more similar to a target. We investigated whether social inferences are made on the basis of significant other knowledge through an anchoring and adjustment process, and whether anchoring on a significant other is more effortful than anchoring on the self...
June 21, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627011/when-gesture-becomes-analogy
#7
Kensy Cooperrider, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Analogy researchers do not often examine gesture, and gesture researchers do not often borrow ideas from the study of analogy. One borrowable idea from the world of analogy is the importance of distinguishing between attributes and relations. Gentner (, ) observed that some metaphors highlight attributes and others highlight relations, and called the latter analogies. Mirroring this logic, we observe that some metaphoric gestures represent attributes and others represent relations, and propose to call the latter analogical gestures...
June 18, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621480/analogy-and-abstraction
#8
Dedre Gentner, Christian Hoyos
A central question in human development is how young children gain knowledge so fast. We propose that analogical generalization drives much of this early learning and allows children to generate new abstractions from experience. In this paper, we review evidence for analogical generalization in both children and adults. We discuss how analogical processes interact with the child's changing knowledge base to predict the course of learning, from conservative to domain-general understanding. This line of research leads to challenges to existing assumptions about learning...
June 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621472/the-role-of-multiword-building-blocks-in-explaining-l1-l2-differences
#9
Inbal Arnon, Morten H Christiansen
Why are children better language learners than adults despite being worse at a range of other cognitive tasks? Here, we explore the role of multiword sequences in explaining L1-L2 differences in learning. In particular, we propose that children and adults differ in their reliance on such multiword units (MWUs) in learning, and that this difference affects learning strategies and outcomes, and leads to difficulty in learning certain grammatical relations. In the first part, we review recent findings that suggest that MWUs play a facilitative role in learning...
June 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574645/structure-mapping-and-vocabularies-for-thinking
#10
Jeffrey Loewenstein
While extremes tend to capture attention, the ordinary is often most of the story. So it may be with the structure-mapping process. The structure-mapping process can account for such pinnacles of thinking as analogy and metaphor, which can lead to overlooking the mundane, incremental use of structure mapping. Consequently, the current discussion shifts focus to the value of close comparisons between literally similar items for the development of knowledge. The intent is to foster greater integration between process and content as well as between individuals and collectives...
June 2, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557374/introduction-2016-rumelhart-prize-issue-honoring-dedre-gentner
#11
Jeffrey Loewenstein, Arthur B Markman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#12
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481476/computational-investigations-of-multiword-chunks-in%C3%A2-language-learning
#13
Stewart M McCauley, Morten H Christiansen
Second-language learners rarely arrive at native proficiency in a number of linguistic domains, including morphological and syntactic processing. Previous approaches to understanding the different outcomes of first- versus second-language learning have focused on cognitive and neural factors. In contrast, we explore the possibility that children and adults may rely on different linguistic units throughout the course of language learning, with specific focus on the granularity of those units. Following recent psycholinguistic evidence for the role of multiword chunks in online language processing, we explore the hypothesis that children rely more heavily on multiword units in language learning than do adults learning a second language...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481471/analogy-lays-the-foundation-for-two-crucial-aspects-of-symbolic-development-intention-and-correspondence
#14
Lei Yuan, David H Uttal
We argue that analogical reasoning, particularly Gentner's (1983, 2010) structure-mapping theory, provides an integrative theoretical framework through which we can better understand the development of symbol use. Analogical reasoning can contribute both to the understanding of others' intentions and the establishment of correspondences between symbols and their referents, two crucial components of symbolic understanding. We review relevant research on the development of symbolic representations, intentionality, comparison, and similarity, and demonstrate how structure-mapping theory can shed light on several ostensibly disparate findings in the literature...
May 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710828/introduction-to-volume-9-issue-3-of-topics
#15
Wayne D Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422451/multiunit-sequences-in-first-language-acquisition
#16
Anna Theakston, Elena Lieven
Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the computational modeling of children's grammars...
April 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452202/games-for-psychological-science
#17
Andrew Howes
How does the cognitive system, as a whole, act to generate behaviour? A crucial requirement for science aimed at answering this question is that any empirical paradigm is developed hand in hand with robust theoretical models that explain the emergence of behavioural strategies. Complex games have the potential to be one such paradigm.
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452201/six-suggestions-for-research-on-games-in-cognitive-science
#18
Christopher F Chabris
Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts...
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452200/introduction-to-volume-9-issue-2-of-topics
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382679/a-simple-heuristic-successfully-used-by-humans-animals-and-machines-the-story-of-the-raf-and-luftwaffe-hawks-and-ducks-dogs-and-frisbees-baseball-outfielders-and-sidewinder-missiles-oh-my
#20
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