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Topics in Cognitive Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411944/the-unforeseen-consequences-of-interacting-with-non-native-speakers
#1
Shiri Lev-Ari, Emily Ho, Boaz Keysar
Sociolinguistic research shows that listeners' expectations of speakers influence their interpretation of the speech, yet this is often ignored in cognitive models of language comprehension. Here, we focus on the case of interactions between native and non-native speakers. Previous literature shows that listeners process the language of non-native speakers in less detail, because they expect them to have lower linguistic competence. We show that processing the language of non-native speakers increases lexical competition and access in general, not only of the non-native speaker's speech, and that this leads to poorer memory of one's own speech during the interaction...
February 7, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411939/surprise-recipes-for-surprise-and-social-influence
#2
Jeffrey Loewenstein
Surprising people can provide an opening for influencing them. Surprises garner attention, are arousing, are memorable, and can prompt shifts in understanding. Less noted is that, as a result, surprises can serve to persuade others by leading them to shifts in attitudes. Furthermore, because stories, pictures, and music can generate surprises and those can be widely shared, surprise can have broad social influence. People also tend to share surprising items with others, as anyone on social media has discovered...
February 7, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356427/a-computational-investigation-of-sources-of-variability-in-sentence-comprehension-difficulty-in-aphasia
#3
Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan, Frank Burchert
We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth (2005) model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs...
January 22, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356371/grounding-as-a-side-effect-of-grounding
#4
Staffan Larsson
In relation to semantics, "grounding" has (at least) two relevant meanings. "Symbol grounding" is the process of connecting symbols (e.g., words) to perception and the world. "Communicative grounding" is the process of interactively adding to common ground in dialog. Strategies for grounding in human communication include, crucially, strategies for resolving troubles caused by various kinds of miscommunication. As it happens, these two processes of grounding are closely related. As a side-effect of grounding an utterance, dialog participants (DPs) may adjust the meanings they assign to linguistic expressions, in a process of semantic coordination...
January 22, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327424/the-choreography-of-group-affiliation
#5
Jorina von Zimmermann, Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Guido Orgs, Daniel C Richardson
When two people move in synchrony, they become more social. Yet it is not clear how this effect scales up to larger numbers of people. Does a group need to move in unison to affiliate, in what we term unitary synchrony; or does affiliation arise from distributed coordination, patterns of coupled movements between individual members of a group? We developed choreographic tasks that manipulated movement synchrony without explicitly instructing groups to move in unison. Wrist accelerometers measured group movement dynamics and we applied cross-recurrence analysis to distinguish the temporal features of emergent unitary synchrony (simultaneous movement) and distributed coordination (coupled movement)...
January 12, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251440/building-an-act-r-reader-for-eye-tracking-corpus-data
#6
Jakub Dotlačil
Cognitive architectures have often been applied to data from individual experiments. In this paper, I develop an ACT-R reader that can model a much larger set of data, eye-tracking corpus data. It is shown that the resulting model has a good fit to the data for the considered low-level processes. Unlike previous related works (most prominently, Engelmann, Vasishth, Engbert & Kliegl, ), the model achieves the fit by estimating free parameters of ACT-R using Bayesian estimation and Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques, rather than by relying on the mix of manual selection + default values...
December 18, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218788/alternative-solutions-to-a-language-design-problem-the-role-of-adjectives-and-gender-marking-in-efficient-communication
#7
Melody Dye, Petar Milin, Richard Futrell, Michael Ramscar
A central goal of typological research is to characterize linguistic features in terms of both their functional role and their fit to social and cognitive systems. One long-standing puzzle concerns why certain languages employ grammatical gender. In an information theoretic analysis of German noun classification, Dye, Milin, Futrell, and Ramscar (2017) enumerated a number of important processing advantages gender confers. Yet this raises a further puzzle: If gender systems are so beneficial to processing, what does this mean for languages that make do without them? Here, we compare the communicative function of gender marking in German (a deterministic system) to that of prenominal adjectives in English (a probabilistic one), finding that despite their differences, both systems act to efficiently smooth information over discourse, making nouns more equally predictable in context...
December 8, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214731/perception-of-human-interaction-based-on-motion-trajectories-from-aerial-videos-to-decontextualized-animations
#8
Tianmin Shu, Yujia Peng, Lifeng Fan, Hongjing Lu, Song-Chun Zhu
People are adept at perceiving interactions from movements of simple shapes, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Previous studies have often used object movements defined by experimenters. The present study used aerial videos recorded by drones in a real-life environment to generate decontextualized motion stimuli. Motion trajectories of displayed elements were the only visual input. We measured human judgments of interactiveness between two moving elements and the dynamic change in such judgments over time...
December 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214726/curb-your-embodiment
#9
Diane Pecher
To explain how abstract concepts are grounded in sensory-motor experiences, several theories have been proposed. I will discuss two of these proposals, Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Situated Cognition, and argue why they do not fully explain grounding. A central idea in Conceptual Metaphor Theory is that image schemas ground abstract concepts in concrete experiences. Image schemas might themselves be abstractions, however, and therefore do not solve the grounding problem. Moreover, image schemas are too simple to explain the full richness of abstract concepts...
December 7, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383884/how-does-rumination-impact-cognition-a-first-mechanistic-model
#10
Marieke K van Vugt, Maarten van der Velde
Rumination is a process of uncontrolled, narrowly focused negative thinking that is often self-referential, and that is a hallmark of depression. Despite its importance, little is known about its cognitive mechanisms. Rumination can be thought of as a specific, constrained form of mind-wandering. Here, we introduce a cognitive model of rumination that we developed on the basis of our existing model of mind-wandering. The rumination model implements the hypothesis that rumination is caused by maladaptive habits of thought...
January 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383883/editors-introduction-cognitive-modeling-at-iccm-advancing-the-state-of-the-art
#11
William G Kennedy, Marieke K van Vugt, Adrian P Banks
Cognitive modeling is the effort to understand the mind by implementing theories of the mind in computer code, producing measures comparable to human behavior and mental activity. The community of cognitive modelers has traditionally met twice every 3 years at the International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM). In this special issue of topiCS, we present the best papers from the ICCM meeting. (The full proceedings are available on the ICCM website.) These best papers represent advances in the state of the art in cognitive modeling...
January 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383882/probability-theory-plus-noise-descriptive-estimation-and-inferential-judgment
#12
Fintan Costello, Paul Watts
We describe a computational model of two central aspects of people's probabilistic reasoning: descriptive probability estimation and inferential probability judgment. This model assumes that people's reasoning follows standard frequentist probability theory, but it is subject to random noise. This random noise has a regressive effect in descriptive probability estimation, moving probability estimates away from normative probabilities and toward the center of the probability scale. This random noise has an anti-regressive effect in inferential judgement, however...
January 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383881/introduction-to-volume-10-issue-1-of-topics
#13
Wayne D Gray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152904/creating-time-social-collaboration-in-music-improvisation
#14
Ashley E Walton, Auriel Washburn, Peter Langland-Hassan, Anthony Chemero, Heidi Kloos, Michael J Richardson
Musical collaboration emerges from the complex interaction of environmental and informational constraints, including those of the instruments and the performance context. Music improvisation in particular is more like everyday interaction in that dynamics emerge spontaneously without a rehearsed score or script. We examined how the structure of the musical context affords and shapes interactions between improvising musicians. Six pairs of professional piano players improvised with two different backing tracks while we recorded both the music produced and the movements of their heads, left arms, and right arms...
November 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152886/a-contrast-based-computational-model-of-surprise-and-its-applications
#15
Luis Macedo, Amílcar Cardoso
We review our work on a contrast-based computational model of surprise and its applications. The review is contextualized within related research from psychology, philosophy, and particularly artificial intelligence. Influenced by psychological theories of surprise, the model assumes that surprise-eliciting events initiate a series of cognitive processes that begin with the appraisal of the event as unexpected, continue with the interruption of ongoing activity and the focusing of attention on the unexpected event, and culminate in the analysis and evaluation of the event and the revision of beliefs...
November 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152883/preemption-in-singular-causation-judgments-a-computational-model
#16
Simon Stephan, Michael R Waldmann
Causal queries about singular cases are ubiquitous, yet the question of how we assess whether a particular outcome was actually caused by a specific potential cause turns out to be difficult to answer. Relying on the causal power framework (Cheng, ), Cheng and Novick () proposed a model of causal attribution intended to help answer this question. We challenge this model, both conceptually and empirically. We argue that the central problem of this model is that it treats causal powers that are probabilistically sufficient to generate the effect on a particular occasion as actual causes of the effect, and thus neglects that sufficient causal powers can be preempted in their efficacy...
November 19, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143472/mindreading-and-psycholinguistic-approaches-to-perspective-taking-establishing-common-ground
#17
Ian Apperly
In this commentary on "Memory and Common Ground Processes in Language Use," I draw attention to relevant work on mindreading. The concerns of research on common ground and mindreading have significant overlap, but these literatures have worked in relative isolation of each other. I attempt an assimilation, pointing out shared and distinctive concerns and mutually informative results.
November 16, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131524/multi-scale-contingencies-during-individual-and-joint-action
#18
J Scott Jordan, Daniel S Schloesser, Jiuyang Bai, Drew Abney
The present paper describes a joint action paradigm in which individuals or pairs utilized two computer keys to keep a dot stimulus moving inside a larger rectangle. Members of a pair could neither see nor hear each other. This paradigm allowed us to combine the discrete-trial type dependent variables (e.g., reaction time) commonly utilized by representational theorists, with the continuous, temporal dependence variables (e.g., RQA) utilized by dynamical theorists. Analysis revealed that individuals kept the dot in the rectangle longer than dyads and did so by moving it back and forth within the rectangle...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131516/performance-in-a-collaborative-search-task-the-role-of-feedback-and-alignment
#19
Moreno I Coco, Rick Dale, Frank Keller
When people communicate, they coordinate a wide range of linguistic and non-linguistic behaviors. This process of coordination is called alignment, and it is assumed to be fundamental to successful communication. In this paper, we question this assumption and investigate whether disalignment is a more successful strategy in some cases. More specifically, we hypothesize that alignment correlates with task success only when communication is interactive. We present results from a spot-the-difference task in which dyads of interlocutors have to decide whether they are viewing the same scene or not...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131512/the-role-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-prediction-error-and-signaling-surprise
#20
William H Alexander, Joshua W Brown
In the past two decades, reinforcement learning (RL) has become a popular framework for understanding brain function. A key component of RL models, prediction error, has been associated with neural signals throughout the brain, including subcortical nuclei, primary sensory cortices, and prefrontal cortex. Depending on the location in which activity is observed, the functional interpretation of prediction error may change: Prediction errors may reflect a discrepancy in the anticipated and actual value of reward, a signal indicating the salience or novelty of a stimulus, and many other interpretations...
November 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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