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Science Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202780/erratum-for-the-report-molecular-remission-of-infant-b-all-after-infusion-of-universal-talen-gene-edited-car-t-cells-by-w-qasim-h-zhan-s-samarasinghe-s-adams-p-amrolia-s-stafford-k-butler-c-rivat-g-wright-k-somana-s-ghorashian-d-pinner-g-ahsan-k-gilmour-g-lucchini
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202779/fasting-mimicking-diet-and-markers-risk-factors-for-aging-diabetes-cancer-and-cardiovascular-disease
#2
Min Wei, Sebastian Brandhorst, Mahshid Shelehchi, Hamed Mirzaei, Chia Wei Cheng, Julia Budniak, Susan Groshen, Wendy J Mack, Esra Guen, Stefano Di Biase, Pinchas Cohen, Todd E Morgan, Tanya Dorff, Kurt Hong, Andreas Michalsen, Alessandro Laviano, Valter D Longo
Calorie restriction or changes in dietary composition can enhance healthy aging, but the inability of most subjects to adhere to chronic and extreme diets, as well as potentially adverse effects, limits their application. We randomized 100 generally healthy participants from the United States into two study arms and tested the effects of a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD)-low in calories, sugars, and protein but high in unsaturated fats-on markers/risk factors associated with aging and age-related diseases. We compared subjects who followed 3 months of an unrestricted diet to subjects who consumed the FMD for 5 consecutive days per month for 3 months...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202778/nodding-syndrome-preventable-and-treatable
#3
REVIEW
Robert Colebunders, Maarten J Titulaer
New insights into the pathophysiology of nodding syndrome, a form of childhood epilepsy associated with onchocerciasis, provide new opportunities for disease treatment and parasite control (Johnson et al).
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202777/nodding-syndrome-may-be-an-autoimmune-reaction-to-the-parasitic-worm-onchocerca-volvulus
#4
Tory P Johnson, Richa Tyagi, Paul R Lee, Myoung-Hwa Lee, Kory R Johnson, Jeffrey Kowalak, Abdel Elkahloun, Marie Medynets, Alina Hategan, Joseph Kubofcik, James Sejvar, Jeffrey Ratto, Sudhir Bunga, Issa Makumbi, Jane R Aceng, Thomas B Nutman, Scott F Dowell, Avindra Nath
Nodding syndrome is an epileptic disorder of unknown etiology that occurs in children in East Africa. There is an epidemiological association with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes onchocerciasis (river blindness), but there is limited evidence that the parasite itself is neuroinvasive. We hypothesized that nodding syndrome may be an autoimmune-mediated disease. Using protein chip methodology, we detected autoantibodies to leiomodin-1 more abundantly in patients with nodding syndrome compared to unaffected controls from the same village...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202776/baring-cellular-souls
#5
Alex K Shalek
Coupling chemical approaches for disrupting DNA-protein complexes in intact nuclei with combinatorial barcoding enables high-throughput single-cell DNA sequencing.
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202775/winter-is-coming-tumor-cells-go-into-hibernation
#6
Amanda W Lund
In response to hypoxia in the primary tumor microenvironment, tumor cells induce a state of dormancy enabling their persistence at metastatic sites and resistance to therapy.
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202774/switching-tracks-in-fear-memories
#7
Amit Etkin
The brain circuits underlying fear memories can be reorganized by updating old memories with new information.
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202773/the-clone-wars
#8
Himisha Beltran
Genome sequencing of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma reveals high concordance of driver alterations across metastases.
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202772/high-throughput-screening-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-cardiotoxicity-with-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Arun Sharma, Paul W Burridge, Wesley L McKeithan, Ricardo Serrano, Praveen Shukla, Nazish Sayed, Jared M Churko, Tomoya Kitani, Haodi Wu, Alexandra Holmström, Elena Matsa, Yuan Zhang, Anusha Kumar, Alice C Fan, Juan C Del Álamo, Sean M Wu, Javid J Moslehi, Mark Mercola, Joseph C Wu
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), despite their efficacy as anticancer therapeutics, are associated with cardiovascular side effects ranging from induced arrhythmias to heart failure. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), generated from 11 healthy individuals and 2 patients receiving cancer treatment, to screen U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved TKIs for cardiotoxicities by measuring alterations in cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, electrophysiology, calcium handling, and signaling...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202771/delayed-differentiation-of-potent-effector-cd8-t-cells-reducing-viremia-and-reservoir-seeding-in-acute-hiv-infection
#10
Hiroshi Takata, Supranee Buranapraditkun, Cari Kessing, James L K Fletcher, Roshell Muir, Virginie Tardif, Pearline Cartwright, Claire Vandergeeten, Wendy Bakeman, Carmen N Nichols, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Pokrath Hansasuta, Eugene Kroon, Thep Chalermchai, Robert O'Connell, Jerome Kim, Nittaya Phanuphak, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Nicolas Chomont, Elias K Haddad, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
CD8(+) T cells play a critical role in controlling HIV viremia and could be important in reducing HIV-infected cells in approaches to eradicate HIV. The simian immunodeficiency virus model provided the proof of concept for a CD8(+) T cell-mediated reservoir clearance but showed conflicting evidence on the role of these cells to eliminate HIV-infected cells. In humans, HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses have not been associated with a reduction of the HIV-infected cell pool in vivo. We studied HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in the RV254 cohort of individuals initiating ART in the earliest stages of acute HIV infection (AHI)...
February 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179509/iga-coated-e-coli-enriched-in-crohn-s-disease-spondyloarthritis-promote-th17-dependent-inflammation
#11
Monica Viladomiu, Charles Kivolowitz, Ahmed Abdulhamid, Belgin Dogan, Daniel Victorio, Jim G Castellanos, Viola Woo, Fei Teng, Nhan L Tran, Andrew Sczesnak, Christina Chai, Myunghoo Kim, Gretchen E Diehl, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Xi K Zhou, Sergio Schwartzman, Lisa A Mandl, Meira Abramowitz, Vinita Jacob, Brian Bosworth, Adam Steinlauf, Ellen J Scherl, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu, Kenneth W Simpson, Randy S Longman
Peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by inflammatory enthesitis, dactylitis, or synovitis of nonaxial joints. However, a mechanistic understanding of the link between intestinal inflammation and SpA has yet to emerge. We evaluated and functionally characterized the fecal microbiome of IBD patients with or without peripheral SpA. Coupling the sorting of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-coated microbiota with 16S ribosomal RNA-based analysis (IgA-seq) revealed a selective enrichment in IgA-coated Escherichia coli in patients with Crohn's disease-associated SpA (CD-SpA) compared to CD alone...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179508/two-step-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy-with-engineered-salmonella-typhimurium-secreting-heterologous-flagellin
#12
Jin Hai Zheng, Vu H Nguyen, Sheng-Nan Jiang, Seung-Hwan Park, Wenzhi Tan, Seol Hee Hong, Myung Geun Shin, Ik-Joo Chung, Yeongjin Hong, Hee-Seung Bom, Hyon E Choy, Shee Eun Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee, Jung-Joon Min
We report a method of cancer immunotherapy using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain engineered to secrete Vibrio vulnificus flagellin B (FlaB) in tumor tissues. Engineered FlaB-secreting bacteria effectively suppressed tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models and prolonged survival. By using Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-negative colon cancer cell lines, we provided evidence that the FlaB-mediated tumor suppression upon bacterial colonization is associated with TLR5-mediated host reactions in the tumor microenvironment...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179507/intestinal-commensal-bacteria-mediate-lung-mucosal-immunity-and-promote-resistance-of-newborn-mice-to-infection
#13
Jerilyn Gray, Katherine Oehrle, George Worthen, Theresa Alenghat, Jeffrey Whitsett, Hitesh Deshmukh
Immature mucosal defenses contribute to increased susceptibility of newborn infants to pathogens. Sparse knowledge of age-dependent changes in mucosal immunity has hampered improvements in neonatal morbidity because of infections. We report that exposure of neonatal mice to commensal bacteria immediately after birth is required for a robust host defense against bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of death in newborn infants. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (IL-22(+)ILC3) into the lungs of newborn mice...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179506/thioredoxin-reverses-age-related-hypertension-by-chronically-improving-vascular-redox-and-restoring-enos-function
#14
Rob H P Hilgers, Venkatesh Kundumani-Sridharan, Jaganathan Subramani, Leon C Chen, Luis G Cuello, Nancy J Rusch, Kumuda C Das
The incidence of high blood pressure with advancing age is notably high, and it is an independent prognostic factor for the onset or progression of a variety of cardiovascular disorders. Although age-related hypertension is an established phenomenon, current treatments are only palliative but not curative. Thus, there is a critical need for a curative therapy against age-related hypertension, which could greatly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disorders. We show that overexpression of human thioredoxin (TRX), a redox protein, in mice prevents age-related hypertension...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179505/antiangiogenic-cancer-drug-drives-lymphangiogenic-metastasis
#15
Susan Napier Thomas
Tumor blood vessel-destroying cancer drug induces development of tumor lymphatics that contribute to treatment failure.
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179504/your-genes-are-conspiring-against-you
#16
Olga Peñagarikano
Gene variants in the dopamine receptor D2 expression network predict physiological and clinical features as well as treatment responses in schizophrenia.
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179503/tell-me-your-neighbors-and-i-will-tell-you-what-you-are
#17
Casey S Greene
Network neighbors improve yeast to human gene mapping for the study of parkinsonism.
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179502/could-a-coffee-a-day-keep-the-inflammasome-away
#18
Mallar Bhattacharya
Increased expression of inflammasome-related genes predicts geriatric morbidity and mortality.
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179501/drug-discovery-for-diamond-blackfan-anemia-using-reprogrammed-hematopoietic-progenitors
#19
Sergei Doulatov, Linda T Vo, Elizabeth R Macari, Lara Wahlster, Melissa A Kinney, Alison M Taylor, Jessica Barragan, Manav Gupta, Katherine McGrath, Hsiang-Ying Lee, Jessica M Humphries, Alex DeVine, Anupama Narla, Blanche P Alter, Alan H Beggs, Suneet Agarwal, Benjamin L Ebert, Hanna T Gazda, Harvey F Lodish, Colin A Sieff, Thorsten M Schlaeger, Leonard I Zon, George Q Daley
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital disorder characterized by the failure of erythroid progenitor differentiation, severely curtailing red blood cell production. Because many DBA patients fail to respond to corticosteroid therapy, there is considerable need for therapeutics for this disorder. Identifying therapeutics for DBA requires circumventing the paucity of primary patient blood stem and progenitor cells. To this end, we adopted a reprogramming strategy to generate expandable hematopoietic progenitor cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from DBA patients...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148847/blunting-chikv-infection-by-keeping-t-cells-in-check
#20
REVIEW
Philippe Gasque, Marie Christine Jaffar-Bandjee
Modulating the host immune response ameliorates arthritic disease in mice infected with chikungunya virus (Miner et al and Teo et al).
February 1, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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