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Science Translational Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330867/influenza-vaccines-differentially-regulate-the-interferon-response-in-human-dendritic-cell-subsets
#1
Shruti Athale, Romain Banchereau, LuAnn Thompson-Snipes, Yuanyuan Wang, Karolina Palucka, Virginia Pascual, Jacques Banchereau
Human dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in the initiation of long-term adaptive immunity during vaccination against influenza. Understanding the early response of human DCs to vaccine exposure is thus essential to determine the nature and magnitude of maturation signals that have been shown to strongly correlate with vaccine effectiveness. In 2009, the H1N1 influenza epidemics fostered the commercialization of the nonadjuvanted monovalent H1N1 California vaccine (MIV-09) to complement the existing nonadjuvanted trivalent Fluzone 2009-2010 vaccine (TIV-09)...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330866/response-to-comment-on-diversification-of-the-antigen-specific-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-after-varicella-zoster-vaccination
#2
Jorg Goronzy, Qian Qi, Cornelia Weyand
In our repertoire studies of varicella zoster virus-specific T cells, we used very stringent computational criteria to keep contamination with T cell receptor sequences from bystander-activated T cells to a minimum.
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330865/an-automated-smartphone-based-diagnostic-assay-for-point-of-care-semen-analysis
#3
Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Magesh Sadasivam, Anupriya Singh, Collin Preston, Prudhvi Thirumalaraju, Maanasa Venkataraman, Charles L Bormann, Mohamed Shehata Draz, John C Petrozza, Hadi Shafiee
Male infertility affects up to 12% of the world's male population and is linked to various environmental and medical conditions. Manual microscope-based testing and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) are the current standard methods to diagnose male infertility; however, these methods are labor-intensive, expensive, and laboratory-based. Cultural and socially dominated stigma against male infertility testing hinders a large number of men from getting tested for infertility, especially in resource-limited African countries...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330864/comment-on-diversification-of-the-antigen-specific-t-cell-receptor-repertoire-after-varicella-zoster-vaccination
#4
Christophe Parizot, Hélène Brisson, Jehane Fadlallah, Delphine Sterlin, Guy Gorochov
Analysis of antigen-specific T cells can be confounded by T cell activation in vitro.
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330863/bacterial-virulence-phenotypes-of-escherichia-coli-and-host-susceptibility-determine-risk-for-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Henry L Schreiber, Matt S Conover, Wen-Chi Chou, Michael E Hibbing, Abigail L Manson, Karen W Dodson, Thomas J Hannan, Pacita L Roberts, Ann E Stapleton, Thomas M Hooton, Jonathan Livny, Ashlee M Earl, Scott J Hultgren
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. In contrast to many enteric E. coli pathogroups, no genetic signature has been identified for UPEC strains. We conducted a high-resolution comparative genomic study using E. coli isolates collected from the urine of women suffering from frequent recurrent UTIs. These isolates were genetically diverse and varied in their urovirulence, that is, their ability to infect the bladder in a mouse model of cystitis. We found no set of genes, including previously defined putative urovirulence factors (PUFs), that were predictive of urovirulence...
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330862/when-tlrs-fail-igg-has-your-back
#6
Tiffany C Scharschmidt
Inherited TIRAP deficiency confers susceptibility to staphylococcal disease via impaired TLR2 and TLR4 responses, which can be rescued by bacteria-specific antibodies.
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330861/clearing-the-way-to-a-healthy-brain
#7
Jill Morris
Astrocytic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is a key player in β-amyloid clearance.
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330860/squeeze-e-squeeze-e
#8
Kevin R King
Adding an electrical pulse to a microfluidic device that squeezes cells through narrow channels efficiently delivers DNA to the nucleus.
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330859/preempting-autoimmune-disease-with-induced-antigen-tolerance
#9
Kathryn Dupnik
Transfusion of red blood cells with antigenic peptides added to surface proteins is being explored as a tolerance-inducing intervention for autoimmune disease.
March 22, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298426/modeling-alzheimer-s-disease-in-mice-with-human-neurons
#10
Gaia Novarino
Human neurons transplanted into a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease show human-specific vulnerability to β-amyloid plaques and may help to identify new therapeutic targets.
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298425/gamete-fusion-gone-viral
#11
Jonathan J Miner
Enveloped virus infection may be linked to the origin of sexual reproduction.
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298424/richer-data-with-personalized-gems
#12
Miles A Miller
Personalized genome-scale metabolic models augment clinical hepatic steatosis data and motivate treatment based on glutathione repletion.
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298423/rounding-up-sickle-cells-with-gene-therapy
#13
Leah Byrne
A report of a patient treated with ex vivo lentiviral gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells shows the promise of gene therapy for sickle cell anemia.
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298422/a-dye-assisted-paper-based-point-of-care-assay-for-fast-and-reliable-blood-grouping
#14
Hong Zhang, Xiaopei Qiu, Yurui Zou, Yanyao Ye, Chao Qi, Lingyun Zou, Xiang Yang, Ke Yang, Yuanfeng Zhu, Yongjun Yang, Yang Zhou, Yang Luo
Fast and simultaneous forward and reverse blood grouping has long remained elusive. Forward blood grouping detects antigens on red blood cells, whereas reverse grouping identifies specific antibodies present in plasma. We developed a paper-based assay using immobilized antibodies and bromocresol green dye for rapid and reliable blood grouping, where dye-assisted color changes corresponding to distinct blood components provide a visual readout. ABO antigens and five major Rhesus antigens could be detected within 30 s, and simultaneous forward and reverse ABO blood grouping using small volumes (100 μl) of whole blood was achieved within 2 min through on-chip plasma separation without centrifugation...
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298421/mimicry-of-an-hiv-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-epitope-with-a-synthetic-glycopeptide
#15
S Munir Alam, Baptiste Aussedat, Yusuf Vohra, R Ryan Meyerhoff, Evan M Cale, William E Walkowicz, Nathan A Radakovich, Kara Anasti, Lawrence Armand, Robert Parks, Laura Sutherland, Richard Scearce, M Gordon Joyce, Marie Pancera, Aliaksandr Druz, Ivelin S Georgiev, Tarra Von Holle, Amanda Eaton, Christopher Fox, Steven G Reed, Mark Louder, Robert T Bailer, Lynn Morris, Salim S Abdool-Karim, Myron Cohen, Hua-Xin Liao, David C Montefiori, Peter K Park, Alberto Fernández-Tejada, Kevin Wiehe, Sampa Santra, Thomas B Kepler, Kevin O Saunders, Joseph Sodroski, Peter D Kwong, John R Mascola, Mattia Bonsignori, M Anthony Moody, Samuel Danishefsky, Barton F Haynes
A goal for an HIV-1 vaccine is to overcome virus variability by inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). One key target of bnAbs is the glycan-polypeptide at the base of the envelope (Env) third variable loop (V3). We have designed and synthesized a homogeneous minimal immunogen with high-mannose glycans reflective of a native Env V3-glycan bnAb epitope (Man9-V3). V3-glycan bnAbs bound to Man9-V3 glycopeptide and native-like gp140 trimers with similar affinities. Fluorophore-labeled Man9-V3 glycopeptides bound to bnAb memory B cells and were able to be used to isolate a V3-glycan bnAb from an HIV-1-infected individual...
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298420/staged-induction-of-hiv-1-glycan-dependent-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#16
Mattia Bonsignori, Edward F Kreider, Daniela Fera, R Ryan Meyerhoff, Todd Bradley, Kevin Wiehe, S Munir Alam, Baptiste Aussedat, William E Walkowicz, Kwan-Ki Hwang, Kevin O Saunders, Ruijun Zhang, Morgan A Gladden, Anthony Monroe, Amit Kumar, Shi-Mao Xia, Melissa Cooper, Mark K Louder, Krisha McKee, Robert T Bailer, Brendan W Pier, Claudia A Jette, Garnett Kelsoe, Wilton B Williams, Lynn Morris, John Kappes, Kshitij Wagh, Gift Kamanga, Myron S Cohen, Peter T Hraber, David C Montefiori, Ashley Trama, Hua-Xin Liao, Thomas B Kepler, M Anthony Moody, Feng Gao, Samuel J Danishefsky, John R Mascola, George M Shaw, Beatrice H Hahn, Stephen C Harrison, Bette T Korber, Barton F Haynes
A preventive HIV-1 vaccine should induce HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). However, bnAbs generally require high levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) to acquire breadth, and current vaccine strategies have not been successful in inducing bnAbs. Because bnAbs directed against a glycosylated site adjacent to the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope protein require limited SHM, the V3-glycan epitope is an attractive vaccine target. By studying the cooperation among multiple V3-glycan B cell lineages and their coevolution with autologous virus throughout 5 years of infection, we identify key events in the ontogeny of a V3-glycan bnAb...
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298419/total-body-imaging-transforming-the-role-of-positron-emission-tomography
#17
REVIEW
Simon R Cherry, Ramsey D Badawi, Joel S Karp, William W Moses, Pat Price, Terry Jones
The first total-body positron emission tomography (TB-PET) scanner represents a radical change for experimental medicine and diagnostic health care.
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298418/disrupting-the-cd47-sirp%C3%AE-anti-phagocytic-axis-by-a-humanized-anti-cd47-antibody-is-an-efficacious-treatment-for-malignant-pediatric-brain-tumors
#18
Sharareh Gholamin, Siddhartha S Mitra, Abdullah H Feroze, Jie Liu, Suzana A Kahn, Michael Zhang, Rogelio Esparza, Chase Richard, Vijay Ramaswamy, Marc Remke, Anne K Volkmer, Stephen Willingham, Anitha Ponnuswami, Aaron McCarty, Patricia Lovelace, Theresa A Storm, Simone Schubert, Gregor Hutter, Cyndhavi Narayanan, Pauline Chu, Eric H Raabe, Griffith Harsh, Michael D Taylor, Michelle Monje, Yoon-Jae Cho, Ravi Majeti, Jens P Volkmer, Paul G Fisher, Gerald Grant, Gary K Steinberg, Hannes Vogel, Michael Edwards, Irving L Weissman, Samuel H Cheshier
Morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric malignant primary brain tumors remain high in the absence of effective therapies. Macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of tumor cells via blockade of the anti-phagocytic CD47-SIRPα interaction using anti-CD47 antibodies has shown promise in preclinical xenografts of various human malignancies. We demonstrate the effect of a humanized anti-CD47 antibody, Hu5F9-G4, on five aggressive and etiologically distinct pediatric brain tumors: group 3 medulloblastoma (primary and metastatic), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma...
March 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275158/the-brain-s-matchmakers
#19
Maria K Lehtinen
Pericytes match capillary blood flow to local neural activity, thus ensuring proper oxygenation of the brain.
March 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275157/from-mds-aml-to-ipsc-and-back-again
#20
Brian A Jonas
iPSC lines derived from MDS and AML patient samples can map clonal evolution, disease progression and regression, and identify disease stage-specific medication effects.
March 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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