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Advances in Hematology

Patrick Adu, David Larbi Simpong, Godfred Takyi, Richard K D Ephraim
Background. Blood transfusion is a therapeutic procedure usually undertaken in patients with severe anaemia. In Ghana, severe anaemia is mostly due to malaria caused by severe Plasmodium falciparum infection, road traffic accidents, and haemoglobinopathy-induced acute haemolysis. Method. This cross-sectional study evaluated coinheritance of sickle cell haemoglobin variant and G6PD enzymopathy among individuals that donated blood at the Holy Trinity Hospital, Berekum, in the Brong-Ahafo Region, Ghana. Demographic data and other pertinent information were captured using questionnaire...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Luis F Porrata
In contrast to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the current dogma is not an evidence of graft-versus-tumor effect in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; thus, it is assumed that autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation only relies on the high-dose chemotherapy to improve clinical outcomes. However, recent studies argue in favor of the existence of an autologous graft-versus-tumor without the detrimental complications of graft-versus-host disease due to the nonspecific immune response from the infused donor alloreactive immune effector cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Suparno Chakrabarti, Franco Aversa, Yair Reisner, Paul O'Donnell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Advances in Hematology
Kevon Parmesar, Kavita Raj
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a well-established treatment option for both hematological malignancies and nonmalignant conditions such as aplastic anemia and haemoglobinopathies. For those patients lacking a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor, haploidentical donors are an alternative expedient donor pool. Historically, haploidentical transplantation led to high rates of graft rejection and GVHD. Strategies to circumvent these issues include T cell depletion and management of complications thereof or T replete transplants with GVHD prophylaxis...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Jesus Vera-Aguilera, Hindi Yousef, Diego Beltran-Melgarejo, Teng Hugh Teng, Ramos Jan, Mary Mok, Carlos Vera-Aguilera, Eduardo Moreno-Aguilera
Anti-Xa test measures the activity of heparin against the activity of activated coagulation factor X; significant variability of anti-Xa levels in common clinical scenarios has been observed. Objective. To review the most common clinical settings in which anti-Xa results can be bias. Evidence Review. Guidelines and current literature search: we used PubMed, Medline, Embase, and MEDION, from 2000 to October 2013. Results. Anti-Xa test is widely used; however the assay underestimates heparin concentration in the presence of significant AT deficiency, pregnancy, end stage renal disease, and postthrombolysis and in patients with hyperbilirubinemia; limited published data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of anti-Xa assays for managing UH therapy is available...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Yi-Bin Chen, Tatsuo Kawai, Thomas R Spitzer
The induction of specific tolerance, in order to avoid the detrimental effects of lifelong systemic immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation, has been considered the "Holy Grail" of transplantation. Experimentally, tolerance has been achieved through clonal deletion, through costimulatory blockade, through the induction or infusion of regulatory T-cells, and through the establishment of hematopoietic chimerism following donor bone marrow transplantation. The focus of this review is how tolerance has been achieved following combined bone marrow and kidney transplantation...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Andrea Bacigalupo, Simona Sica
The use of high dose posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) introduced by the Baltimore group approximately 10 years ago has been rapidly adopted worldwide and is becoming a standard for patients undergoing unmanipulated haploidentical (HAPLO) transplants. PT-CY has been used following nonmyeloablative as well as myeloablative conditioning regimens, for bone marrow or peripheral blood grafts, for patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Retrospective comparisons of HAPLO grafts with conventional sibling and unrelated donor grafts have been published and suggest comparable outcome...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Shatha Farhan, Edward Peres, Nalini Janakiraman
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is often the only curative option for many patients with malignant and benign hematological stem cell disorders. However, some issues are still of concern regarding finding a donor like shrinking family sizes in many societies, underrepresentation of the ethnic minorities in the registries, genetic variability for some races, and significant delays in obtaining stem cells after starting the search. So there is a considerable need to develop alternate donor stem cell sources...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Advances In Hematology
[This retracts the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/315289.].
2016: Advances in Hematology
Sarita Rani Jaiswal, Suparno Chakrabarti
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains a curative option for children with high risk and advanced acute leukemia. Yet availability of matched family donor limits its use and although matched unrelated donor or mismatched umbilical cord blood (UCB) are viable options, they fail to meet the global need. Haploidentical family donor is almost universally available and is emerging as the alternate donor of choice in adult patients. However, the same is not true in the case of children...
2016: Advances in Hematology
William A Fabricius, Muthalagu Ramanathan
Allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) is typically the preferred curative therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia, but its use has been reduced as a consequence of limited donor availability in the form of either matched-related donors (MRD) or matched-unrelated donors (MUD). Alternative options such as unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation and haploidentical HSCT have been increasingly studied in the past few decades to overcome these obstacles. A human leukocyte antigen- (HLA-) haploidentical donor is a recipient's relative who shares an exact haplotype with the recipient but is mismatched for HLA genes on the unshared haplotype...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Sadia Sultan, Syed Mohammed Irfan, Syed Ijlal Ahmed
Objectives. Skeletal complications in β-homozygous thalassemic patients are uncommon but often debilitating, even amongst children and adolescent patients with well maintained transfusion and chelation therapy. The aim is to evaluate the biochemical markers of bone turnover in regularly transfused thalassemic patients and its possible correlations with demographic data and hematological and biochemical markers. Methods. In this prospective cross-sectional study, 36 β-thalassemia major patients were enrolled from March 2012 to March 2014...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Dougald M Monroe, Richard J Jenny, Kevin E Van Cott, Shelly Buhay, Laura L Saward
The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148) polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)]). Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX) both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) and in a standard clotting assay...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Ramadan A Mahmoud, Abdel-Azeem M El-Mazary, Ashraf Khodeary
Background. Frequent blood transfusions in thalassemia major children expose them to the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in thalassemic children attending the Pediatrics Departments of both Sohag and Minia Universities of Upper Egypt, during the period from May 2014 to May 2015. Methods. Serum samples were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, anti-CMV, and anti-HIV type 1 and type 2 using the Vitek Immunodiagnostic Assay System...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Richmond Afoakwah, Edmond Aubyn, James Prah, Ekene Kwabena Nwaefuna, Johnson N Boampong
The clinical outcome of falciparum malaria in endemic areas is influenced by erythrocyte polymorphisms including the ABO blood groups. Studies have reported association of ABO blood group to resistance, susceptibility, and severity of P. falciparum malaria infection. Individuals with blood group "A" have been found to be highly susceptible to falciparum malaria whereas blood group "O" is said to confer protection against complicated cases. We analyzed samples from 293 young children less than six years old with malaria in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana...
2016: Advances in Hematology
K Manasa, R Vani
Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Mohammad Faizan Zahid, David Alan Rizzieri
Despite the advent of targeted therapies and novel agents, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative modality in the management of hematologic disorders. The necessity to find an HLA-matched related donor is a major obstacle that compromises the widespread application and development of this field. Matched unrelated donors and umbilical cord blood have emerged as alternative sources of donor stem cells; however, the cost of maintaining donor registries and cord blood banks is very high and even impractical in developing countries...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Scott R Solomon, Melhem Solh, Lawrence E Morris, H Kent Holland, Asad Bashey
Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after nonmyeloablative haploidentical transplant (haplo-HSCT). In an attempt to reduce relapse, we have developed a myeloablative (MA) haplo-HSCT approach utilizing posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) and peripheral blood stem cells as the stem cell source. We summarize the results of two consecutive clinical trials, using a busulfan-based (n = 20) and a TBI-based MA preparative regimen (n = 30), and analyze a larger cohort of 64 patients receiving MA haplo-HSCT...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Piyanuch Kongtim, Kai Cao, Stefan O Ciurea
Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) using HLA-half matched related donors (haploidentical) have recently improved due to better control of alloreactive reactions in both graft-versus-host and host-versus-graft directions. The recognition of the role of humoral rejection in the development of primary graft failure in this setting has broadened our understanding about causes of engraftment failure in these patients, helped us better select donors for patients in need of AHSCT, and developed rational therapeutic measures for HLA sensitized patients to prevent this unfortunate event, which is usually associated with a very high mortality rate...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Mahesh Chand Meena, Alok Hemal, Mukul Satija, Shilpa Khanna Arora, Shahina Bano
Chronic hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia are associated with many osteopathies like osteoporosis. Methods. This observational study was carried out to compare the bone mineral density (BMD) in transfusion dependent thalassemics with that of healthy controls. Thirty-two thalassemia patients, aged 2-18 years, and 32 age and sex matched controls were studied. The bone mineral concentration (BMC) and BMD were assessed at lumbar spine, distal radius, and neck of femur. Biochemical parameters like serum calcium and vitamin D levels were also assessed...
2015: Advances in Hematology
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